Reading - 2018-19

Unit 3

Communication:Speaking Listening, Media Literacy

The student will participate in and contribute to conversations, group discussions, and oral presentations.

a)  Communicate ideas and information orally in an organized and succinct manner.

b)  Ask probing questions to seek elaboration and clarification of ideas.

c)  Make statements to communicate agreement or tactful disagreement with others’ ideas.    

d)  Use language and style appropriate to audience, topic, and purpose.

e) Use a variety of strategies to listen actively.


The student will participate in and contribute to conversations, group discussions, and oral presentations.

a) Use a variety of strategies to listen actively and speak using agreed-upon discussion rules with awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues.

b) Clearly communicate ideas and information orally in an organized and succinct manner.

c) Ask probing questions to seek elaboration and clarification of ideas.

d) Participate in collaborative discussions with partners, building on others’ ideas.

e) Make statements to communicate agreement or tactful disagreement with others’ ideas.

f) Use language and style appropriate to audience, topic, and purpose.

g) Give formal and information presentations in a group or individually, providing evidence to support a main idea.

h) Work effectively and respectfully within diverse groups.

i) Exhibit willingness to make necessary compromises to accomplish a goal.

j) Share responsibility for collaborative work.

Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • Word choice contributes to a speaker's tone and enhances the purpose. (7.1d and 7.1f)
  • Selecting appropriate words helps increase the impact of a speaker on the audience. (7.1d and 7.1f)
  • Knowing the audience determines the content, language, and style of a presentation. (7.1a, d and 7.1e, f)
  • It is important to know how to use verbal and nonverbal communication when interacting with a group. (7.1c, e and 7.1a, d)
  • Formulating questions allows individuals to gather more information, work more effectively with teams, addresses challenges more proactively, and reflect more deeply. (7.1b and 7.1c)
  • Being a good listener is a way to show respect and understanding of another person's perspective. (7.1e and 7.1a)
  • Active listening involves not only paying attention to the words someone is saying but also trying to understand a person's complete message. (7.1e and 7.1a)
  • Respectful disagreement focuses on facts, doesn't get personal, recognizes positives, and uses "I" statements. (7.1c and 7.1e)
  • Effective oral communication includes fact, statistics, examples, logical reasoning, and personal opinions that are presented in a concise, organized manner. (7.1a and 7.1b)
  • Group norms for conduct help groups develop cohesiveness and allow for groups to function efficiently and effectively. (7.1a)
  • Formulating ideas as a group involves coming up with relevant ideas individually, listening to the ideas of others, and then building on the ideas generated by the group. (7.1d)

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will participate effectively in formal and informal classroom conversations and understand the requirements and uses of standard social conventions in conversations and presentations.
  • Students will express opinions forthrightly yet respectfully, demonstrating interest in and respect for the opinions of others.
  • Students will use grammatically correct language.
  • Teachers should model active listening strategies. 

All students should

  • participate effectively in group discussions and presentations
  • understand audience, topic, and purpose impact language and style
  • recognize that each member brings a unique viewpoint to the group
  • understand verbal and nonverbal feedback from the audience should be used to evaluate and adjust presentations.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand and demonstrate appropriate audience behavior.
  • prepare and deliver oral presentations.
  • participate effectively in group discussions and presentations.
  • show awareness of audience, topic, and purpose.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • contribute relevant ideas, opinions, and feelings in large and small diverse groups.
  • offer and seek summary statements of their own ideas and the ideas of others.
  • select vocabulary, tone, and style with audience and purpose in mind.
  • state points clearly and directly.
  • include multimedia in presentations.
  • maintain a focused discussion.
  • ask clarifying questions and respond appropriately to others’ questions in order to encourage discussion, foster understanding, and bring the discussion back to the topic when needed.
  • provide feedback to other group members, acknowledge new insights expressed by others, and when justified, modify their own views.
  • use a variety of strategies to actively listen, including:
    • give speaker undivided attention;
    • use body language and gestures to show they are listening;
    • provide feedback or paraphrase;
    • allow the speaker to finish without interruptions; and
    • respond appropriately.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • contribute relevant ideas, opinions, and feelings in large and small diverse groups
  • offer and seek summary statements of ideas
  • select vocabulary, tone, and style with audience and purpose in mind
  • state points clearly and directly
  • maintain a focused discussion
  • ask clarifying questions and respond appropriately to others’ questions to encourage discussion, foster understanding, and bring the discussion back to the topic when needed
  • provide feedback to other group members, acknowledge new insights expressed by others, and when justified, modify own views
  • engage others in conversations by posing and responding to questions in a group situation
  • exercise flexibility and willingness in making compromises to accomplish a common goal
  • use a variety of strategies to actively listen and show attentiveness, including
    • focusing attention to the speaker
    • providing appropriate feedback
    • allowing the speaker to finish without interruptions.

Updated: May 29, 2018

Reading

The student will read to determine the meanings and pronunciations of unfamiliar words and phrases within authentic texts.

a)  Identify word origins and derivations.  

b)  Use roots, cognates, affixes, synonyms, and antonyms to expand vocabulary.  

c)  Identify and analyze figurative language.

d)  Identify connotations.

e)  Use context and sentence structure to determine meanings and differentiate among multiple meanings of words.

f)  Extend general and specialized vocabulary through speaking, listening, reading, and writing.


