Science - 2019-20

5.5 - Cells and Classification

The student will investigate and understand that organisms are made of one or more cells and have distinguishing characteristics that play a vital role in the organism’s ability to survive and thrive in its environment. Key concepts include

a)  basic cell structures and functions;

  • draw, label, and describe the essential structures and functions of plant and animal cells (plants: nucleus, cell wall, cell membrane, vacuole, chloroplasts, and cytoplasm ; animals:  nucleus, cell membrane, vacuole, and cytoplasm) Bloom's Level:  Remember/Understand
  • design an investigation to make observations of cell  Bloom's Level:  Create
  • compare and contrast plant and animal cells  Bloom's LevelAnalyze
  • identify their major parts and functions Bloom's Level: Remember

b)  classification of organisms using physical characteristics, body structures, and behavior of the organism; and

  • group organisms into categories, using their characteristics: plants (vascular and nonvascular)and animals (vertebrates and invertebrates) Bloom's Level:  Apply / Analyze
  • name and describe two common examples of vascular and nonvascular plants and vertebrates and invertebrates Bloom's Level: Understand
  • compare and contrast the distinguishing characteristics of groups of organisms  Bloom's Level: Analyze

c)  traits of organisms that allow them to survive in their environment.

  •  identify and explain traits of organisms that allow them to survive in their environment Bloom's Level:  Remember/ Understand



Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

All living things are made of cells with different structures and functions.

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • Living things are made of cells. Cells carry out all life processes. New cells come from existing cells. Cells are too small to be seen with the eye alone. By using a microscope, many parts of a cell can be seen.
  • Though plant and animal cells are similar, they are also different in shape and in some of their parts. Plant cells tend to be rectangular, while animal cells tend to be spherical or at times irregular.
  • Organisms that share similar characteristics can be organized into groups in order to help understand similarities and differences.
  • Plants can be categorized as vascular (having special tissues to transport food and water — for example, trees and flowering plants) and nonvascular (not having tissues to transport food and water — for example, moss, liverworts, and hornworts). Most plants are vascular.
  • Animals can be categorized as vertebrates (having backbones) or invertebrates (not having backbones).

ESSENTIALS

Essential Questions:

·  Why and how do scientists classify organisms into different categories?

·  How are cells of different organisms alike and different?

·  What are the functions of the basic animal and plant cell structures?

·  How do specific traits of an organism allow it to survive in its environment?

In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students will

  • draw, label, and describe the essential structures and functions of plant and animal cells. For plants, include the nucleus, cell wall, cell membrane, vacuole, chloroplasts, and cytoplasm. For animals, include the nucleus, cell membrane, vacuole, and cytoplasm.
  • design an investigation to make observations of cells.
  • compare and contrast plant and animal cells and identify their major parts and functions.
  • group organisms into categories, using their characteristics: plants (vascular and nonvascular) and animals (vertebrates or invertebrates). Name and describe two common examples of each group.
  • compare and contrast the distinguishing characteristics of groups of organisms.
  • identify and explain traits of organisms that allow them to survive in their environment.


KEY VOCABULARY

animal - a living thing made of cells; feeds on matter; has specialized sense organs and nervous system; able to respond to stimuli

cell - basic unit of structure and function of all living things

cell membrane - found in plant and animal cells; control what enters and leaves the cell

cell wall - nonliving part of a plant cell; gives the cell its rectangular shape; also provides support

chloroplast - contains chlorophyll necessary for photosynthesis; found only in plant cells

classification - placing organisms into groups based on similar characteristics; plants are classified as vascular or nonvascular; animals are classified as vertebrates or invertebrates

cytoplasm - found in plant and animal cells; jelly-like fluid inside a cell

invertebrates - animals which do not have a backbone;examples include insects, jellyfish, worms and spiders

kingdom a classification category of the highest rank; grouping together all forms of life having certain fundamental characteristics in common; Animal and Plant are two examples

nonvascular plants - not have tissues to transport food and water; examples include moss, liverworts, and hornworts

nucleus - found in both plant and animal cells; control center of the cell

organism - a living thing

plant - made of cells rectangular in shape which are capable of photosynthesis

survive - the continued existence of organisms which are best adapted to their environment

trait - a feature or characteristic of an organism; examples include eye color, skin type, hair color, etc.

vacuole - found in plant and animal cells used to store food and water inside the cell

vascular plants - have special tissues to transport food and water; examples include trees and flowering plants;

vertebrates - animals which have backbones; include fish, amphibian, reptiles, birds and mammals



Updated: May 20, 2016