Social Studies - 2019-20

3.8 - Resources Used in Ancient Civilizations

The student will demonstrate an understanding of different cultures and the natural, human, and capital resources they used in the production of goods and services.

Adopted: 2015


  • So that resources help us get the things we need and want
  • So that natural resources (water, soil, wood, and coal), human resources (people at work), and capital resources (machines, tools, and buildings) are used to make the things we want and need


Resources are used to produce goods and services.

Producers of goods and services are influenced by natural, human, and capital resources.


Terms to know

  • natural resources: Materials (e.g., water, soil, wood, coal) that come directly from nature
  • human resources: People working to produce goods and services
  • capital resources: Goods (e.g., machines, tools, buildings) made by people and used to produce other goods and services
  • producers: People who use resources to make goods and/or provide services
  • goods: Things that people make or use to satisfy wants
  • services: Activities that satisfy people‚Äôs wants

Ancient China was located on a large land mass. The land consisted of forests, hills, mountains, and deserts. The people of ancient China farmed, fished, mined, made pottery, and traded goods.

Ancient Egypt was located along the Nile River in northeast Africa. Most of the land was desert. There was rich soil along the Nile River. The people of ancient Egypt farmed, fished, made crafts, and traded goods.

Ancient Greece was located on a peninsula with mountains and hills and was surrounded by many islands and the Mediterranean Sea. Greece had limited rich soil. The people of ancient Greece built ships, fished, made pottery, and farmed.

Ancient Rome was located next to a river. Rich soil for farming was limited. A variety of trees grew in ancient Rome. The people of ancient Rome built ships, fished, made pottery, and farmed.

The West African empire of Mali was located in Africa. Gold was a natural resource. The people of Mali traded gold for salt.


Updated: Jul 24, 2019