The student will read and determine the meanings of unfamiliar words and phrases within authentic texts.

a) Identify word origins and derivations.

b) Use roots, affixes, synonyms, and antonyms to expand vocabulary.

c) Identify and analyze the construction and impact of figurative language.

d) Identify connotations.

e) Use context and sentence structure to determine meanings and differentiate among multiple meanings of words.

f) Use word-reference materials to determine meaning and etymology.

g) Extend general and cross-curricular vocabulary through speaking, listening, reading, and writing.


Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • Understanding word structures and origins and derivations helps to show relationships among words. (7.4a, b and 7.4a, b)
  • Many words are like Legos; they can be pulled apart and reassembled with other parts to make new words. (7.4b and 7.4b)
  • Many words have multiple meanings, and understanding the context can help determine which meaning is appropriate. (7.4e and 7.4e)
  • Understanding words parts helps readers decode and understand the meanings of words more quickly and accurately. (7.4b and 7.4b)
  • Synonyms and antonyms can make meaning more precise when words are chosen not only for their denotative meanings but for their connotative meanings as well. (7.4d and 7.4d)
  • Figurative language is used by authors in part to make unfamiliar objects, settings, and situations more relatable to readers. (7.4c and 7.4c)
  • Most professions and areas of study have specialized vocabularies that are specific to them. (7.4f and 7.4g)
  • Connotations are the suggested meanings of words, including associations and emotional implications. (7.4d and 7.4d)
  • Connotations can influence mood or tone through the positive, negative, or neutral emotions they evoke. (7.4d and 7.4d)
  • Word reference materials, including dictionaries and thesauruses, can help clarify the meanings, origins, and parts of speech of words. (7.4f)

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will become independent learners of vocabulary by choosing from a variety of strategies to determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words.
  • Students come to understand affixes, including prefixes and suffixes, roots, derivations, and inflections of polysyllabic words and understand that words with similar parts may be related to each other in meaning and origin.
  • Teachers should use a study of cognates, words from the same linguistic family, to enhance vocabulary instruction.  Cognates can occur within the same language or across languages, e.g., night (English), nuit (French), Nacht (German), nacht (Dutch), nicht (Scots), natt (Swedish, Norwegian), nat (Danish), raat (Urdu), nátt (Faroese), nótt (Icelandic), noc (Czech, Slovak, Polish).
  • Students will continue the study of figurative language and use context to help determine the meaning of words.
  • Students will begin to notice connotations of words and use reference books and context to determine the nuances of connotative language.

All students should

  • recognize that figurative language enriches text
  • understand that affixes and Greek and Latin roots are clues to determine meanings of words
  • understand that words have nuances of meaning, including figurative, connotative, and technical that help to determine the appropriate meaning.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • use word structure to analyze and find relationships among words.
  • recognize that figurative language and analogy enrich text.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • use common Greek or Latin affixes and roots to predict the meaning of unfamiliar words and make connections with word families (e.g. –phobia, and –ology).
  • separate and recombine known word parts to predict the meaning of unfamiliar words, such as separating dent from dentist and fric from friction to predict the meaning of dentifrice.
  • use synonyms and antonyms to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words.
  • use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonym/antonym, cause/effect, degree, etc.) to better understand words.
  • recognize that words have nuances of meaning (figurative, connotative, and technical), which help determine the appropriate meaning.
  • recognize, understand, and use  figurative language including:
    • simile – figure of speech that uses the words like or as to make comparisons;
    • metaphor – figure of speech that makes a comparison equating two or more unlike things.
    • personification – figure of speech that applies human characteristics to nonhuman objects; and
    • hyperbole – intentionally exaggerated figure of speech.
  • distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., refined, respectful, polite, diplomatic, condescending), recognizing that some words have technical meanings based on context such as stern.
  • recognize that synonyms may have connotations (e.g., elderly and mature; youthful and juvenile).
  • use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • consult word reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital to find the pronunciation of a word or determine/clarify meanings.


To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • use common Greek or Latin affixes and roots to predict the meaning of unfamiliar words
  • separate and recombine known word parts to predict the meaning of unfamiliar words
  • recognize, understand, use, and explain the impact of figurative language, including
    • simile
    • metaphor
    • personification
  • distinguish among the connotations of words with similar denotations
  • recognize that synonyms may have different connotations (e.g., elderly and mature; youthful and juvenile, inexpensive and cheap)
  • use context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase
  • consult word reference materials to find the pronunciation of a word or determine/clarify meanings.

KEY VOCABULARY

Affix; prefix; suffix; root; derivative; simile; metaphor; personification; hyperbole; connotation; denotation; dictionaries; glossaries; thesauruses

Affixes
Updated: May 31, 2018

The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of fictional texts, narrative nonfiction, and poetry.

a)  Describe the elements of narrative structure including setting, character development, plot structure, theme, and conflict.

b)  Compare and contrast various forms and genres of fictional text. 

c)  Identify conventional elements and characteristics of a variety of genres.    

d)  Describe the impact of word choice, imagery, and literary devices including figurative language. 

e)  Make, confirm, and revise predictions. 

f)  Use prior and background knowledge as a context for new learning. 

g)  Make inferences and draw conclusions based on the text. 

h)  Identify the main idea.

i)  Summarize text relating supporting details.

j)  Identify the author’s organizational pattern.

k)  Identify cause and effect relationships.

l)  Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.


