Science - 2019-20

BIO.2 b-c - Macromolecules & Enzymes

The student will investigate and understand the chemical and biochemical principles essential for life. Key concepts include
b) the structure and function of macromolecules;
c) the nature of enzymes.

Bloom's Levels:  Analyze; Understand

Adopted: 2010


  • All living things are made of basic elements, which are the building blocks for molecules.
  • The main macromolecules found inside animal cells help direct its function both generically and for its specialization.

  • I can choose foods to properly fuel my body.
  • I can choose medications to treat my medical conditions.


  • Inside every cell is a concentrated mixture of thousands of different macromolecules forming a variety of specialized structures that carry out cell functions, such as energy production, transport, waste disposal, synthesis of new molecules, and storage of genetic material.
  • Cells can make a variety of macromolecules from a relatively small set of monomers. 
  • The primary functions of carbohydrate macromolecules are to provide and store energy. 
  • The primary functions of lipid macromolecules are to insulate, store energy, and make up cell membranes. 
  • Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) control cell activities by directing protein synthesis. 
  • Proteins are polymers made by linking together amino acid monomers. Protein molecules that are assembled in cells carry out most of the cells’ work. The function of each protein molecule depends on its specific conformation. The sequence of amino acids and the shape of the chain are a consequence of attractions between the chain’s parts. Some proteins are structural (hair, nails). Others function in transport (hemoglobin), movement (muscle fibers and cytoskeletal elements), defense (antibodies), and regulation of cell functions (hormones and enzymes). 
  • Most life processes are a series of chemical reactions influenced by environmental and genetic factors. The chemical reactions that occur inside cells are directly controlled by a large set of protein molecules called enzymes, whose functions depend on their specific shapes. Each enzyme has a definite three-dimensional shape that allows it to recognize and bind with its substrate. In living cells, enzymes control the rate of metabolic reaction by acting as catalysts. 


In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students will

b) recognize that the main components of a living cell are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur. Carbon atoms can easily bond to several other carbon atoms in chains and rings to form large complex molecules.

     explain the role and function of the four major categories of macromolecules (lipids, carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids).

     identify the functions of different types of proteins and recognize the significance that their conformation play in their functions.

c) describe the structure of enzymes and explain their role in acting as catalysts to control the rate of metabolic reactions.

a-d)  explain how light is the initial source of energy for most communities.


transformation, bacteriophase, nucleotide, base pairing, chromatin, histone, replication, DNA polyerase, gene, messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, transfer RNA, transcription, RNA polymerase, promoter, intron, exon, codon, translation, anticodon, mutation, point mutation, frameshift mutation, polyploidy, operon, operator, differentiation, hox gene

Updated: Dec 01, 2017