Social Studies - 2019-20

WHI.5d - Persian, Pericles, and Peloponnesian

The student will apply social science skills to understand ancient Greece in terms of its impact on Western civilization by

d) evaluating the political and economic development of Greece, with emphasis on the Persian and the Peloponnesian wars;

Adopted: 2015



The Greeks defeated the Persian empire and preserved their political independence.

Competition between Sparta and Athens for control of Greece helped cause the Peloponnesian War.

The expansion of Greek civilization through trade and colonization led to the spread of Hellenic culture across the Mediterranean and Black Seas.


Importance of Persian Wars (499–449 B.C. [B.C.E.])

 Persian wars united Athens and Sparta against the Persian Empire.

 Athenian victories over the Persians at Marathon and Salamis left Greeks in control of the Aegean Sea.

 Athens preserved its independence and continued innovations in government and culture.

Golden Age of Pericles (mostly occurring between the Persian and the Peloponnesian Wars)

 Pericles extended democracy; most adult males had an equal voice.

 Pericles had Athens rebuilt after destruction in the Persian Wars; the Parthenon is an example of this reconstruction.

Importance of Peloponnesian War (431–404 B.C. [B.C.E.])

 Caused in part by competition for control of the Greek world: Athens and the Delian League vs. Sparta and the Peloponnesian League

 Weakened Athens and Sparta, setting the stage for Macedonian conquests of Greece and the end of Greek democracy



Classical Greek Era (5a-f)

Hellenic (5a)

Ethics (5a)

Rhetoric (5a)

acropolis (5a) 

Commerce (5a)

Terracing (5a)

Colonization (5a)

Greek mythology (5b)

Greek gods (5b)

Olympic Games (5b)

Civic (5c)

Monarchy (5c)

Aristocracy (5c)

Tyranny (5c)

Democracy (5c)

Oligarchy (5c)

Persian Wars (5d)

Marathon (5d)

Salamis (5d)

Peloponnesian Wars (5d)

Delian League (5d)

Peloponnesian League (5d)

Golden Age of Pericles (5e,f)

Doric (5f)

Ionian (5f)

Corinthian (5f)

Philosophy (5f)

Iliad (5e,f)

Odyssey (5e,f)

Hellenistic Age (5g)


Draco (5c)

Solon (5c)

Pericles (5e,f)

Aeschylus (5e,f)

Sophocles (5e,f)

Homer (5e,f)

Herodotus (5e,f)

Thucydides (5e,f)

Phidias (5e,f)

Archimedes (5e,f)

Hippocrates (5e,f)

Euclid (5e,f)

Pythagoras (5e,f)

Socrates (5e,f)

Plato (5e,f)

Aristotle (5e,f)

Philip II of Macedon (5g)

Alexander the Great (5g)


Aegean Sea (5a)

Black Sea (5a)

Mediterranean Sea (5a)

Balkan Peninsula (5a)

Peloponnesus (5a)

Dardanelles (5a)

Athens (5a, c-f)

Sparta (5a, c-f)

Troy (5a)

Macedonia (5a, g)

Greece (5b,d,g)

Parthenon (5e,f)

Updated: May 17, 2018