# K.6 - Adding and Subtracting Single-Step Story and Picture Problems

The student will

• model and solve single-step story and picture problems with sums to 10 and differences within 10, using concrete objects.

### BIG IDEAS

• So that I understand that putting together is adding and subtracting means to separate things out.
• So that I will understand that when you add things together you always end with more.
• So that when I find the difference, you always end with less.

### UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

• Students should experience a variety of problem types related to addition and subtraction.
• The problem types most appropriate for students at this level include:

 KINDERGARTEN: COMMON ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION PROBLEM TYPES Join (Result Unknown) Sue had 4 pennies.  Josh gave her 2 more.  How many pennies does Sue have altogether? Separate (Result Unknown) Sue had 8 pennies.  She gave 5 pennies to Josh.  How many pennies does Sue have now? Part-Part-Whole (Whole Unknown) Josh has 4 red balloons and 3 blue balloons.  How many balloons does he have? Part-Part-Whole (Both Parts Unknown) Josh has 5 balloons.  Some of them are red and some of them are blue.  How many balloons can be blue and how many can be red?

• Join problems involve the process of combining or joining sets or quantities.  Separate problems can be viewed as a taking away or separating process.  Part-part-whole problems involve two quantities that are combined into one whole but no physical action is required.  Comparison problems that ask how many more or how many fewer should be reserved for grades one and two.
• Operation symbols (+, -) are introduced in grade one.
• Single-step refers to the least number of steps necessary to solve a problem.
• Number relationships help students develop strategies for addition and subtraction.  These strategies include:
• Instant recognition of the amount in a set of objects (subitize) that are arranged in a familiar pattern such as the dots on number cubes; and
• One more than, one less than, two more than, two less than.
• Counting on from the larger set to determine the sum of the combined sets is one strategy for determining a sum.

### ESSENTIALS

The student will use problem solving, mathematical communication, mathematical reasoning, connections, and representations to

• Model and solve various types of story and picture problems using 10 or fewer concrete objects. (Types of problems should include joining, separating, and part-part-whole scenarios.)

### KEY VOCABULARY

Updated: Aug 22, 2018