Reading - 2018-19

Unit 4

Communication:Speaking Listening, Media Literacy

The student will participate in and contribute to conversations, group discussions, and oral presentations.

a)  Communicate ideas and information orally in an organized and succinct manner.

b)  Ask probing questions to seek elaboration and clarification of ideas.

c)  Make statements to communicate agreement or tactful disagreement with others’ ideas.    

d)  Use language and style appropriate to audience, topic, and purpose.

e) Use a variety of strategies to listen actively.


The student will participate in and contribute to conversations, group discussions, and oral presentations.

a) Use a variety of strategies to listen actively and speak using agreed-upon discussion rules with awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues.

b) Clearly communicate ideas and information orally in an organized and succinct manner.

c) Ask probing questions to seek elaboration and clarification of ideas.

d) Participate in collaborative discussions with partners, building on others’ ideas.

e) Make statements to communicate agreement or tactful disagreement with others’ ideas.

f) Use language and style appropriate to audience, topic, and purpose.

g) Give formal and information presentations in a group or individually, providing evidence to support a main idea.

h) Work effectively and respectfully within diverse groups.

i) Exhibit willingness to make necessary compromises to accomplish a goal.

j) Share responsibility for collaborative work.

Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • Word choice contributes to a speaker's tone and enhances the purpose. (7.1d and 7.1f)
  • Selecting appropriate words helps increase the impact of a speaker on the audience. (7.1d and 7.1f)
  • Knowing the audience determines the content, language, and style of a presentation. (7.1a, d and 7.1e, f)
  • It is important to know how to use verbal and nonverbal communication when interacting with a group. (7.1c, e and 7.1a, d)
  • Formulating questions allows individuals to gather more information, work more effectively with teams, addresses challenges more proactively, and reflect more deeply. (7.1b and 7.1c)
  • Being a good listener is a way to show respect and understanding of another person's perspective. (7.1e and 7.1a)
  • Active listening involves not only paying attention to the words someone is saying but also trying to understand a person's complete message. (7.1e and 7.1a)
  • Respectful disagreement focuses on facts, doesn't get personal, recognizes positives, and uses "I" statements. (7.1c and 7.1e)
  • Effective oral communication includes fact, statistics, examples, logical reasoning, and personal opinions that are presented in a concise, organized manner. (7.1a and 7.1b)
  • Group norms for conduct help groups develop cohesiveness and allow for groups to function efficiently and effectively. (7.1a)
  • Formulating ideas as a group involves coming up with relevant ideas individually, listening to the ideas of others, and then building on the ideas generated by the group. (7.1d)

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will participate effectively in formal and informal classroom conversations and understand the requirements and uses of standard social conventions in conversations and presentations.
  • Students will express opinions forthrightly yet respectfully, demonstrating interest in and respect for the opinions of others.
  • Students will use grammatically correct language.
  • Teachers should model active listening strategies. 

All students should

  • participate effectively in group discussions and presentations
  • understand audience, topic, and purpose impact language and style
  • recognize that each member brings a unique viewpoint to the group
  • understand verbal and nonverbal feedback from the audience should be used to evaluate and adjust presentations.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand and demonstrate appropriate audience behavior.
  • prepare and deliver oral presentations.
  • participate effectively in group discussions and presentations.
  • show awareness of audience, topic, and purpose.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • contribute relevant ideas, opinions, and feelings in large and small diverse groups.
  • offer and seek summary statements of their own ideas and the ideas of others.
  • select vocabulary, tone, and style with audience and purpose in mind.
  • state points clearly and directly.
  • include multimedia in presentations.
  • maintain a focused discussion.
  • ask clarifying questions and respond appropriately to others’ questions in order to encourage discussion, foster understanding, and bring the discussion back to the topic when needed.
  • provide feedback to other group members, acknowledge new insights expressed by others, and when justified, modify their own views.
  • use a variety of strategies to actively listen, including:
    • give speaker undivided attention;
    • use body language and gestures to show they are listening;
    • provide feedback or paraphrase;
    • allow the speaker to finish without interruptions; and
    • respond appropriately.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • contribute relevant ideas, opinions, and feelings in large and small diverse groups
  • offer and seek summary statements of ideas
  • select vocabulary, tone, and style with audience and purpose in mind
  • state points clearly and directly
  • maintain a focused discussion
  • ask clarifying questions and respond appropriately to others’ questions to encourage discussion, foster understanding, and bring the discussion back to the topic when needed
  • provide feedback to other group members, acknowledge new insights expressed by others, and when justified, modify own views
  • engage others in conversations by posing and responding to questions in a group situation
  • exercise flexibility and willingness in making compromises to accomplish a common goal
  • use a variety of strategies to actively listen and show attentiveness, including
    • focusing attention to the speaker
    • providing appropriate feedback
    • allowing the speaker to finish without interruptions.

Updated: May 29, 2018

The student will identify and demonstrate the relationship between a speaker’s verbal and nonverbal messages.

a) Use verbal communication skills, such as word choice, pitch, feeling, tone, and voice appropriate for the intended audience.

b)  Use nonverbal communication skills, such as eye contact, posture, and gestures to enhance verbal communication skills.

c)  Compare/contrast a speaker’s verbal and nonverbal messages.


The student will create multimodal presentations both individually and in a group that effectively communicate ideas.

a) Select, organize, and create content to complement and extend meaning for a selected topic.

b) Use effective verbal and nonverbal communication skills to deliver multimodal presentations.

c) Use language and vocabulary appropriate to audience, topic, and purpose.

d) Paraphrase and summarize a speaker’s ideas.


Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • Nonverbal communication is made up of the pitch, volume, and inflection of the voice as well as posture, eye contact, gestures, facial expressions, and proximity to the audience. (7.2b, c and 7.2a, b)
  • Nonverbal communication can either reiterate the spoken message, contradict it, or complement its meaning. (7.2b, c and 7.2a, b)
  • The words chosen and the quality of the speakers voice impact tone and can have an emotional impact on the audience. (7.2a and 7.2b, c)
  • Presenters should always strive to create presentations that add to the body of knowledge or understanding of a topic. (7.2a)
  • A test of having listened effectively is the ability to accurately summarize or paraphrase a speakers ideas. (7.2d)


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will use verbal and nonverbal communication to contribute to discussions.
  • Students will support other members of the group in making contributions in order to facilitate group interaction.

All students should

  • understand nonverbal communication and its impact and use it purposefully
  • understand that using more than one communication mode creates a more effective presentation
  • understand that each member brings a unique viewpoint to the group.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • exhibit confidence when speaking.
  • exhibit courtesy when listening.
  • use appropriate facial expressions, posture, and gestures to indicate active listening.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • match vocabulary, tone, and volume to the audience, purpose, and topic of the message.
  • use proper posture and stance when speaking.
  • identify whether or not a nonverbal message complements the spoken message.
  • use appropriate facial expressions and gestures or motions to add to what is being said.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • match vocabulary and tone to the audience, purpose, and topic of the message
  • use proper posture and stance when speaking
  • identify whether a nonverbal message complements the spoken message
  • plan and deliver an oral presentation, using the following steps:
    • determine topic and purpose
    • identify the intended audience
    • choose vocabulary appropriate to topic, purpose, and audience
  • create presentations that use two or more communication modes to make meaning
  • use strategies for summarizing, such as
    • deleting trivial and/or redundant information
    • substituting a general term for a list
    • creating a main idea statement
  • write reflectively in response to multimodal presentations.

Updated: May 30, 2018

The student will understand the elements of media literacy.  

a)  Identify persuasive/informative techniques used in nonprint media including television, radio, video, and Internet.

b)  Distinguish between fact and opinion, and between evidence and inference.

c)  Describe how word choice and visual images convey a viewpoint.

d)  Compare and contrast the techniques in auditory, visual, and written media messages.

e)  Craft and publish audience-specific media messages.


The student will examine the elements of media literacy.

a) Identify persuasive/informative techniques used in media.

b) Distinguish between fact and opinion, and between evidence and inference.

c) Describe how word choice, visual images, and sound convey a viewpoint.

d) Compare and contrast the effectiveness of techniques in auditory, visual, and written media messages.

e) Craft and publish audience-specific media messages.


Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • Being media literate builds communication skills, aids in analyzing multiple interpretations of media messages, adds perspective to how people are portrayed, and improves media use habits.
  • Persuasive techniques can be divided into the three general categories of ethos, logos, and pathos. (7.3a, d and 7.3a, d)
  • Persuasive techniques will vary with respect to the type of media used to convey a message. (7.3a, d and 7.3a, d)
  • Every medium creates meaning differently through the use of visual and verbal techniques. (7.3a, d and 7.3a, d)
  • Evidence is factual and inferences are personal interpretations of facts. (7.3b and 7.3b)
  • Understanding the differences between facts and opinions as well as evidence and inference help one evaluate the reliability and usefulness of media messages. (7.3 b and 7.3b)
  • Opinions can be used to sway thinking, so knowing what's fact can help individuals make reasonable judgments. (7.3b and 7.3b)
  • Word choices and visuals are used to create meaning and emotional effects. (7.3c and 7.3c)
  • Words chosen for their connotative meanings impact tone and impact on the audience. (7.3c and 7.3c)
  • Well crafted media messages help shape public opinion and play an important role in stimulating civic actions, exposing problems to be addressed, and highlighting important issues. (7.3e and 7.3e)

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will identify and evaluate a variety of media elements and persuasive techniques used in the media. They will recognize that all media messages are constructed and that to understand the whole meaning of the message they can deconstruct it, looking at the following attributes:
    • Authorship (Who constructed the message?)
    • Format (This is not just the medium being used but also how the creators used specific elements for effect, i.e., color, sound, emphasis on certain words, amateur video, kids’ voices.)
    • Audience (Who is the person or persons meant to receive the message? How will different people receive the message?)
    • Content (This is not just the visible content but the embedded content as well, which includes underlying assumptions of values or points of view; facts and opinions may be intermixed.)
    • Purpose (Why is the message being sent—is it meant to persuade, inform, entertain, sell, or a combination of these?)
  • Auditory media can be heard (e.g., music, radio shows, podcasts).
  • Visual media can be viewed (e.g., television, video, Web-based materials, print ads).
  • Written media includes text (e.g., newspapers, magazines, books, blogs).
  • Students should recognize that media messages vary depending on the medium. A strictly auditory message is more dependent on sound than a visual message.  Each message uses a variety of techniques.

