#### Science - 2019-20

# PH.10 - Gravitational, Electric, and Magnetic Forces

The
student will **investigate **and** understand** how to use the field concept to
describe the effects of gravitational, electric, and magnetic forces. Key
concepts include

a) inverse square laws (Newton’s law of universal gravitation and Coulomb’s law); and

b) technological applications.

**Bloom's Levels:** Analyze; Understand

*Adopted: 2010*

### BIG IDEAS

- I can explain how generators work.
- I can explain how electricity helps a recycling center sort metals.

### UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

The concepts developed in this standard include the following:

- The electrostatic force
(Coulomb’s law) can be either repulsive or attractive, depending on the sign of
the charges.
- The gravitational force (Newton’s
Law of Gravitation) is always an attractive force.
- The force found from Newton’s Law
of Gravitation and in Coulomb’s law is dependent on the inverse square of the
distance between two objects.
- The interaction of two particles
at a distance can be described as a two-step process that occur simultaneously:
the creation of a field by one of the particles and the interaction of the
field with the second particle.
- The force a magnetic field
exerts on a moving electrical charge has a direction perpendicular to both the
velocity and field directions. Its magnitude is dependent on the velocity of
the charge, the magnitude of the charge, and the strength of the magnetic
field.

### ESSENTIALS

In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students will

a) describe the attractive or repulsive forces between objects relative to their forces and distance between them (Coulomb’s law).

describe the attraction of particles (Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation).

describe the effect of a uniform magnetic field on a moving electrical charge.

### KEY VOCABULARY

*Updated: May 09, 2018*