Social Studies - 2019-20

WHI.6c - Roman Republic

The student will apply social science skills to understand ancient Rome from about 700 B.C. (B.C.E.) to 500 A.D. (C.E.) in terms of its impact on Western civilization by

c) describing the social structure and cultural development of the Roman Republic;

Adopted: 2015



Although women, most aliens (non-Romans living in the Republic), and slaves were excluded from the governing process, the Roman Republic made major strides in the development of representative democracy, which became a model for modern democracy.

Conquests and trade spread Roman cultural and technological achievements throughout the Roman Empire.

Western civilization was influenced by the cultural achievements of ancient Rome.


Social structure in the Roman Republic

 Patricians: Powerful nobility (few in number)

 Plebeians: Majority of population

 Slaves: Not based on race; individuals who were captured as prisoners of war, born to enslaved parents, or who failed to repay their loans and debts


 Patrician and plebeian men

 Selected foreigners

 Rights and responsibilities of citizenship (e.g., taxes, military service)

Features of democracy

 Representative democracy

 Assemblies

 The Senate

 Consuls

 Laws of Rome codified as the Twelve Tables

Contributions of Ancient Rome

 Art and architecture: Pantheon, Colosseum, Forum

 Technology: Roads, aqueducts, Roman arches

 Science: Achievements of Ptolemy

 Medicine: Emphasis on public health (public baths, public water systems, medical schools)

 Language: Latin, Romance languages

 Literature: Virgil’s Aeneid

 Law: The principle of “innocent until proven guilty” (from the Twelve Tables)



Veto (6a)

Checks and balances (6a)

Roman mythology (6b)

Twelve Tables (6b)

Roman Republic (6c,e,f)

Patricians (6c)

Plebeians (6c)

Punic Wars (6d)

Legion (6d)

Representative democracy (6c)

Consuls (6c)

Senate (6c)

Roman Empire (6e-k)

Inflation (6e)

Roman Civil War (6f)

Triumvirate (6f)

Pax Romana (6g)

Messiah (6h)

New Testament (6h)

Pope (6h)

Apostles (6h)

Martyrs (6h)

Aeneid (6j)

Pantheon (6j)

Aqueduct (6j)

Colosseum (6j)

Forum (6j)


Hannibal (6d)

Julius Caesar (6e,f)

Augustus Caesar (6e-g)

Marc Anthony (6e,f)

Jesus (6h)

Paul (6h)

Constantine (6i,k)

Diocletian (6i,k)

Virgil (6j)

Ptolemy (6j)


Rome (6a,c-k)

Italian Peninsula (6a,d)

Alps (6a)

Mediterranean Sea (6a)

Gaul (6d)

British Isles (6d)

Carthage (6d)

Western Roman Empire (6k)

Byzantium (6k)

Constantinople (6k)

Eastern Roman Empire (6k)

Updated: May 17, 2018