Social Studies - 2019-20

WHII.5c - Absolutism and The Enlightenment

The student will apply social science skills to understand the political, cultural, geographic, and economic conditions in Europe and Russia from about 1500 A.D. (C.E.) to about 1800 A.D. (C.E.) by

c) describing the development of social and cultural patterns in France, with emphasis on the Age of Absolutism, Louis XIV, and the Enlightenment period;


Adopted: 2015

BIG IDEAS

How did new ideas spark change and conflict in the late 18th and throughout the 19th centuries?

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

The Age of Absolutism takes its name from a series of European monarchs who increased the power of their central governments.

Enlightenment thinkers believed that human progress was possible through the application of scientific knowledge and reason to issues of law and government.

Enlightenment ideas influenced the leaders of the American Revolution and the writing of the Declaration of Independence.


ESSENTIALS

Characteristics of absolute monarchies

 Centralization of power

 Concept of rule by divine right


Absolute monarchs

 Louis XIV of France: Palace of Versailles as a symbol of royal power


The Enlightenment

 Emphasized reason, analysis, and individualism

 Stimulated religious pluralism

 Fueled democratic revolutions around the world


Enlightenment thinkers and their ideas

 Thomas Hobbes’ Leviathan: Humans exist in a primitive “state of nature” and consent to government for self-protection.

 John Locke’s Two Treatises of Government: People are sovereign and consent to government for protection of natural rights to life, liberty, and property.

 Montesquieu: The best form of government depends on a country’s size, climate, and other factors; he popularized the concept of separation of powers.

 Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s The Social Contract: Government is a contract between rulers and the people.

 Voltaire: Hostile to religious fanaticism and to religious beliefs in general.


Influence of the Enlightenment

 Political philosophies of the Enlightenment fueled revolution in the Americas and France.

 Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence incorporated Enlightenment ideas.

 The Constitution of the United States and the Bill of Rights incorporated Enlightenment ideas.


KEY VOCABULARY

Terms:

Absolutism

Divine Right

Edict of Nantes

Huguenots

Westernization

Natural Law

Enlightenment Ideas

Unpopular Methods of Rule

Economic Distress

Social Injustice

Religious Intolerance

Nationalism

People:

Louis XIV

Sun King

Peter the Great

Voltaire

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Johann Sebastian Bach

John Locke

Montesquieu

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Thomas Hobbes

Thomas Jefferson

Eugene Delacroix

Miguel de Cervantes


Places:

France

Russia 

England

United States

Updated: Jun 01, 2018