Science - 2019-20

PH.3 - Scientific Reasoning and Logic

The student will investigate and understand how to demonstrate scientific reasoning and logic. Key concepts include

a)  analysis of scientific sources to develop and refine research hypotheses;

b)  analysis of how science explains and predicts relationships;

c)  evaluation of evidence for scientific theories;

d)  examination of how new discoveries result in modification of existing theories or establishment of new paradigms; and

e)  construction and defense of a scientific viewpoint (the nature of science).

Bloom's Levels:  Analyze; Understand

Adopted: 2010


  • I can make a prediction about the causes of global warming.
  • I can relate humans' activities to climate change.
  • I can review information and evaluate the theory of global warming.
  • I can describe the changes to the global warming theory over time.
  • I can evaluate and defend all perspectives of the global warming debate.


The concepts developed in this standard include the following:

  • The nature of science refers to the foundational concepts that govern the way scientists formulate explanations about the natural world. The nature of science includes the following concepts

a) the natural world is understandable;

b) science is based on evidence - both observational and experimental;

c) science is a blend of logic and innovation;

d) scientific ideas are durable yet subject to change as new data are collected;

e) is a complex social endeavor; and

f) scientists try to remain objective and engage in peer review to help avoid bias.

  • Experimentation may support a hypothesis, falsify it, or lead to new discoveries.
  • The hypothesis may be modified based upon data and analysis.
  • A careful study of prior reported research is a basis for the formation of a research hypothesis.
  • A theory is a comprehensive and effective explanation, which is well supported by experimentation and observation, of a set of phenomena.
  • Science is a human endeavor relying on human qualities, such as reasoning, insight, energy, skill, and creativity as well as intellectual honesty, tolerance of ambiguity, skepticism, and openness to new ideas.


In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students will

a-e) identify and explain the interaction between human nature and the scientific process.

     identify examples of a paradigm shift (e.g., quantum mechanics).


Updated: Dec 01, 2017