All students should

  • understand that all media messages are intentionally constructed to impact a specific audience
  • understand persuasive language and connotations convey viewpoint
  • understand that evidence is fact and a valid inference is the interpretation of fact
  • understand that the effectiveness of any media message is determined by the impact on the intended audience.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand that facts can be verified and opinions cannot.
  • distinguish fact from opinion.
  • identify the effect of persuasive messages on the audience.
  • notice use of persuasive language and connotations to convey viewpoint.
  • recognize that each medium creates meaning differently using visual or verbal techniques.  For example, a dissolving picture indicates the passing of  time, as do transitional words and phrases in verbal presentations.
  • analyze a media text considering what techniques have been used and their purpose.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • deconstruct and analyze the elements of a variety of media including layout, pictures, and text features in print media, and camera shots, lighting, editing and sound in TV, radio, and film.
  • recognize that production elements in media are composed based on audience and purpose to create specific effects.
  • identify persuasive techniques in the media including:
    • name calling or innuendo – creating a negative attitude; hinting or implying; using loaded, emotional, or slanted language;
    • glittering generalities or card stacking – telling only part of the truth; generalizing from a shred of evidence;
    • bandwagon – creating a desire to join a large group satisfied with the idea; making one feel left out if not with the crowd;
    • testimonials – using the declaration of a famous person or authoritative expert to give heightened credibility;
    • appeal to prestige, snobbery, or plain folks – using a spokesperson who appeals to the audience: a well-known or appealing person the audience wants to emulate, a person like the audience members with whom they can identify, a person whose lifestyle appeals to the audience; and
    • appeal to emotions – connecting with emotions:  loyalty, pity, or fear; love of family, peace, or justice.
  • recognize and identify opinions in the media.
  • recognize and identify facts in the media.
  • recognize that evidence is fact and a valid inference is the interpretation of fact.
  • recognize that the effectiveness of any media message is determined by the impact on the intended audience.  For example, the Don’t Drink and Drive campaign has been an effective campaign because the number of traffic accidents due to drunk driving has been reduced.
  • describe the effect on the audience of persuasive messages in the media.
  • identify effective word choice in the media.
  • identify and analyze a variety of viewpoints expressed in the media.
  • create and publish age-appropriate media messages, such as public service announcements aimed at a variety of audiences with different purposes;  include multimedia components in presentations to emphasize points.


To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • deconstruct and analyze the elements of a variety of media
  • identify elements of media literacy (e.g., authorship, format, audience, content, purpose)
    • Who created the message?
    • What techniques are used to attract attention?
    • How might different people react differently to this message?
    • What values, lifestyles and points of view are represented in, or omitted from, this message?
    • What is the purpose of this message?
  • recognize that production elements in media are composed based on audience and purpose to create specific effects
  • identify persuasive techniques in the media, including, but not limited to,
    • name calling or innuendo
    • glittering generalities
    • card stacking
    • bandwagon
    • testimonials
    • appeal to prestige, snobbery, or plain folks
    • appeal to emotions
  • analyze a media text message considering what techniques have been used and the purpose and impact of each
  • recognize and identify opinions in the media
  • recognize and identify facts in the media
  • analyze media messages for facts, opinions, persuasive message, word choice, and viewpoints
  • create and publish media messages, such as public service announcements, aimed at a variety of audiences with different purposes.

KEY VOCABULARY

Authorship; Format; Audience; Content; Purpose; Auditory media; Visual media; Written media; name calling or innuendo;  glittering generalities or card stacking; bandwagon; testimonials;  appeal to prestige, snobbery, or plain folks; appeal to emotions

Analyze

Appeal to emotion

Appeal to plain folks

Appeal to prestige

Appeal to snobbery

Card stacking

Connotation

Deconstruct 

Distinguish

Fact

Glittering generalities

Inference

Media literacy
Updated: May 31, 2018

Reading

The student will read to determine the meanings and pronunciations of unfamiliar words and phrases within authentic texts.

a)  Identify word origins and derivations.  

b)  Use roots, cognates, affixes, synonyms, and antonyms to expand vocabulary.  

c)  Identify and analyze figurative language.

d)  Identify connotations.

e)  Use context and sentence structure to determine meanings and differentiate among multiple meanings of words.

f)  Extend general and specialized vocabulary through speaking, listening, reading, and writing.


The student will read and determine the meanings of unfamiliar words and phrases within authentic texts.

a) Identify word origins and derivations.

b) Use roots, affixes, synonyms, and antonyms to expand vocabulary.

c) Identify and analyze the construction and impact of figurative language.

d) Identify connotations.

e) Use context and sentence structure to determine meanings and differentiate among multiple meanings of words.

f) Use word-reference materials to determine meaning and etymology.

g) Extend general and cross-curricular vocabulary through speaking, listening, reading, and writing.


Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • Understanding word structures and origins and derivations helps to show relationships among words. (7.4a, b and 7.4a, b)
  • Many words are like Legos; they can be pulled apart and reassembled with other parts to make new words. (7.4b and 7.4b)
  • Many words have multiple meanings, and understanding the context can help determine which meaning is appropriate. (7.4e and 7.4e)
  • Understanding words parts helps readers decode and understand the meanings of words more quickly and accurately. (7.4b and 7.4b)
  • Synonyms and antonyms can make meaning more precise when words are chosen not only for their denotative meanings but for their connotative meanings as well. (7.4d and 7.4d)
  • Figurative language is used by authors in part to make unfamiliar objects, settings, and situations more relatable to readers. (7.4c and 7.4c)
  • Most professions and areas of study have specialized vocabularies that are specific to them. (7.4f and 7.4g)
  • Connotations are the suggested meanings of words, including associations and emotional implications. (7.4d and 7.4d)
  • Connotations can influence mood or tone through the positive, negative, or neutral emotions they evoke. (7.4d and 7.4d)
  • Word reference materials, including dictionaries and thesauruses, can help clarify the meanings, origins, and parts of speech of words. (7.4f)

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will become independent learners of vocabulary by choosing from a variety of strategies to determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words.
  • Students come to understand affixes, including prefixes and suffixes, roots, derivations, and inflections of polysyllabic words and understand that words with similar parts may be related to each other in meaning and origin.
  • Teachers should use a study of cognates, words from the same linguistic family, to enhance vocabulary instruction.  Cognates can occur within the same language or across languages, e.g., night (English), nuit (French), Nacht (German), nacht (Dutch), nicht (Scots), natt (Swedish, Norwegian), nat (Danish), raat (Urdu), nátt (Faroese), nótt (Icelandic), noc (Czech, Slovak, Polish).
  • Students will continue the study of figurative language and use context to help determine the meaning of words.
  • Students will begin to notice connotations of words and use reference books and context to determine the nuances of connotative language.

