Social Studies - 2019-20

WHII.8c - Effect of Industrialization on Economic and Political Systems

The student will apply social science skills to understand the changes in European nations between 1800 and 1900 by

c) describing how industrialization affected economic and political systems in Europe, with emphasis on the slave trade and the labor union movement;


Adopted: 2015

BIG IDEAS

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

Technology developed during the Industrial Revolution. The development of new products created a higher demand for labor.

Later reforms would try to improve working conditions and to eliminate the practice of slavery.

Workers organized labor unions to fight for improved working conditions and workers’ rights.

Capitalism and market competition fueled the Industrial Revolution. Wealth increased the standard of living for some.


ESSENTIALS

Impact of the Industrial Revolution on slavery

 The cotton gin increased demand for slave labor on American plantations.

 The United States and Britain outlawed the slave trade and then slavery.


The rise of labor unions

 Encouraged worker-organized strikes to demand increased wages and improved working conditions

 Lobbied for laws to improve the lives of workers, including women and children

 Wanted workers’ rights and collective bargaining between labor and management


Capitalism

 Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations

 Role of market competition and entrepreneurial abilities

 Impact on standard of living and the growth of the middle class

 Dissatisfaction with poor working conditions and the unequal distribution of wealth in society


Socialism and communism

 Karl Marx’s The Communist Manifesto (written with Friedrich Engels) and Das Kapital

 Response to the injustices of capitalism

 Importance to communists of redistribution of wealth


KEY VOCABULARY

Terms:

enclosure movement

mining

steam engine

textiles

factory system

domestic system/ cottage industry raw materials

standard of living

urbanization

middle class

spinning jenny

steam engine

cotton gin

Bessemer (steel) process 

smallpox vaccination 

germ theory (bacteria)

Wealth of Nations

Competition

Entrepreneur

demand

distribution of wealth

supply

capitalism

communism

socialism

Communist Manifesto &

Das Kapital

child labor

harsh working conditions

suffrage

unions

strike

collective bargain

labor

management

reforms

People:

Louis Pasteur

James Hargreaves

James Watt

Eli Whitney

Henry Bessemer

Edward Jenner

Adam Smith

Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels

Places:

Great Britain

France

Germany

United States

Japan

Updated: Jun 01, 2018