The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of fictional texts, literary nonfiction, poetry, and drama.

a) Describe the elements of narrative structure including setting, character development, plot, theme, and conflict and how they influence each other.
b) Identify and explain theme(s).
c) Identify cause-and-effect relationships and their impact on plot.
d) Differentiate between first and third person point of view.
e) Identify elements and characteristics of a variety of genres.
f) Compare and contrast various forms and  genres of fictional texts.
g) Describe the impact of word choice, imagery, and literary devices, including figurative language, in an author’s style.
h) Compare/contrast details in literary and informational nonfiction texts.
i) Make inferences and draw conclusions based on the text.
j) Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.

Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • Settings provide the underlying foundation or backdrop of a story and thus given a deeper meaning to the story as a whole. (7.5a and 7.5a)
  • Authors sometimes use characters to symbolize qualities such as courage, malice, or love, so it is important to analyze characters to fully understand a story and its theme. (7.5a and 7.5a)
  • A reader's feelings about a story's characters influence how the plot in a story impacts the reader. (7.5a and 7.5a)
  • Themes make revelations that are often stated as generalizations. (7.5a and 7.5a)
  • Beyond the surface level of events, authors write stories to convey a larger meaning or theme.  If a reader can't identify a theme they are missing the overall point of the story. (7.5a and 7.5a)
  • Because plots are interconnected series of events, every event has a specific purpose.  When all events are put together they establish connections, suggests causes, and show relationships. (7.5 a and 7.5a)
  • Predictions allow readers to connect prior knowledge to a text. (7.5e)
  • The struggle and growth surrounding conflict are the main infrastructure of fiction.  The main character(s) in a story has to struggle and make choices to change. (7.5a and 7.5a)
  • Identifying the main idea is a prerequisite for being able to summarize a passage. (7.5h)
  • The main idea is a writer's focus, so it is the glue that holds all of the details of a passage together. (7.5h)
  • Text structure is the overall organizational pattern of text, and transitional words link ideas in that structure smoothly and logically so the paragraphs have coherence. (7.5j)
  • Genres in literature have defined forms, values, conventions and expectations.  Authors can create a variety of effects by sticking to or breaking away from these forms, values, conventions, or expectations. (7.5c and 7.5e)
  • Genres give authors structure on which to build text. (7.5c and 7.5e)
  • Genres in literature have defined forms, values, conventions and expectations.  Authors can create a variety of effects by sticking to or breaking away from these forms, values, conventions, or expectations. (7.5b and 7.5f)
  • Genres give authors structure on which to build text. (7.5b and 7.5f)
  • Word choice, including attention to connotation as well as the use of figurative language, impacts the tone, imagery, voice, and mood of text. (7.5d and 7.5g)
  • Because the world is experienced using our five senses, by using imagery authors create more realistic and vivid experiences for readers. (7.5d and 7.5g)
  • Figurative language allows writers to communicate more effectively ideas that aren't easily understood because they are complex or abstract.  By comparing the more abstract or complex idea to a second one, it makes the first idea easier to comprehend. (7.5d and 7.5g)
  • Being able to summarize allows one to discern the most important ideas and ignore irrelevant information. (7.5i)
  • The degree to which a reader will comprehend and/or support the main idea or theme of a text will depend on the details that used to support the main idea or theme. (7.5i)
  • Cause and effect move the action in a plot forward. (7.5k and 7.5c)
  • Comprehension increases when readers recognize the relationships between what happens in a story (the events) and why they happened (the causes). (7.5k and 7.5c)
  • Sometimes multiple causes can contribute to a single event and sometimes multiple effects can come from a single cause. (7.5k and 7.5c)
  • Things happen for a reason: there is a cause for every event. (7.5k and 7.5c)
  • Making inferences is like being a detective.  Readers must use their prior knowledge to find the meanings behind what is written in a passage. (7.5g and 7.5i)
  • Rather than being explicit, writers sometimes imply a main idea or theme, and it is up to the reader to figure out the main idea or theme by inferencing and drawing conclusions. (7.5g and 7.5i)
  • A theme is the central idea of a story and reflects the writer's philosophies or observations about the human condition.  A writer develops a story in a manner to best convey the theme. (7.5b)
  • Details included in literary nonficition and informational nonfiction may be the same factually but are presented in different formats and styles. (7.5h)
  • Reading strategies are deliberate mental actions that allow readers to better comprehend and remember textual information. (7.5l and 7.5j)
  • Understanding the point of view from which a story is told helps a reader better understand the perspectives and potential biases of the narrator. (6.5d)
  • Prior knowledge provides a framework that allows good readers to make sense of what they're reading by putting it within the context of what they already know. (7.5f)


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will begin to analyze text including fiction, narrative nonfiction, and poetry.
  • Students will understand the interrelationship of setting, plot, theme, style, and form and recognize how an author’s craft makes an impact on readers.
  • Students will compare and contrast narrative and poetic forms and recognize poetic devices in prose and poetry.
  • Students will read at and beyond the literal level, including making inferences – making judgments or drawing conclusions based on what an author has implied.
  • The initiating event is the incident that introduces the central conflict in a story; it may have occurred before the opening of the story.
  • Voice shows an author’s personality, awareness of audience, and passion for his or her subject. It adds liveliness and energy to writing.
  • Mood refers to the emotional atmosphere produced by an author’s use of language.
  • Tone refers to an attitude a writer takes toward a subject.
  • Students will understand how authors use keywords and images to craft a message and establish tone.
  • Teachers will model higher-order thinking processes with materials at the students’ instructional reading level and move students gradually to collaborative and independent comprehension of age-appropriate materials at the independent reading level.
  • Students will use a variety of reading strategies such as text annotation, QAR (Question-Answer Relationship), thinking aloud, etc.

