Social Studies - 2019-20

WHII.3a - Protestant Reformation

The student will apply social science skills to understand the Reformation in terms of its impact on Western civilization by

a) explaining the effects of the theological, political, and economic differences that emerged, including the views and actions of Martin Luther, John Calvin, Henry VIII, and Elizabeth I;


Adopted: 2015

BIG IDEAS

  • How do turning points change history?

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

Disputes over biblical interpretation and papal authority led Protestant Reformers to leave the Catholic Church and establish Protestant churches.

ESSENTIALS

Conflicts that challenged the authority of the Church in Rome

 German and English nobility disliked Italian domination of the Church.

 The Church’s great political power and wealth caused conflict.

 Church corruption and the sale of indulgences were widespread and caused conflict.

 Early dissenters (John Wycliffe and Jan Huss) led early efforts to reform the Church.


Martin Luther (the Lutheran tradition)

 Views: Salvation by faith alone; Bible as the ultimate authority; all humans equal before God

 Actions: 95 Theses, birth of the Protestant Church; initiated the Protestant Reformation that splintered Catholic Europe


John Calvin (the Calvinist tradition)

 Views: Single predestination (God chooses those to be saved and those to be punished)

 Actions: Expansion of the Protestant Movement


King Henry VIII

 Views: Disagreed with the authority of the Pope in Rome

 Actions: Divorced; broke ties with papal authority; headed the national church in England; appropriated lands and wealth of the Roman Catholic Church in England


Queen Elizabeth I

 Views: Tolerance for dissenters, expansion, and colonialism

 Actions: Commissioned the 39 Articles; victory over the Spanish Armada (1588)


KEY VOCABULARY

Terms:

Printing Press

Indulgence

Usury

Laity

95 Theses

Predestination

Inquisition

Jesuits (Society of Jesus)

Council of Trent

People:

Johannes Gutenberg

Martin Luther

John Calvin

Henry VIII

Elizabeth I

Hapsburg Family

Ignatius of Loyola

John Wycliffe

Jan Huss

Places:

England

Holy Roman Empire (Germany)

France


Updated: Jun 01, 2018