Social Studies - 2019-20

WHI.6c - Roman Republic

The student will apply social science skills to understand ancient Rome from about 700 B.C. (B.C.E.) to 500 A.D. (C.E.) in terms of its impact on Western civilization by

c) describing the social structure and cultural development of the Roman Republic;


Adopted: 2015

BIG IDEAS

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

Although women, most aliens (non-Romans living in the Republic), and slaves were excluded from the governing process, the Roman Republic made major strides in the development of representative democracy, which became a model for modern democracy.

Conquests and trade spread Roman cultural and technological achievements throughout the Roman Empire.

Western civilization was influenced by the cultural achievements of ancient Rome.


ESSENTIALS

Social structure in the Roman Republic

 Patricians: Powerful nobility (few in number)

 Plebeians: Majority of population

 Slaves: Not based on race; individuals who were captured as prisoners of war, born to enslaved parents, or who failed to repay their loans and debts


Citizenship

 Patrician and plebeian men

 Selected foreigners

 Rights and responsibilities of citizenship (e.g., taxes, military service)


Features of democracy

 Representative democracy

 Assemblies

 The Senate

 Consuls

 Laws of Rome codified as the Twelve Tables


Contributions of Ancient Rome

 Art and architecture: Pantheon, Colosseum, Forum

 Technology: Roads, aqueducts, Roman arches

 Science: Achievements of Ptolemy

 Medicine: Emphasis on public health (public baths, public water systems, medical schools)

 Language: Latin, Romance languages

 Literature: Virgil’s Aeneid

 Law: The principle of “innocent until proven guilty” (from the Twelve Tables)


KEY VOCABULARY

Terms

Veto (6a)

Checks and balances (6a)

Roman mythology (6b)

Twelve Tables (6b)

Roman Republic (6c,e,f)

Patricians (6c)

Plebeians (6c)

Punic Wars (6d)

Legion (6d)

Representative democracy (6c)

Consuls (6c)

Senate (6c)

Roman Empire (6e-k)

Inflation (6e)

Roman Civil War (6f)

Triumvirate (6f)

Pax Romana (6g)

Messiah (6h)

New Testament (6h)

Pope (6h)

Apostles (6h)

Martyrs (6h)

Aeneid (6j)

Pantheon (6j)

Aqueduct (6j)

Colosseum (6j)

Forum (6j)

People

Hannibal (6d)

Julius Caesar (6e,f)

Augustus Caesar (6e-g)

Marc Anthony (6e,f)

Jesus (6h)

Paul (6h)

Constantine (6i,k)

Diocletian (6i,k)

Virgil (6j)

Ptolemy (6j)

Places

Rome (6a,c-k)

Italian Peninsula (6a,d)

Alps (6a)

Mediterranean Sea (6a)

Gaul (6d)

British Isles (6d)

Carthage (6d)

Western Roman Empire (6k)

Byzantium (6k)

Constantinople (6k)

Eastern Roman Empire (6k)

Updated: May 17, 2018