All students should

  • recognize that figurative language enriches text
  • understand that affixes and Greek and Latin roots are clues to determine meanings of words
  • understand that words have nuances of meaning, including figurative, connotative, and technical that help to determine the appropriate meaning.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • use word structure to analyze and find relationships among words.
  • recognize that figurative language and analogy enrich text.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • use common Greek or Latin affixes and roots to predict the meaning of unfamiliar words and make connections with word families (e.g. –phobia, and –ology).
  • separate and recombine known word parts to predict the meaning of unfamiliar words, such as separating dent from dentist and fric from friction to predict the meaning of dentifrice.
  • use synonyms and antonyms to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words.
  • use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonym/antonym, cause/effect, degree, etc.) to better understand words.
  • recognize that words have nuances of meaning (figurative, connotative, and technical), which help determine the appropriate meaning.
  • recognize, understand, and use  figurative language including:
    • simile – figure of speech that uses the words like or as to make comparisons;
    • metaphor – figure of speech that makes a comparison equating two or more unlike things.
    • personification – figure of speech that applies human characteristics to nonhuman objects; and
    • hyperbole – intentionally exaggerated figure of speech.
  • distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., refined, respectful, polite, diplomatic, condescending), recognizing that some words have technical meanings based on context such as stern.
  • recognize that synonyms may have connotations (e.g., elderly and mature; youthful and juvenile).
  • use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • consult word reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital to find the pronunciation of a word or determine/clarify meanings.


To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • use common Greek or Latin affixes and roots to predict the meaning of unfamiliar words
  • separate and recombine known word parts to predict the meaning of unfamiliar words
  • recognize, understand, use, and explain the impact of figurative language, including
    • simile
    • metaphor
    • personification
  • distinguish among the connotations of words with similar denotations
  • recognize that synonyms may have different connotations (e.g., elderly and mature; youthful and juvenile, inexpensive and cheap)
  • use context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase
  • consult word reference materials to find the pronunciation of a word or determine/clarify meanings.

KEY VOCABULARY

Affix; prefix; suffix; root; derivative; simile; metaphor; personification; hyperbole; connotation; denotation; dictionaries; glossaries; thesauruses

Affixes
Updated: May 31, 2018

The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of fictional texts, narrative nonfiction, and poetry.

a)  Describe the elements of narrative structure including setting, character development, plot structure, theme, and conflict.

b)  Compare and contrast various forms and genres of fictional text. 

c)  Identify conventional elements and characteristics of a variety of genres.    

d)  Describe the impact of word choice, imagery, and literary devices including figurative language. 

e)  Make, confirm, and revise predictions. 

f)  Use prior and background knowledge as a context for new learning. 

g)  Make inferences and draw conclusions based on the text. 

h)  Identify the main idea.

i)  Summarize text relating supporting details.

j)  Identify the author’s organizational pattern.

k)  Identify cause and effect relationships.

l)  Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.


The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of fictional texts, literary nonfiction, poetry, and drama.

a) Describe the elements of narrative structure including setting, character development, plot, theme, and conflict and how they influence each other.
b) Identify and explain theme(s).
c) Identify cause-and-effect relationships and their impact on plot.
d) Differentiate between first and third person point of view.
e) Identify elements and characteristics of a variety of genres.
f) Compare and contrast various forms and  genres of fictional texts.
g) Describe the impact of word choice, imagery, and literary devices, including figurative language, in an author’s style.
h) Compare/contrast details in literary and informational nonfiction texts.
i) Make inferences and draw conclusions based on the text.
j) Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.

Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • Settings provide the underlying foundation or backdrop of a story and thus given a deeper meaning to the story as a whole. (7.5a and 7.5a)
  • Authors sometimes use characters to symbolize qualities such as courage, malice, or love, so it is important to analyze characters to fully understand a story and its theme. (7.5a and 7.5a)
  • A reader's feelings about a story's characters influence how the plot in a story impacts the reader. (7.5a and 7.5a)
  • Themes make revelations that are often stated as generalizations. (7.5a and 7.5a)
  • Beyond the surface level of events, authors write stories to convey a larger meaning or theme.  If a reader can't identify a theme they are missing the overall point of the story. (7.5a and 7.5a)
  • Because plots are interconnected series of events, every event has a specific purpose.  When all events are put together they establish connections, suggests causes, and show relationships. (7.5 a and 7.5a)
  • Predictions allow readers to connect prior knowledge to a text. (7.5e)
  • The struggle and growth surrounding conflict are the main infrastructure of fiction.  The main character(s) in a story has to struggle and make choices to change. (7.5a and 7.5a)
  • Identifying the main idea is a prerequisite for being able to summarize a passage. (7.5h)
  • The main idea is a writer's focus, so it is the glue that holds all of the details of a passage together. (7.5h)
  • Text structure is the overall organizational pattern of text, and transitional words link ideas in that structure smoothly and logically so the paragraphs have coherence. (7.5j)
  • Genres in literature have defined forms, values, conventions and expectations.  Authors can create a variety of effects by sticking to or breaking away from these forms, values, conventions, or expectations. (7.5c and 7.5e)
  • Genres give authors structure on which to build text. (7.5c and 7.5e)
  • Genres in literature have defined forms, values, conventions and expectations.  Authors can create a variety of effects by sticking to or breaking away from these forms, values, conventions, or expectations. (7.5b and 7.5f)
  • Genres give authors structure on which to build text. (7.5b and 7.5f)
  • Word choice, including attention to connotation as well as the use of figurative language, impacts the tone, imagery, voice, and mood of text. (7.5d and 7.5g)
  • Because the world is experienced using our five senses, by using imagery authors create more realistic and vivid experiences for readers. (7.5d and 7.5g)
  • Figurative language allows writers to communicate more effectively ideas that aren't easily understood because they are complex or abstract.  By comparing the more abstract or complex idea to a second one, it makes the first idea easier to comprehend. (7.5d and 7.5g)
  • Being able to summarize allows one to discern the most important ideas and ignore irrelevant information. (7.5i)
  • The degree to which a reader will comprehend and/or support the main idea or theme of a text will depend on the details that used to support the main idea or theme. (7.5i)
  • Cause and effect move the action in a plot forward. (7.5k and 7.5c)
  • Comprehension increases when readers recognize the relationships between what happens in a story (the events) and why they happened (the causes). (7.5k and 7.5c)
  • Sometimes multiple causes can contribute to a single event and sometimes multiple effects can come from a single cause. (7.5k and 7.5c)
  • Things happen for a reason: there is a cause for every event. (7.5k and 7.5c)
  • Making inferences is like being a detective.  Readers must use their prior knowledge to find the meanings behind what is written in a passage. (7.5g and 7.5i)
  • Rather than being explicit, writers sometimes imply a main idea or theme, and it is up to the reader to figure out the main idea or theme by inferencing and drawing conclusions. (7.5g and 7.5i)
  • A theme is the central idea of a story and reflects the writer's philosophies or observations about the human condition.  A writer develops a story in a manner to best convey the theme. (7.5b)
  • Details included in literary nonficition and informational nonfiction may be the same factually but are presented in different formats and styles. (7.5h)
  • Reading strategies are deliberate mental actions that allow readers to better comprehend and remember textual information. (7.5l and 7.5j)
  • Understanding the point of view from which a story is told helps a reader better understand the perspectives and potential biases of the narrator. (6.5d)
  • Prior knowledge provides a framework that allows good readers to make sense of what they're reading by putting it within the context of what they already know. (7.5f)


