Science - 2019-20

1.1 - Scientific Engineering Practices

The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific and engineering practices by:

a) asking questions and defining problems;

  • ask questions and make predictions based on observations. Bloom's level:  Understand
  • identify a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new tool or improved object. Bloom's level: Understand

b)  planning and carrying out investigations;

  • with  guidance, conduct investigations to produce data Bloom's level:  Apply
  • identify characteristics and properties of objects by observations. Bloom's level: Understand/ Analyze
  • use tools to measure relative length, weight, volume, and temperature of common objects Bloom's level:  Apply

c)  interpreting, analyzing, and evaluating data;

  • use and share pictures, drawings, and/or writings of observations Bloom's level:  Apply / Understand
  • describe patterns and relationships Bloom's level:  Understand/Analyze
  • classify and arrange objects based on a simple physical characteristic property Bloom's Level: Understand/ Aplpy
  • organize and represent various forms of data using tables, picture graphs, and object graphs Bloom's Level: Analyze/Apply
  • read and interpret data displayed in tables, picture graphs, and object graphs, using the vocabulary more, less, fewer, greater than, less than, and equal to  Bloom's level: Understand/Analyze

d)  constructing and critiquing conclusions and explanations;

  • make simple conclusions based on data or observations Bloom's level:  Understand
  • recognize unusual or unexpected results Bloom's level:  Understand

e)  developing and using models;

  • use physical models to demonstrate simple phenomena and natural processes Bloom's level:  Apply

f) obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information;

  •  communicate observations and data using simple graphs, pictures, drawings, numbers, speech and/or writing  Bloom's level:  Apply




Adopted: 2018

BIG IDEAS

Scientists develop scientific knowledge by asking questions and defining problems, planning investigations, interpreting, analyzing, evaluating data, and communicating their conclusions. They use the engineering practices to solve a problem or design an object, tool, process or system.

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The nature of science refers to the foundational concepts that govern the way scientists formulate explanations about the natural world. The nature of science includes the following concepts:
    1. the natural world is understandable;
    2. science is based on evidence, both observational and experimental;
    3. science is a blend of logic and innovation;
    4. scientific ideas are durable yet subject to change as new data are collected;
    5. science is a complex social endeavor; and
    6. scientists try to remain objective and engage in peer review to help avoid bias.
    In grade one, an emphasis should be placed on concepts a, b, and e.
  • Science assumes that the natural world is understandable. Scientific inquiry can provide explanations about nature. This expands students’thinking from just a knowledge of facts to understanding how facts are relevant to everyday life.
  • Science demands evidence. Scientists develop their ideas based on evidence and they change their ideas when new evidence becomesavailable or the old evidence is viewed in a different way.
  • Science is a complex social endeavor. It is a complex social process for producing knowledge about the natural world. Scientific knowledge represents the current consensus as to what is the best explanation for phenomena in the natural world. This consensus does not arise automatically, since scientists with different backgrounds from all over the world may interpret the same data differently. To build a consensus, scientists communicate their findings to other scientists and attempt to replicate one another’s findings. In order to model the work of professional scientists, it is essential for first-grade students to engage in frequent discussions with peers about their understanding of their investigations.
  • To communicate an observation accurately, one must provide a clear description of exactly what is observed and nothing more.
  • Observations should be made from multiple positions (e.g., observations of the same object from the front of the object, from the back of the object, looking down on the object, etc.) whenever possible to achieve a variety of perspectives.
  • Observations should be repeated multiple times to assure accuracy.
  • Once the characteristics of several objects or several events have been observed and recorded, the objects or events can be arranged by those characteristics (e.g., several objects sorted by color, several events sorted on a timeline by age, etc.).
  • Simple tools, such as a magnifying glass and a balance can extend the observations that people can make.
  • Nonstandard units such as paper clips, a student’s foot, index cards, etc., can be used to measure the length of objects. The mass of two objects can be compared by holding each object in a different hand. The volume of various liquids can be compared by pouring them in cups of the same size. Variations in temperature of different objects can be compared by the difference that is felt when each object is touched. Variations in air temperature can be compared by observing the differences one feels when in different environments (e.g., inside the classroom vs. outside on the playground in winter, inside the freezer compartment of a refrigerator vs. inside a kitchen).
  • An inference is a tentative explanation based on background knowledge and available data.
  • A conclusion is a summary statement based on data from the results of an investigation.
  • Questions about what is observed can be developed.
  • A prediction is a forecast about what mayhappen in some future situation. It is based on information and evidence. A prediction is different from a guess.
  • Graphs are powerful ways to display data, making it easier to recognize important information. Describing things as accurately as possible is important in science because it enables people to compare their observations with those of others.
  • Data should be displayed in bar graphs and picture graphs at the grade one level.
  • An experiment is a fair test designed to answer a question.

ESSENTIALS

Essential Questions:

 What can be learned by doing scientific investigations?

 Why do scientists use a variety of methods of investigation?

 How do scientists make and use observations?

 What tools do scientists use?

How do scientists classify information?


In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students will

  • use their senses and simple tools, such as a magnifying glass and a balance to enhance their observations of physical properties.
  • make repeated observations of an object or event from multiple positions.
  • classify and arrange objects or events according to at least two attributes or properties so that similarities and differences become apparent.
  • measure length, mass, and volume, using nonstandard units.
  • use familiar events and objects to make inferences and draw conclusions.
  • develop a question from one or more observations.
  • predict outcomes based on actual observations and evidence rather than random guesses.
  • communicate observations and data with simple graphs and pictures, oral and written statements, and with numbers.
  • answer questions by conducting simple experiments/investigations, using nonstandard measuring units and simple tools, such as a magnifying glass or a balance. A simple experiment is one that changes only one thing at a time (tests only one variable), gives quick results, and provides easily observable changes.
  • record observations of movement (length/distance) using nonstandard units.
  • compare the movement of objects, using graphs, pictures, and/or numbers.

KEY VOCABULARY

attributes

balance

classifying

communication

comparing

conclusion

data

evidence

experiment

graph

inference

investigation

length

magnifying glass

mass

measure

movement

observation

patterns

physical properties

prediction

question

simple tools

volume


Updated: Oct 21, 2019