Social Studies - 2019-20
WHII.3a - Protestant Reformation
The student will apply social science skills to understand the Reformation in terms of its impact on Western civilization by
a) explaining the effects of the theological, political, and economic differences that emerged, including the views and actions of Martin Luther, John Calvin, Henry VIII, and Elizabeth I;
- How do turning points change history?
UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD
Disputes over biblical interpretation and papal authority led Protestant Reformers to leave the Catholic Church and establish Protestant churches.
Conflicts that challenged the authority of the Church in Rome
German and English nobility disliked Italian domination of the Church.
The Church’s great political power and wealth caused conflict.
Church corruption and the sale of indulgences were widespread and caused conflict.
Early dissenters (John Wycliffe and Jan Huss) led early efforts to reform the Church.
Martin Luther (the Lutheran tradition)
Views: Salvation by faith alone; Bible as the ultimate authority; all humans equal before God
Actions: 95 Theses, birth of the Protestant Church; initiated the Protestant Reformation that splintered Catholic Europe
John Calvin (the Calvinist tradition)
Views: Single predestination (God chooses those to be saved and those to be punished)
Actions: Expansion of the Protestant Movement
King Henry VIII
Views: Disagreed with the authority of the Pope in Rome
Actions: Divorced; broke ties with papal authority; headed the national church in England; appropriated lands and wealth of the Roman Catholic Church in England
Queen Elizabeth I
Views: Tolerance for dissenters, expansion, and colonialism
Actions: Commissioned the 39 Articles; victory over the Spanish Armada (1588)
Jesuits (Society of Jesus)
Council of Trent
Ignatius of Loyola
Holy Roman Empire (Germany)