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will begin to analyze text including fiction, narrative nonfiction, and poetry.
  • Students will understand the interrelationship of setting, plot, theme, style, and form and recognize how an author’s craft makes an impact on readers.
  • Students will compare and contrast narrative and poetic forms and recognize poetic devices in prose and poetry.
  • Students will read at and beyond the literal level, including making inferences – making judgments or drawing conclusions based on what an author has implied.
  • The initiating event is the incident that introduces the central conflict in a story; it may have occurred before the opening of the story.
  • Voice shows an author’s personality, awareness of audience, and passion for his or her subject. It adds liveliness and energy to writing.
  • Mood refers to the emotional atmosphere produced by an author’s use of language.
  • Tone refers to an attitude a writer takes toward a subject.
  • Students will understand how authors use keywords and images to craft a message and establish tone.
  • Teachers will model higher-order thinking processes with materials at the students’ instructional reading level and move students gradually to collaborative and independent comprehension of age-appropriate materials at the independent reading level.
  • Students will use a variety of reading strategies such as text annotation, QAR (Question-Answer Relationship), thinking aloud, etc.

All students should

  • understand that the author uses images to craft a message and create characters
  • understand that literary nonfiction includes biography, autobiography, and personal essay
  • understand that poetry can be rhymed, unrhymed, and/or patterned
  • recognize an author’s craft as the purposeful choice of vocabulary, sentence formation, voice, and tone

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • recognize that authors make deliberate choices to create literary works.
  • understand that language has an impact on readers.
  • make inferences and draw conclusions based on information supplied by an author combined with the reader’s own background knowledge.
  • use strategies and graphic organizers to summarize and analyze text.
  • analyze how a text makes connections among and distinctions between individuals, ideas, or events (e.g., through comparisons or categories).

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • recognize the elements of narrative structure including:
    • setting – time, place, and duration;
    • character(s);
    • external conflicts, such as
      • individual vs. individual
      • individual vs. nature
      • individual vs. society
      • individual vs. supernatural
      • individual vs. technology
    • internal conflict – individual vs. self;
    • plot – development of the central conflict, including
      • initiating event
      • rising action
      • climax
      • falling action
      • resolution
    • theme.
  • distinguish between narrative prose and poetic forms, including:
    • haiku – a 17-syllable, delicate, unrhymed Japanese verse, usually about nature;
    • limerick – a 5-line, rhymed, rhythmic verse, usually humorous;
    • ballad – a songlike narrative poem, usually featuring rhyme, rhythm, and refrain;
    • free verse – poetry with neither regular meter nor rhyme scheme
    • couplet – a pair of rhyming lines; and
    • quatrain – a stanza containing four lines.
  • read, understand, and compare/contrast the characteristics and narrative structures of:
    • short stories;
    • novels (including historical fiction);
    • folk literature;
      • tales
      • myths
      • legends
      • fables
    • plays; and
    • narrative nonfiction (including personal essays, biographies, and autobiographies).
  • use graphic organizers to record important details for summarizing and drawing conclusions.
  • identify characterization as the way an author presents a character and reveals character traits by:
    • what a character says;
    • what a character thinks;
    • what a character does; and
    • how other characters respond to the character.
  • determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text.
  • analyze an author’s choice and use of literary devices,  including:
    • foreshadowing – the use of clues to hint at coming events in a story; and
    • irony – the contrast between expectation and reality; between what is said and what is meant; between what appears to be true and what really is true.
  • analyze elements of an author’s style, including:
    • word choice;
    • sentence structure and language patterns;
    • imagery – the use of words to create sensory impressions — most often visual impressions but may be sound, smell, taste, or touch impressions;
    • contrasting points of view; and
    • figurative language – text enriched by word images and figures of speech.
  • define an author’s tone including, but not limited to:  serious, sarcastic, objective, humorous, disapproving, solemn, enthusiastic, and hostile.
  • recognize and analyze the impact of an author’s choice of poetic devices, including:
    • rhyme – recurring identical or similar final word sounds within or at the ends of lines of verse;
    • rhythm – the recurring pattern of strong and weak syllabic stresses;
    • meter – a fixed pattern of accented and unaccented syllables in lines of fixed length to create rhythm;
    • repetition – repeated use of sounds, words, or ideas for effect and emphasis;
    • alliteration – repetition of initial sounds, e.g., picked a peck of pickled peppers; and
    • onomatopoeia – the use of a word whose sound suggests its meaning, e.g., clatter.
  • explain how poetic devices of form, rhyme, rhythm, repetition, line structure, and punctuation convey the mood and meaning of a poem.
  • make predictions before, during, and after reading texts.
  • connect to prior knowledge of a subject.
  • visualize, and question a text while reading.
  • draw inferences.
  • synthesize information. 

