Social Studies - 2019-20

WHI.6d - Political and Military Structure of Roman Republic

The student will apply social science skills to understand ancient Rome from about 700 B.C. (B.C.E.) to 500 A.D. (C.E.) in terms of its impact on Western civilization by

d) describing and evaluating the political and military structure of the Roman Republic under the rule of Julius Caesar;

Adopted: 2015



After the victory over Carthage in the Punic Wars, Rome was able, over the next 100 years, to dominate the Mediterranean basin, leading to the diffusion of Roman culture.


Punic Wars: Rome vs. Carthage (264–146 B.C. [B.C.E.])

 Rome and Carthage were in competition for trade.

 Hannibal invaded the Italian Peninsula.

 Three wars resulted in Roman victory, the destruction of Carthage, and expanded trade and wealth for Rome.

Evolution of the Roman Empire and spread of Roman culture

 Mediterranean Basin (Africa, Asia, Europe, including the Hellenistic world of the Eastern Mediterranean)

 Western Europe (Gaul, British Isles)

Causes for the decline of the Roman Republic

 Spread of slavery in the agricultural system

 Migration of small farmers into cities; unemployment

 Civil war over the power of Julius Caesar

 Devaluation of Roman currency; inflation

 First Triumvirate

 Julius Caesar: Seizure of power, assassination



Veto (6a)

Checks and balances (6a)

Roman mythology (6b)

Twelve Tables (6b)

Roman Republic (6c,e,f)

Patricians (6c)

Plebeians (6c)

Punic Wars (6d)

Legion (6d)

Representative democracy (6c)

Consuls (6c)

Senate (6c)

Roman Empire (6e-k)

Inflation (6e)

Roman Civil War (6f)

Triumvirate (6f)

Pax Romana (6g)

Messiah (6h)

New Testament (6h)

Pope (6h)

Apostles (6h)

Martyrs (6h)

Aeneid (6j)

Pantheon (6j)

Aqueduct (6j)

Colosseum (6j)

Forum (6j)


Hannibal (6d)

Julius Caesar (6e,f)

Augustus Caesar (6e-g)

Marc Anthony (6e,f)

Jesus (6h)

Paul (6h)

Constantine (6i,k)

Diocletian (6i,k)

Virgil (6j)

Ptolemy (6j)


Rome (6a,c-k)

Italian Peninsula (6a,d)

Alps (6a)

Mediterranean Sea (6a)

Gaul (6d)

British Isles (6d)

Carthage (6d)

Western Roman Empire (6k)

Byzantium (6k)

Constantinople (6k)

Eastern Roman Empire (6k)

Updated: May 17, 2018