All students should

  • understand that the author uses images to craft a message and create characters
  • understand that literary nonfiction includes biography, autobiography, and personal essay
  • understand that poetry can be rhymed, unrhymed, and/or patterned
  • recognize an author’s craft as the purposeful choice of vocabulary, sentence formation, voice, and tone

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • recognize that authors make deliberate choices to create literary works.
  • understand that language has an impact on readers.
  • make inferences and draw conclusions based on information supplied by an author combined with the reader’s own background knowledge.
  • use strategies and graphic organizers to summarize and analyze text.
  • analyze how a text makes connections among and distinctions between individuals, ideas, or events (e.g., through comparisons or categories).

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • recognize the elements of narrative structure including:
    • setting – time, place, and duration;
    • character(s);
    • external conflicts, such as
      • individual vs. individual
      • individual vs. nature
      • individual vs. society
      • individual vs. supernatural
      • individual vs. technology
    • internal conflict – individual vs. self;
    • plot – development of the central conflict, including
      • initiating event
      • rising action
      • climax
      • falling action
      • resolution
    • theme.
  • distinguish between narrative prose and poetic forms, including:
    • haiku – a 17-syllable, delicate, unrhymed Japanese verse, usually about nature;
    • limerick – a 5-line, rhymed, rhythmic verse, usually humorous;
    • ballad – a songlike narrative poem, usually featuring rhyme, rhythm, and refrain;
    • free verse – poetry with neither regular meter nor rhyme scheme
    • couplet – a pair of rhyming lines; and
    • quatrain – a stanza containing four lines.
  • read, understand, and compare/contrast the characteristics and narrative structures of:
    • short stories;
    • novels (including historical fiction);
    • folk literature;
      • tales
      • myths
      • legends
      • fables
    • plays; and
    • narrative nonfiction (including personal essays, biographies, and autobiographies).
  • use graphic organizers to record important details for summarizing and drawing conclusions.
  • identify characterization as the way an author presents a character and reveals character traits by:
    • what a character says;
    • what a character thinks;
    • what a character does; and
    • how other characters respond to the character.
  • determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text.
  • analyze an author’s choice and use of literary devices,  including:
    • foreshadowing – the use of clues to hint at coming events in a story; and
    • irony – the contrast between expectation and reality; between what is said and what is meant; between what appears to be true and what really is true.
  • analyze elements of an author’s style, including:
    • word choice;
    • sentence structure and language patterns;
    • imagery – the use of words to create sensory impressions — most often visual impressions but may be sound, smell, taste, or touch impressions;
    • contrasting points of view; and
    • figurative language – text enriched by word images and figures of speech.
  • define an author’s tone including, but not limited to:  serious, sarcastic, objective, humorous, disapproving, solemn, enthusiastic, and hostile.
  • recognize and analyze the impact of an author’s choice of poetic devices, including:
    • rhyme – recurring identical or similar final word sounds within or at the ends of lines of verse;
    • rhythm – the recurring pattern of strong and weak syllabic stresses;
    • meter – a fixed pattern of accented and unaccented syllables in lines of fixed length to create rhythm;
    • repetition – repeated use of sounds, words, or ideas for effect and emphasis;
    • alliteration – repetition of initial sounds, e.g., picked a peck of pickled peppers; and
    • onomatopoeia – the use of a word whose sound suggests its meaning, e.g., clatter.
  • explain how poetic devices of form, rhyme, rhythm, repetition, line structure, and punctuation convey the mood and meaning of a poem.
  • make predictions before, during, and after reading texts.
  • connect to prior knowledge of a subject.
  • visualize, and question a text while reading.
  • draw inferences.
  • synthesize information. 

To be successful with this standard, the students are expected to

  • recognize the elements of narrative structure including
    • setting
    • character(s) (e.g., protagonist and antagonist)
      • external conflicts
        • individual vs. individual
        • individual vs. nature
        • individual vs. society
        • individual vs. supernatural
        • individual vs. technology
      • internal conflict (i.e., individual vs. self)
    • plot – development of the central conflict, including
      • initiating event
      • rising action
      • climax
      • falling action
      • resolution
    • theme
  • identify and distinguish between first and third person point of view
  • distinguish between narrative prose and poetic forms, including
    • haiku
    • limerick
    • ballad
    • free verse
    • couplet
    • quatrain
  • differentiate between a variety of fictional genres, including short story, novel, and drama
  • identify characterization as the way an author presents a character and reveals character traits by
    • what a character says
    • what a character thinks
    • what a character does
    • how other characters respond to the character
  • determine the theme(s) of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text
  • provide an objective summary of the text
  • analyze an author’s choice and use of literary devices, including
    • foreshadowing
    • irony
  • analyze elements of an author’s style, including
    • word choice to develop tone
    • sentence structure
    • imagery
    • contrasting points of view 
    • figurative language
  • recognize and analyze the impact of an author’s choice of sound devices, including
    • rhyme
    • rhythm
    • repetition
    • alliteration
    • onomatopoeia
  • compare and contrast two or more texts on the same topic or with similar themes
  • use evidence from the text(s) for support when drawing conclusions or making inferences
  • analyze how an individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, and elaborated in a text (e.g., through examples or anecdotes)
  • demonstrate comprehension and apply strategies to write about what is read.