To be successful with this standard, the students are expected to

  • recognize the elements of narrative structure including
    • setting
    • character(s) (e.g., protagonist and antagonist)
      • external conflicts
        • individual vs. individual
        • individual vs. nature
        • individual vs. society
        • individual vs. supernatural
        • individual vs. technology
      • internal conflict (i.e., individual vs. self)
    • plot – development of the central conflict, including
      • initiating event
      • rising action
      • climax
      • falling action
      • resolution
    • theme
  • identify and distinguish between first and third person point of view
  • distinguish between narrative prose and poetic forms, including
    • haiku
    • limerick
    • ballad
    • free verse
    • couplet
    • quatrain
  • differentiate between a variety of fictional genres, including short story, novel, and drama
  • identify characterization as the way an author presents a character and reveals character traits by
    • what a character says
    • what a character thinks
    • what a character does
    • how other characters respond to the character
  • determine the theme(s) of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text
  • provide an objective summary of the text
  • analyze an author’s choice and use of literary devices, including
    • foreshadowing
    • irony
  • analyze elements of an author’s style, including
    • word choice to develop tone
    • sentence structure
    • imagery
    • contrasting points of view 
    • figurative language
  • recognize and analyze the impact of an author’s choice of sound devices, including
    • rhyme
    • rhythm
    • repetition
    • alliteration
    • onomatopoeia
  • compare and contrast two or more texts on the same topic or with similar themes
  • use evidence from the text(s) for support when drawing conclusions or making inferences
  • analyze how an individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, and elaborated in a text (e.g., through examples or anecdotes)
  • demonstrate comprehension and apply strategies to write about what is read.

KEY VOCABULARY

Making inferences; initiating event; voice; mood; tone; narrative structure (setting; character(s); external conflicts; internal conflict; plot; theme); external conflict  (individual vs. individual; individual vs. nature; individual vs. society; individual vs. supernatural; individual vs. technology ); internal conflict (individual vs. self); plot development of the central conflict (initiating event; rising action; climax; falling action; resolution); haiku;  limerick;  ballad; free verse; couplet; quatrain; short story; novel (historical fiction); folk literature (tales; myths; legends; fables); plays; narrative nonfiction (personal essays; biographies; autobiographies; characterization (direct and indirect); theme/central idea; foreshadowing; irony; author’s tone; rhyme; rhythm;  meter; repetition;  alliteration; onomatopoeia

Alliteration

Anecdote
Updated: Mar 24, 2019

The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of nonfiction texts.

a)  Use prior and background knowledge as a context for new learning. 

b)  Use text structures to aid comprehension. 

c)  Identify an author’s organizational pattern using textual clues, such as transitional words and phrases.

d)  Draw conclusions and make inferences on explicit and implied information.

e)  Differentiate between fact and opinion. 

f)  Identify the source, viewpoint, and purpose of texts. 

g)  Describe how word choice and language structure convey an author’s viewpoint.  

h)  Identify the main idea.

i)  Summarize text identifying supporting details.

j)  Identify cause and effect relationships.

k)  Organize and synthesize information for use in written formats.

l)  Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.


The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of nonfiction texts.

a) Skim materials using text features including type, headings, and graphics to predict and categorize information.

b) Identify an author’s organization pattern using textual clues, such as transitional words and phrases.

c) Make inferences and draw logical conclusions using explicit and implied textual evidence.

d) Differentiate between fact and opinion.

e) Identify the source, viewpoint, and purpose of texts.

f) Describe how word choice and language structure convey an author’s viewpoint.

g) Identify the main idea.

h) Summarize text identifying supporting details.

i) Create an objective summary, including main idea and supporting details.

j) Identify cause-and-effect relationships.

k) Organize and synthesize information for use in written and other formats.

l) Analyze ideas within and between selections providing textual evidence.

m) Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.


Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • Text structure is the overall organizational pattern of text; it provides a path to aid comprehension because authors use these structures to arrange and connect ideas. (7.6b and 7.6a)
  • Recognizing text structure aids reading comprehension by providing a scaffold for the text. (7.6b and 7.6a)
  • Viewpoint and purpose affect how authors shape and develop ideas.  It drives the information they include, the structure for writing they choose, and their word choices. (7.6g and 7.6f)
  • The denotative and connotative meanings of words impact the meaning and emotional effect of text. (7.6g and 7.6f)
  • Synthesis allows a writer to gather information from various texts and reorganize and present that information in a way that supports a specific topic or thesis statement. (7.6k and 7.6k)
  • Comparing and contrasting ideas found in multiple sources allows one to identify conflicting and consistent information and thus evaluate the validity of information. (7.6k and 7.6k)
  • Comparing and contrasting viewpoints gives one a more comprehensive view of a topic. (7.6f, k and 7.6e, k)
  • Reading comprehension increases when readers recognize the relationships between what happens (the effects) and why things happen (the causes). (7.6j and 7.6j)
  • Sometimes multiple causes can contribute to a single event and sometimes multiple effects can come from a single cause. (7.6j and 7.6j)
  • Things happen for a reason: there is a cause for every effect. (7.6j and 7.6j)
  • Being able to summarize allows one to discern the most important details and ignore irrelevant information. (7.6i and 7.6h, i)
  • The degree to which a reader will comprehend and/or support the main idea or proposition of a passage will depend on the details that are used to support the main idea or proposition. (7.6i and 7.6h, i)
  • Knowing the difference between fact and opinion helps readers evaluate the reliability and usefulness of text. (7.6e and 7.6d)
  • Differentiating between facts and opinions helps readers determine what is to be believed and what is just someone's perspective.(7.6e and 7.6d)
  • Making inferences is like being a detective.  Readers must use their prior knowledge to find the meanings behind what is written in a passage. (7.6d and 7.6c)
  • Rather than being explicit, writers sometimes imply a main idea or theme, and it is up to the reader to figure out the main idea or theme by inferencing and drawing conclusions. (7.6d and 7.6c)
  • Knowing the purpose for a text helps readers evaluate the validity of the text. (7.6f and 7.6e)
  • Understanding the qualifications of a writer, helps a reader evaluate the validity and usefulness of a text. (7.6f and 7.6e)
  • Viewpoint and purpose affect how an author shapes and develops ideas.  It drives the information that is included and word choices.  Viewing the topic through the author's eyes aids the reader in evaluating a text. (7.6f and 7.6e)
  • Recognizing text structure provides a scaffold for comprehension, and transitional words and phrases link the ideas within that structure smoothly and logically so that the text has coherence. (7.6c and 7.6b)
  • Properly skimming a text allows a reader to quickly grasp the main idea and most important points. (7.6a)
  • Summarizing demonstrates one's ability to identify the most important ideas in a text, distinguish relevant from irrelevant details, and integrate ideas in a meaningful way. (7.6i and 7.6h, i)
  • Signal words help readers identify a text's organizational pattern, which in turn clues readers into the purpose of the texts as well as assist them in understanding the text more thoroughly. (7.6c and 7.6b)
  • Reading strategies are deliberate mental actions that allow readers to better comprehend and remember textual information. (7.6l and 7.6m)
  • Skimming allows readers to rapidly look at a text for the general idea of the piece, and it is often paired with scanning, that involved rapidly looking at a piece for specific information. When there is a lot of reading to be done, skimming and scanning allow a reader to access information quickly without becoming fatigued. (7.6a)
  • Determining the veracity and significance of information often involves analyzing information within and between texts. (7.6l)
  • Background and prior knowledge provide the connections that allow readers to not only comprehend better but to also formulate better conclusions. (7.6a)
  • To be able to effectively summarize a text, one must be able to identify the main idea. (7.6h and 7.6g)
  • UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    • The intent of this standard is that students will read and comprehend at and beyond the literal level in a variety of nonfiction texts.
    • Students will use and understand the internal and external text structures common to textbooks and other nonfiction text.
    • An author’s viewpoint refers to his or her bias or subjectivity toward the subject. In general, a viewpoint can be positive or negative.
    • Teachers will model the higher-order thinking processes with materials at the students’ instructional reading level and move students gradually to collaborative and independent comprehension of age-appropriate materials at the independent reading level.
    • Students will work collaboratively and with teacher support to move toward higher-order thinking with instructional level materials.
    • Synthesis involves higher-order thinking and is a result of forming either a concrete or abstract whole from the logical relation of parts.
    • Students will use a variety of reading strategies  such as text annotation, QAR (Question-Answer Relationship), thinking aloud, etc.


    All students should

    • understand that an author’s use of connotations and persuasive language conveys viewpoint
    • understand that an author’s patterns of organization can aid comprehension
    • understand an author’s viewpoint refers to a bias or subjectivity toward the subject; a viewpoint can be positive or negative
    • understand that text features are created purposefully and are an aid to comprehension
    • understand that there are strategies, including context, structural analysis, and reference sources, for determining the meaning of unfamiliar and technical vocabulary
    • understand that skilled readers of nonfictional texts apply different reading strategies.


    ESSENTIALS

    All students should

    • use the reading process to activate prior knowledge, predict, question, clarify, infer, organize, compare, summarize, and synthesize.
    • choose graphic organizers based on the internal text structure most prevalent in the text in order to track key points and summarize the text.
    • recognize an author’s purpose:
      • to entertain;
      • to inform; and
      • to persuade.
    • notice use of connotations and persuasive language to convey viewpoint.
    • make inferences, which imply meaning, and draw conclusions based on both explicit and implied information.
    • distinguish between a fact, which can be verified, and an opinion, which cannot.

    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • activate prior knowledge before reading by use of, but not limited to:
      • small-group or whole-class discussion;
      • anticipation guides; and
      • preview of key vocabulary.
    • use textual features to make predictions and enhance comprehension, including:
      • boldface and/or italics type;
      • type set in color;
      • underlining;
      • indentation;
      • sidebars;
      • illustrations, graphics, and photographs;
      • headings and subheadings; and
      • footnotes and annotations.
    • recognize organizational pattern to enhance comprehension, including:
      • cause and effect;
      • comparison/contrast;
      • enumeration or listing;
      • sequential or chronological;
      • concept/definition;
      • generalization; and
      • process.
    • recognize transitional words and phrases authors use to signal organizational patterns, including, but not limited to:
      • as a result of, consequently for cause and effect;
      • similarly, on the other hand for comparison/contrast;
      • first, three for enumeration or listing;
      • today, meanwhile for sequential or chronological;
      • refers to, thus for concept/definition;
      • always, in fact for generalization; and
      • begins with, in order to for process.
    • determine two or more central ideas in a text and analyze their development over the course of the text.
    • provide an objective summary of the text by recording the development of the central ideas.
    • analyze how two or more authors writing about the same topic shape their presentations or viewpoints of key information using facts, opinions, and reasoning. 

