# BIO.5 a, c-d - Cell Reproduction

The student will investigate and understand common mechanisms of inheritance and protein synthesis. Key concepts include
a) cell growth and division;
c) cell specialization; and
d) prediction of inheritance of traits based on the Mendelian laws of heredity.

Bloom's Levels:  Analyze; Understand

Adopted: 2010

### BIG IDEAS

• All living things reproduce to produce more of their own kind.
• All cells come from other cells.
• Genetic information is passed from generation to generation by DNA; DNA controls the traits of an organism.

• I can explain how tumors grow.
• I can explain why different organs perform different tasks.
• I can justify why I look like others in my family.

### UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

• All living cells come from other living cells. A typical cell goes through a process of growth, development, and reproduction called the cell cycle.
• The many body cells of an organism can be specialized to perform different functions, even though they are all descended from a single cell and contain essentially the same genetic information.
• Mendel’s laws of heredity are based on his mathematical analysis of observations of patterns of inheritance of traits. Geneticists apply mathematical principles of probability to Mendel’s laws of heredity in order to predict the results of simple genetic crosses. The laws of probability govern simple genetic recombinations.

### ESSENTIALS

In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students will

a) create a diagram to model the stages of mitosis and explain the processes occurring at each stage.

compare and contrast the process of mitosis and meiosis and determine under which conditions each process will occur.

c) describe the importance of cell specialization in the development of multicellular organisms.

d) explain how the Mendelian laws of heredity apply to the patterns of inheritance.

identify the traits expressed from a given genotype.

use a Punnett square to show all possible combinations of gametes and the likelihood that particular combinations will occur in monohybrid and dihybrid crosses.

### KEY VOCABULARY

cell division, mitosis, cytokinesis, chromatid, centromere, interphase, cell cycle, prophase, centriole, spindle, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cyclin, cancer, chitin, hypha, mycelium, fruiting body, sporangium, sporangiophore, zygospore, rhizoid, stolon, gametangium, conidium, ascus, ascospore, budding, basidium, basidiospore, saprobe, lichen, mycorrhiza

Updated: Dec 01, 2017