KEY VOCABULARY

Making inferences; initiating event; voice; mood; tone; narrative structure (setting; character(s); external conflicts; internal conflict; plot; theme); external conflict  (individual vs. individual; individual vs. nature; individual vs. society; individual vs. supernatural; individual vs. technology ); internal conflict (individual vs. self); plot development of the central conflict (initiating event; rising action; climax; falling action; resolution); haiku;  limerick;  ballad; free verse; couplet; quatrain; short story; novel (historical fiction); folk literature (tales; myths; legends; fables); plays; narrative nonfiction (personal essays; biographies; autobiographies; characterization (direct and indirect); theme/central idea; foreshadowing; irony; author’s tone; rhyme; rhythm;  meter; repetition;  alliteration; onomatopoeia

Alliteration

Anecdote
Updated: Mar 24, 2019

The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of nonfiction texts.

a)  Use prior and background knowledge as a context for new learning. 

b)  Use text structures to aid comprehension. 

c)  Identify an author’s organizational pattern using textual clues, such as transitional words and phrases.

d)  Draw conclusions and make inferences on explicit and implied information.

e)  Differentiate between fact and opinion. 

f)  Identify the source, viewpoint, and purpose of texts. 

g)  Describe how word choice and language structure convey an author’s viewpoint.  

h)  Identify the main idea.

i)  Summarize text identifying supporting details.

j)  Identify cause and effect relationships.

k)  Organize and synthesize information for use in written formats.

l)  Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.


The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of nonfiction texts.

a) Skim materials using text features including type, headings, and graphics to predict and categorize information.

b) Identify an author’s organization pattern using textual clues, such as transitional words and phrases.

c) Make inferences and draw logical conclusions using explicit and implied textual evidence.

d) Differentiate between fact and opinion.

e) Identify the source, viewpoint, and purpose of texts.

f) Describe how word choice and language structure convey an author’s viewpoint.

g) Identify the main idea.

h) Summarize text identifying supporting details.

i) Create an objective summary, including main idea and supporting details.

j) Identify cause-and-effect relationships.

k) Organize and synthesize information for use in written and other formats.

l) Analyze ideas within and between selections providing textual evidence.

m) Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.


Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • Text structure is the overall organizational pattern of text; it provides a path to aid comprehension because authors use these structures to arrange and connect ideas. (7.6b and 7.6a)
  • Recognizing text structure aids reading comprehension by providing a scaffold for the text. (7.6b and 7.6a)
  • Viewpoint and purpose affect how authors shape and develop ideas.  It drives the information they include, the structure for writing they choose, and their word choices. (7.6g and 7.6f)
  • The denotative and connotative meanings of words impact the meaning and emotional effect of text. (7.6g and 7.6f)
  • Synthesis allows a writer to gather information from various texts and reorganize and present that information in a way that supports a specific topic or thesis statement. (7.6k and 7.6k)
  • Comparing and contrasting ideas found in multiple sources allows one to identify conflicting and consistent information and thus evaluate the validity of information. (7.6k and 7.6k)
  • Comparing and contrasting viewpoints gives one a more comprehensive view of a topic. (7.6f, k and 7.6e, k)
  • Reading comprehension increases when readers recognize the relationships between what happens (the effects) and why things happen (the causes). (7.6j and 7.6j)
  • Sometimes multiple causes can contribute to a single event and sometimes multiple effects can come from a single cause. (7.6j and 7.6j)
  • Things happen for a reason: there is a cause for every effect. (7.6j and 7.6j)
  • Being able to summarize allows one to discern the most important details and ignore irrelevant information. (7.6i and 7.6h, i)
  • The degree to which a reader will comprehend and/or support the main idea or proposition of a passage will depend on the details that are used to support the main idea or proposition. (7.6i and 7.6h, i)
  • Knowing the difference between fact and opinion helps readers evaluate the reliability and usefulness of text. (7.6e and 7.6d)
  • Differentiating between facts and opinions helps readers determine what is to be believed and what is just someone's perspective.(7.6e and 7.6d)
  • Making inferences is like being a detective.  Readers must use their prior knowledge to find the meanings behind what is written in a passage. (7.6d and 7.6c)
  • Rather than being explicit, writers sometimes imply a main idea or theme, and it is up to the reader to figure out the main idea or theme by inferencing and drawing conclusions. (7.6d and 7.6c)
  • Knowing the purpose for a text helps readers evaluate the validity of the text. (7.6f and 7.6e)
  • Understanding the qualifications of a writer, helps a reader evaluate the validity and usefulness of a text. (7.6f and 7.6e)
  • Viewpoint and purpose affect how an author shapes and develops ideas.  It drives the information that is included and word choices.  Viewing the topic through the author's eyes aids the reader in evaluating a text. (7.6f and 7.6e)
  • Recognizing text structure provides a scaffold for comprehension, and transitional words and phrases link the ideas within that structure smoothly and logically so that the text has coherence. (7.6c and 7.6b)
  • Properly skimming a text allows a reader to quickly grasp the main idea and most important points. (7.6a)
  • Summarizing demonstrates one's ability to identify the most important ideas in a text, distinguish relevant from irrelevant details, and integrate ideas in a meaningful way. (7.6i and 7.6h, i)
  • Signal words help readers identify a text's organizational pattern, which in turn clues readers into the purpose of the texts as well as assist them in understanding the text more thoroughly. (7.6c and 7.6b)
  • Reading strategies are deliberate mental actions that allow readers to better comprehend and remember textual information. (7.6l and 7.6m)
  • Skimming allows readers to rapidly look at a text for the general idea of the piece, and it is often paired with scanning, that involved rapidly looking at a piece for specific information. When there is a lot of reading to be done, skimming and scanning allow a reader to access information quickly without becoming fatigued. (7.6a)
  • Determining the veracity and significance of information often involves analyzing information within and between texts. (7.6l)
  • Background and prior knowledge provide the connections that allow readers to not only comprehend better but to also formulate better conclusions. (7.6a)
  • To be able to effectively summarize a text, one must be able to identify the main idea. (7.6h and 7.6g)
  • UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    • The intent of this standard is that students will read and comprehend at and beyond the literal level in a variety of nonfiction texts.
    • Students will use and understand the internal and external text structures common to textbooks and other nonfiction text.
    • An author’s viewpoint refers to his or her bias or subjectivity toward the subject. In general, a viewpoint can be positive or negative.
    • Teachers will model the higher-order thinking processes with materials at the students’ instructional reading level and move students gradually to collaborative and independent comprehension of age-appropriate materials at the independent reading level.
    • Students will work collaboratively and with teacher support to move toward higher-order thinking with instructional level materials.
    • Synthesis involves higher-order thinking and is a result of forming either a concrete or abstract whole from the logical relation of parts.
    • Students will use a variety of reading strategies  such as text annotation, QAR (Question-Answer Relationship), thinking aloud, etc.