    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • use text features to make predictions and enhance comprehension, including, but not limited to,
      • boldface and/or italics type
      • type set in color
      • underlining
      • indentation
      • sidebars
      • illustrations, graphics, and photographs
      • headings and subheadings
      • footnotes and annotations
    • recognize organizational pattern to enhance comprehension, including
      • cause and effect
      • comparison/contrast
      • enumeration or listing
      • sequential or chronological
      • concept/definition
      • generalization
      • process
      • problem/solution
    • recognize transitional words and phrases authors use to signal organizational patterns,
    • determine the central ideas in a text and analyze its development over the course of the text
    • provide an objective summary of texts
    • analyze how different authors write about the same topic and shape their presentations or viewpoints of key information using facts, opinions, and reasoning
    • demonstrate comprehension and apply strategies to write about what is read.

    KEY VOCABULARY

    Synthesis; text features/text structures (boldface and/or italics type; type set in color; underlining; indentation; sidebars; illustrations; graphics; photographs; headings and subheadings; footnotes and annotations); text structures/organizational patterns (cause and effect; comparison/contrast; enumeration or listing; sequential or chronological; concept/definition; generalization; process); Fact vs. opinion

    Analyze

    Annotation

    Bias

    Boldface
    Updated: Mar 24, 2019

    Research

    The student will apply knowledge of appropriate reference materials to produce a research product.

    d)  Cite primary and secondary sources.

    e)  Define the meaning and consequences of plagiarism and follow ethical and legal guidelines for gathering and using information.


    The student will find, evaluate, and select appropriate resources to create a research product.

    d) Quote, summarize, and paraphrase information from primary and secondary sources using proper citations.

    e) Avoid plagiarism by using own words and follow ethical and legal guidelines for gathering and using information.

    f) Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet.


    Adopted: 2017

    BIG IDEAS

    • Plagiarism deprives the original author of due credit for his or her work; it is a form of intellectual theft. (7.9e and 7.9e)
    • It is important to properly cite the words and ideas of others. (7.9e and 7.9e)
    • Using the Internet ethically involves avoiding stealing (plagiarism), avoiding untruthfulness, and avoiding cruelty. (7.9f)
    • The incorporation of research findings into text helps writers accomplish their purposes, but those findings should be paraphrased or summarized when possible and quoted directly when necessary.  Regardless of how the findings are presented, they should be properly cited. (7.9d and 7.9d)

    UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    • The intent of this standard is that students will use both print and electronic sources to find, read, and organize information for presentations and papers.
    • Students will synthesize information from a variety of sources and will document sources, using a standard format.
    • Students will realize in order to avoid plagiarism, credit must be given when using: another person’s idea, opinion, or theory; facts, statistics, graphs, drawings, etc. , quotations of another person’s actual spoken or written words; or paraphrase of another person’s spoken or written words.
    • Teachers should assist students in determining the authenticity and validity of sources.
    • Teachers should make students aware of possible consequences of plagiarism.
    • Teachers will collaborate with library media specialists to assist students as the students learn to become independent with research.
    • Students will have the opportunity to practice writing over shorter time frames as well as for extended ones.

    All students should

    • understand that a primary source is an original document or a firsthand or eyewitness account of an event
    • a secondary source discusses information originally presented somewhere else (i.e., secondary sources provide analysis, interpretation, or evaluation of the original information)
    • understand to avoid plagiarism, credit must be given when using another person’s ideas, opinions, facts, statistics, or graphics
    • understand the purposeful and responsible use of the Internet
    • understand that there are consequences of plagiarism, according to the guidelines established by local school divisionsunderstand using multiple sources of information produces a more complete understanding of a topic.


    ESSENTIALS

    All students should

    • understand that research tools are available in school media centers and libraries.
    • understand that a primary source is an original document or a firsthand or eyewitness account of an event.
    • understand that a secondary source  discusses information originally presented somewhere else. Secondary sources provide analysis, interpretation, or evaluation of the original information.

    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • use available resource tools, including:
      • educational online resources;
      • reference books;
      • scholarly journals;
      • magazines;
      • the Internet, as appropriate for school use; and
      • general and specialized (or subject-specific) databases.
    • organize and synthesize information with tools, including:
      • graphic organizers;
      • outlines;
      • spreadsheets;
      • databases; and
      • presentation software.
    • create a “Works Cited” page using MLA format for oral and written presentations.
    • differentiate between a primary and a secondary source.
    • gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources; assess the credibility and validity of each source;
    • prevent plagiarism and its consequences by giving credit to authors when ideas and/or words are used in direct quotation or paraphrases.
    • evaluate the validity and authenticity of texts, using questions, such as:
      • Does the source appear in a reputable publication?
      • Is the source free from bias? 
      • Does the writer have something to gain from his opinion?
      • Does the information contain facts for support?
      • Is the same information found in more than one source?
    • summarize and cite specific evidence from the text to support conclusions. 


    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • use available resource tools
    • organize and synthesize information found in a variety of sources
    • differentiate between a primary and a secondary source
    • gather relevant information from multiple sources; assess the credibility and validity of each source
    • prevent plagiarism and its consequences by giving credit to authors when ideas and/or words are used in direct quotation or paraphrases
    • avoid plagiarism and its consequences by giving credit whenever using another person’s media,  facts, statistics, graphics, images, music and sounds, quotations, or paraphrases of another person’s words
    • summarize and cite specific evidence from texts to support conclusions. 

    KEY VOCABULARY

    Updated: Jun 25, 2018