Social Studies - 2019-20
USII.4d - Industrialization
The student will apply social science skills to understand how life changed after the Civil War by
d) explaining the impact of new inventions, the rise of big business, the growth of industry, and the changes to life on American farms in response to industrialization;
The United States was transformed from an agrarian to an increasingly industrial and urbanized society. Although this transformation created new economic opportunities, it also created societal problems that were addressed by a variety of reform efforts.
Is there one American experience?
To what extent does the American economy shape the American experience?
How do people affect change?
UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD
Between the Civil War and World War I, the United States was transformed from primarily an agricultural society into one based on manufacturing and services.
Inventions had both positive and negative effects on society.
Inventions that contributed to great change and industrial growth
Electric lighting and mechanical uses of electricity (Thomas Edison)
Railroads, which permitted large-scale, long-distance transport of goods
Rise of big business led by captains of industry
Captains of industry (John D. Rockefeller, oil; Andrew Carnegie, steel; Cornelius Vanderbilt, shipping and railroads; J.P. Morgan, banking)
Reasons for business growth
National markets created by transportation advances
Lower-cost production (assembly line)
Lack of competition (monopolies and trusts)
Factors that promoted industrial growth in America
Access to raw materials and energy sources
Large work force (due to immigration)
Examples of big business
Postwar changes in farm and city life
Mechanization (e.g., the reaper) reduced farm labor needs and increased production.
Industrial development in cities created increased labor needs.
Industrialization provided new access to consumer goods (e.g., mail order).