    All students should

    • understand that an author’s use of connotations and persuasive language conveys viewpoint
    • understand that an author’s patterns of organization can aid comprehension
    • understand an author’s viewpoint refers to a bias or subjectivity toward the subject; a viewpoint can be positive or negative
    • understand that text features are created purposefully and are an aid to comprehension
    • understand that there are strategies, including context, structural analysis, and reference sources, for determining the meaning of unfamiliar and technical vocabulary
    • understand that skilled readers of nonfictional texts apply different reading strategies.


    ESSENTIALS

    All students should

    • use the reading process to activate prior knowledge, predict, question, clarify, infer, organize, compare, summarize, and synthesize.
    • choose graphic organizers based on the internal text structure most prevalent in the text in order to track key points and summarize the text.
    • recognize an author’s purpose:
      • to entertain;
      • to inform; and
      • to persuade.
    • notice use of connotations and persuasive language to convey viewpoint.
    • make inferences, which imply meaning, and draw conclusions based on both explicit and implied information.
    • distinguish between a fact, which can be verified, and an opinion, which cannot.

    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • activate prior knowledge before reading by use of, but not limited to:
      • small-group or whole-class discussion;
      • anticipation guides; and
      • preview of key vocabulary.
    • use textual features to make predictions and enhance comprehension, including:
      • boldface and/or italics type;
      • type set in color;
      • underlining;
      • indentation;
      • sidebars;
      • illustrations, graphics, and photographs;
      • headings and subheadings; and
      • footnotes and annotations.
    • recognize organizational pattern to enhance comprehension, including:
      • cause and effect;
      • comparison/contrast;
      • enumeration or listing;
      • sequential or chronological;
      • concept/definition;
      • generalization; and
      • process.
    • recognize transitional words and phrases authors use to signal organizational patterns, including, but not limited to:
      • as a result of, consequently for cause and effect;
      • similarly, on the other hand for comparison/contrast;
      • first, three for enumeration or listing;
      • today, meanwhile for sequential or chronological;
      • refers to, thus for concept/definition;
      • always, in fact for generalization; and
      • begins with, in order to for process.
    • determine two or more central ideas in a text and analyze their development over the course of the text.
    • provide an objective summary of the text by recording the development of the central ideas.
    • analyze how two or more authors writing about the same topic shape their presentations or viewpoints of key information using facts, opinions, and reasoning. 

    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • use text features to make predictions and enhance comprehension, including, but not limited to,
      • boldface and/or italics type
      • type set in color
      • underlining
      • indentation
      • sidebars
      • illustrations, graphics, and photographs
      • headings and subheadings
      • footnotes and annotations
    • recognize organizational pattern to enhance comprehension, including
      • cause and effect
      • comparison/contrast
      • enumeration or listing
      • sequential or chronological
      • concept/definition
      • generalization
      • process
      • problem/solution
    • recognize transitional words and phrases authors use to signal organizational patterns,
    • determine the central ideas in a text and analyze its development over the course of the text
    • provide an objective summary of texts
    • analyze how different authors write about the same topic and shape their presentations or viewpoints of key information using facts, opinions, and reasoning
    • demonstrate comprehension and apply strategies to write about what is read.

    KEY VOCABULARY

    Synthesis; text features/text structures (boldface and/or italics type; type set in color; underlining; indentation; sidebars; illustrations; graphics; photographs; headings and subheadings; footnotes and annotations); text structures/organizational patterns (cause and effect; comparison/contrast; enumeration or listing; sequential or chronological; concept/definition; generalization; process); Fact vs. opinion

    Analyze

    Annotation

    Bias

    Boldface
    Updated: Mar 24, 2019

    Writing

    The student will write in a variety of forms with an emphasis on exposition, narration, and persuasion.

    h)  Expand and embed ideas by using modifiers, standard coordination, and subordination in complex sentences.

    i)  Use clauses and phrases for sentence variety.

    j)  Revise sentences for clarity of content including specific vocabulary and information.

