Social Studies - 2019-20

CE.9a - Organization of the Judicial System

The student will apply social science skills to understand the judicial systems established by the Constitution of Virginia and the Constitution of the United States by

a) describing the organization of the United States judicial system as consisting of state and federal courts with original and appellate jurisdiction;



Adopted: 2015

BIG IDEAS

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

The United States has a dual court system, which consists of state courts and federal courts.

Federal courts have jurisdiction over federal laws.

State courts have jurisdiction over state laws.

The role of the judicial branch is to interpret laws.


ESSENTIALS

Terms to know

 jurisdiction: Authority to hear a case

 original jurisdiction: Authority to hear a case first

 appellate jurisdiction: Authority to review a decision of a lower court

 felony: A serious crime

 misdemeanor: A smaller or less serious offense


The United States has a court system whose organization and jurisdiction are derived from the Constitution of the United States and federal laws.

 U.S. Supreme Court: Justices, no jury; appellate jurisdiction; limited original jurisdiction

 U.S. Court of Appeals: Judges, no jury; appellate jurisdiction

 U.S. District Court: Judge, with or without jury; original jurisdiction


Virginia, like each of the other 49 states, has its own separate court system whose organization and jurisdiction are derived from Virginia’s constitution and state laws.

 Virginia Supreme Court: Justices, no jury; appellate jurisdiction; limited original jurisdiction

 Court of Appeals of Virginia: Judges, no jury; appellate jurisdiction to review decisions of circuit courts

 Circuit court: Judge, with or without jury; original jurisdiction for felony criminal cases and for certain civil cases; appellate jurisdiction from district courts

 General district court, and juvenile and domestic relations court: Judge, no jury; original jurisdiction for misdemeanors and civil cases generally involving lower dollar amounts and original jurisdiction in juvenile and family cases


KEY VOCABULARY

Updated: May 16, 2018