# Principles of Science Pacing, Alignment & Resource Guide

**Every science lesson should include a process skills standard AND a content standard. Additionally, investigations should be conducted to practice multiple process skills EACH nine weeks.**

### Process Skills Standards

The student will **demonstrate** an understanding of scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science by planning and conducting investigations in which

LS.1 a) data are organized into tables showing repeated trials and means;

LS.1 b) a classification system is developed based on multiple attributes;

LS.1 c) triple beam and electronic balances, thermometers, metric rulers, graduated cylinders, and probeware are used to gather data;

LS.1 d) models and simulations are constructed and used to illustrate and explain phenomena;

LS.1 e) sources of experimental error are identified;

LS.1 f) dependent variables, independent variables, and constants are identified;

LS.1 g) variables are controlled to test hypotheses and trials are repeated;

LS.1 h) data are organized, communicated through graphical representation, interpreted, and used to make predictions;

LS.1 i) patterns are identified in data and are interpreted and evaluated; and

LS.1 j) current applications are used to reinforce life science concepts.

**demonstrate**an understanding of scientific reasoning, logic and the nature of science by planning and conducting investigations in which

PS.1 a) chemicals and equipment are used safely;

PS.1 b) length, mass, volume, density, temperature, weight, and force are accurately measured;

PS.1 c) conversions are made among metric units, applying appropriate prefixes;

PS.1 d) triple beam and electronic balances, thermometers, metric rulers, graduated cylinders, probeware, and spring scales are used to gather data;

PS.1 e) numbers are expressed in scientific notation where appropriate;

PS.1 f) independent and dependent variables, constants, controls, and repeated trials are identified;

PS.1 g) data tables showing the independent and dependent variables, derived quantities, and the number of trials are constructed and interpreted;

PS.1 h) data tables for descriptive statistics showing specific measures of central tendency, the range of the data set, and the number of repeated trials are constructed and interpreted;

PS.1 i) frequency distributions, scatterplots, line plots, and histograms are constructed and interpreted;

PS.1 j) valid conclusions are made after analyzing data;

PS.1 k) research methods are used to investigate practical problems and questions;

PS.1 l) experimental results are presented in appropriate written form;

PS.1 m) models and simulations are constructed and used to illustrate and explain phenomena; and

PS.1 n) current applications of physical science concepts are used.