    The student will write in a variety of forms to include narrative, expository, persuasive, and reflective, with an emphasis on expository and persuasive writing.

    j) Use transition words and phrases within and between paragraphs.

    l) Expand and imbed ideas by using modifiers, standard coordination, and subordination in complete sentences.l

    m) Use clauses and phrases for sentence variety.

    n) Revise writing for clarity of content including specific vocabulary and information.



    Adopted: 2017

    BIG IDEAS

    • Modifiers, such as adjectives and adverbs, are used to add emphasis, explanation, or detail to a particular word in sentences. (7.7h and 7.7l)
    • Modifiers make writing more descriptive and engaging. (7.7h and 7.7l)
    • Coordination and subordination allow authors to write more sophisticated text by combining words, phrases, and clauses into more complex forms. (7.7h and 7.7l)
    • Coordination allows two ideas of equal value to be joined. (7.7h and 7.7l)
    • Subordination joins two ideas in a way that makes one more important than the other. (7.7h and 7.7l)
    • Using modifies, coordination, and subordination allows authors to incorporate variety into their writing. (7.7h and 7.7l)
    • Editing is proofreading text to correct errors in grammar and mechanics, whereas revising involves improvements in logic, clarity, flow, organization, and quality of evidence. (7.7j and 7.7m)
    • Rewriting allows one to learn how to write better as well as improving reading and analytical skills. (7.7j and 7.7m)
    • Revision is the opportunity to step back and re-envision text.  An author thinks about the goal of an essay and whether or not that goal was successfully accomplished. (7.7j and 7.7m)
    • Writing that is infused with a variety of sentence structure, including phrases and clauses, is more engaging that writing that lacks variety. (7.7i and 7.7n)
    • Using different types of sentence structure can help a writer emphasize specific words and ideas. (7.7i and 7.7n)
    • Transition words and phrases not only show readers connections between ideas but also prevent awkward mental leaps between sentences and paragraphs. (7.7j)

    UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    • The intent of this standard is that students will become independent and proficient in composing a variety of types of writing.
    • Teachers will focus direct instruction on all three domains of writing:
      • composing – the structuring and elaborating a writer does to construct an effective message for readers;
      • written expression – those features that show the writer purposefully shaping and controlling language to affect readers; and
      • usage/mechanics – the features that cause written language to be acceptable and effective for standard discourse.
    • Students will gradually assume responsibility for revising, proofreading, and editing their own writing.
    • Elaboration can occur by using descriptive details and examples within a sentence to give detail and depth to an idea, or from paragraph to paragraph.
    • Voice shows an author’s personality, awareness of audience, and passion for his or her subject. It adds liveliness and energy to writing. Voice is the imprint of the writer — the capacity to elicit a response from the reader.
    • Tone expresses an author’s attitude toward the subject.
    • A writing process is nonlinear: returning to prewriting or drafting at any point in the process may help the writer clarify and elaborate the drafted piece.
    • Students should have practice writing on demand, for shorter time frames, and over  extended periods of time.

    All students should

    • understand that writing requires a recursive process that includes planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing
    • understand that effective writing includes elaboration
    • understand that effective writing has been improved through revision

    ESSENTIALS

    All students should

    • use a process for writing, including:
      • planning;
      • drafting;
      • revising;
      • proofreading;
      • editing; and
      • publishing.
    • understand that good writing includes elaboration.
    • recognize that a thesis statement is not an announcement of the subject, but rather a unified, and specific statement.
    • understand that good writing has been improved through revision.
    • understand and apply the elements of composing:
      • central idea;
      • elaboration;
      • unity; and
      • organization. 

    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • identify intended audience and purpose.
    • use a variety of prewriting strategies including:
      • brainstorming;
      • webbing;
      • mapping;
      • outlining;
      • clustering;
      • listing; and
      • using graphic organizers.
    • explain, analyze, or summarize a topic.
    • write an effective thesis statement focusing, limiting, or narrowing the topic.
    • differentiate between a thesis statement and a topic sentence.
    • choose an appropriate strategy for organizing ideas such as comparison/contrast, personal narrative, cause/effect, etc., and  provide transitions between ideas.
    • develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective techniques, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences when writing narratives.
    • organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
    • create multiparagraph compositions focusing on a central idea and using elaborating details, reasons, or examples as appropriate for audience and purpose.
    • include an appropriate introduction and satisfying conclusion.
    • sustain a formal style.
    • use written expression to draft and revise compositions with attention to:
      • voice;
      • tone;
      • selection of information;
      • embedded phrases and clauses that clarify meaning;
      • vivid and precise vocabulary;
      • figurative language; and
      • sentence variety.
    • recognize terms illustrative of tone, such as, but not limited to:
      • serious;
      • sarcastic;
      • objective;
      • enthusiastic;
      • solemn;
      • humorous;
      • hostile;
      • personal; and
      • impersonal.
    • apply revising procedures in peer and self-review, including:
      • rereading;
      • reflecting;
      • rethinking; and
      • rewriting.
    • vary sentence structure by using coordinating conjunctions: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so.
    • use subordinating conjunctions to form complex sentences:
      after, although, as, as if,  because, before, even if, even though, if, if only, rather than, since, that, though, unless, until, when, where, whereas, wherever, whether, which, and while.
    • incorporate variety into sentences using simple, compound, and compound-complex sentences, including, but not limited to:
      • coordination – joining words, phrases, clauses, or sentences by using appropriate coordinating conjunctions;
      • subordination – establishing the relationship between an independent and a dependent clause by using appropriate subordinate conjunctions; and
      • modifier– an adjective, an adverb, or a phrase or clause acting as an adjective or adverb.

