# 4.2 - Motion

The student will investigate and understand characteristics and interactions of moving objects. Key concepts include

a)  motion is described by an object’s direction and speed;

• describe the position of an object  Bloom's Level : Understand
• collect and display in a table and line graph time and position of a moving object  Bloom's Level : Apply
• explain that speed is a measure of motion   Bloom's Level : Understand
• interpret data to determine if the speed of an object is increasing, decreasing, or remaining the same   Bloom's Level : Analyze
• describe the direction of an object's motion: up, down, forward, and backward   Bloom's Level : Understand

b)  changes in motion are related to force and mass;

• identify the forces that cause an object's motion   Bloom's Level : Remember
• design an investigation to test the following hypothesis, "If the mass of an object increases, then the force needed to move it will increase."   Bloom's Level : Create / Apply

c)  friction is a force that opposes motion; and

• design an investigation to determine the effect of friction on moving objects  Bloom's Level : Create
• write a testable hypothesis and identify the dependent variable, the independent variable, and the constants  Bloom's Level : Analyze/ Understand
• conduct a fair test, collect and record data, analyze the data, and report the results of the data.  Bloom's Level : Apply, Analyze, Understand

d)  moving objects have kinetic energy.

•  infer that objects have kinetic energy  Bloom's Level : Analyze

### BIG IDEAS

Force, motion and energy are related.

### UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

• The position of an object can be described by locating it relative to another object or to the background.
• Tracing and measuring an object’s position over time can describe its motion.
• Speed describes how fast an object is moving.
• Energy may exist in two states: kinetic or potential.
• Kinetic energy is the energy of motion.
• A force is any push or pull that causes an object to move, stop, or change speed or direction.
• The greater the force, the greater the change in motion will be. The more massive an object, the less effect a given force will have on the object.
• Friction is the resistance to motion created by two objects moving against each other. Friction creates heat.
• Unless acted on by a force, objects in motion tend to stay in motion and objects at rest remain at rest.

### ESSENTIALS

Essential Quetions:

·  How do forces influence motion?

·  How can the principles of motion be put to use?

·  How do we recognize different states of energy?

·  How can we describe the position of an object?

·  How does the mass of an object influence motion?

·  How does friction affect a moving object?

In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students will

• describe the position of an object.
• collect and display in a table and line graph time and position data for a moving object.
• explain that speed is a measure of motion.
• interpret data to determine if the speed of an object is increasing, decreasing, or remaining the same.
• identify the forces that cause an object’s motion.
• describe the direction of an object’s motion: up, down, forward, backward.
• infer that objects have kinetic energy.
• design an investigation to test the following hypothesis: “If the mass of an object increases, then the force needed to move it will increase.”
• design an investigation to determine the effect of friction on moving objects. Write a testable hypothesis and identify the dependent variable, the independent variable, and the constants. Conduct a fair test, collect and record the data, analyze the data, and report the results of the data.

### KEY VOCABULARY

analyze - to examine in detail; to break down into parts of elements

collect - to gather together

constants - those things that are purposely kept the same throughout the experiment

decreasing speed - slowing down

dependent variable - factor in an experiment that changes as a result of the manipulation of the independent variable.

describe - to give an account in words of the characteristics, qualities or events

direction - the course along which something moves

energy - ability to do work

force - any push or pull that causes an object to move, stop, or change speed or direction

friction - the resistance to motion created by two objects moving against each other; friction creates heat

graph - a diagram showing the relation between two variables

gravity - the force that attracts a body toward the center of the earth, or toward any other physical body having mass

hypothesis - an "educated guess"/prediction about what will happen based on WHAT you already KNOW and what you have already LEARNED from your research.  It must be worded so that it is "testable."  Can be written as an "IF....,then..." statement.

increasing speed - speeding up

independent variable -the factor the experimenter changes; what is purposely changed or manipulated

inertia - an object will remain at rest unless acted on by a force; an object will move in a straight line unless acted on by a force

kinetic energy - energy of motion

mass - the amount of material in an object

motion - a change in an objects position

potential energy - the energy possessed by a body due to its position relative to others

relative position - a point defined with reference to another position

resistance - the opposition that a substance offers to the flow of electric current

speed - how fast an object is moving

Updated: Aug 24, 2017