    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • compose with attention to central idea, unity, elaboration, and organization
    • elaborate to give detail, add depth, and continue the development of an idea
    • analyze and use mentor texts as models for writing
    • explain, analyze, or summarize a topic
    • write an effective thesis statement that focuses on the topic and explains the writer’s position in an argument
    • choose an appropriate strategy for organizing ideas, such as comparison/contrast, cause and effect, etc., and provide transitions between ideas
    • write reflectively to explain and analyze a text, a presentation, an experience, a skill, or an event
    • recognize that three examples of reflective writing include
      • technical— – which includes what worked or did not work and reasons why, problem-solving techniques, and theories that were used or tested
      • collaborative— – which is centered on team dynamics, how everyone worked together and why, and what worked or did not work and why.
      • individual—focuses on questions such as, “What did I learn?” “How did I learn it?” and “What could I have done better?”
    • write persuasively, organizing reasons logically and effectively
    • create multiparagraph compositions focusing on a central idea and using elaborating details, reasons, or examples as appropriate for audience and purpose
    • include an appropriate introduction and conclusion
    • sustain a formal style when appropriate
    • use written expression to draft and revise compositions with attention to
      • voice
      • tone
      • selection of information
      • embedded phrases and clauses that clarify meaning
      • vivid and precise vocabulary
      • figurative language
      • sentence variety
    • apply revising procedures in peer and self-review, including
      • rereading
      • reflecting
      • rethinking
      • rewriting to clarify, elaborate, and make writing more precise
    • revise drafts for improvement using teacher assistance, peer collaboration, and growing independence
    • vary sentence structure by using coordinating conjunctions
    • use subordinating conjunctions to form complex sentences
    • incorporate variety into sentences using simple, compound, and compound-complex sentences, including, but not limited to, coordination, subordination, and modifier.

    KEY VOCABULARY

    composing; written expression;  usage/mechanics; voice; tone; thesis statement vs. topic sentence; modifier; coordination; subordination; unity; organization; revising procedures (rereading; reflecting; rethinking; rewriting); coordinating conjunctions; subordinating conjunctions; the specific tone descriptors; complex sentence; simply sentence; compound sentence; compound-complex sentence

    Analyze

    Cause and effect

    Clarify

    Clause

    Comparison and contrast

    Compound sentence

    Compound-complex sentence

    Coordinating conjunction

    Elaboration

    Embedded

    Expository

    Figurative language

    Mentor text

    Modifier
    Updated: Jun 13, 2018

    The student will edit writing for correct grammar, capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, and paragraphing.

    d)  Use subject-verb agreement with intervening phrases and clauses.

    g)  Use quotation marks with dialogue.

    h)  Use correct spelling for commonly used words.


    The student will self- and peer-edit writing for capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, paragraphing, and Standard English.

    c) Use subject-verb agreement with intervening phrases and clauses.

    e) Use quotation marks with dialogue and direct quotations.

    f) Use correct spelling for commonly used words.



    Adopted: 2017

    BIG IDEAS

    • Writers use quotation marks to clearly show which words in a passage are dialogue. (7.8g and 7.8e)
    • Proper spelling facilitates streamlined and effective communication. (7.8h and 7.8f)
    • Subject-verb agreement is important because without it a reader could become confused. (7.8d and 7.8c)
    • The subject-verb pair unifies a sentence.  It can be surrounded by modifiers, phrases, and clauses, but it will still be the basic unit of meaning. (7.8d and 7.8c)
    • Subjects and verbs need to agree in number since they are units that hold the overall meanings of sentences. (7.8d and 7.8c)

    UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    • The intent of this standard is that students will understand and apply all the conventions of language learned at the elementary school level with increasing independence.
    • Students will maintain correct use of language to enhance writing and to avoid confusing or distracting the reader.
    • Students will understand that the conventions of correct language are an integral part of the writing process.
    • A diagram of a sentence is a tool to increase understanding of its structure.

    All students should

    • understand that correct use of language enhances writing and avoids confusing or distracting the reader
    • understand that verbs must agree with subjects.


    ESSENTIALS

    All students should

    • proofread and edit drafts with teacher assistance, peer collaboration, and growing independence.
    • become independent in checking spelling, using dictionaries and/or electronic tools.
    • examine sentences to identify eight parts of speech with the intent of improving sentence structure and variety, including:
      • noun;
      • verb;
      • pronoun;
      • adjective;
      • adverb;
      • preposition;
      • conjunction; and
      • interjection.

    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • use complete sentences with appropriate punctuation, including the punctuation of dialogue.
    • use reference sources to select the correct spelling and usage of words.
    • maintain verb tense (present, past, future) throughout an entire piece of writing.
    • use quotation marks to represent the exact language (either spoken or written) of another.
    • choose adjectives and adverbs appropriately.

    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • use punctuation to set off nonrestrictive clauses
    • use quotation marks to represent the exact language (either spoken or written) of another.

    KEY VOCABULARY

    quotation marks; verb tense; dialogue; each of the eight parts of speech

    Clause

    Dialogue

    Direct quotation

    Editing

    Enhance

    Intervening

    Nonrestrictive clause

    Phrase

    Standard English

    Updated: Jun 14, 2018