Reading - 2018-19

Unit 2

Communication:Speaking Listening, Media Literacy

The student will participate in and contribute to conversations, group discussions, and oral presentations.

a)  Communicate ideas and information orally in an organized and succinct manner.

b)  Ask probing questions to seek elaboration and clarification of ideas.

c)  Make statements to communicate agreement or tactful disagreement with others’ ideas.    

d)  Use language and style appropriate to audience, topic, and purpose.

e) Use a variety of strategies to listen actively.


The student will participate in and contribute to conversations, group discussions, and oral presentations.

a) Use a variety of strategies to listen actively and speak using agreed-upon discussion rules with awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues.

b) Clearly communicate ideas and information orally in an organized and succinct manner.

c) Ask probing questions to seek elaboration and clarification of ideas.

d) Participate in collaborative discussions with partners, building on others’ ideas.

e) Make statements to communicate agreement or tactful disagreement with others’ ideas.

f) Use language and style appropriate to audience, topic, and purpose.

g) Give formal and information presentations in a group or individually, providing evidence to support a main idea.

h) Work effectively and respectfully within diverse groups.

i) Exhibit willingness to make necessary compromises to accomplish a goal.

j) Share responsibility for collaborative work.

Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • Word choice contributes to a speaker's tone and enhances the purpose. (7.1d and 7.1f)
  • Selecting appropriate words helps increase the impact of a speaker on the audience. (7.1d and 7.1f)
  • Knowing the audience determines the content, language, and style of a presentation. (7.1a, d and 7.1e, f)
  • It is important to know how to use verbal and nonverbal communication when interacting with a group. (7.1c, e and 7.1a, d)
  • Formulating questions allows individuals to gather more information, work more effectively with teams, addresses challenges more proactively, and reflect more deeply. (7.1b and 7.1c)
  • Being a good listener is a way to show respect and understanding of another person's perspective. (7.1e and 7.1a)
  • Active listening involves not only paying attention to the words someone is saying but also trying to understand a person's complete message. (7.1e and 7.1a)
  • Respectful disagreement focuses on facts, doesn't get personal, recognizes positives, and uses "I" statements. (7.1c and 7.1e)
  • Effective oral communication includes fact, statistics, examples, logical reasoning, and personal opinions that are presented in a concise, organized manner. (7.1a and 7.1b)
  • Group norms for conduct help groups develop cohesiveness and allow for groups to function efficiently and effectively. (7.1a)
  • Formulating ideas as a group involves coming up with relevant ideas individually, listening to the ideas of others, and then building on the ideas generated by the group. (7.1d)

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will participate effectively in formal and informal classroom conversations and understand the requirements and uses of standard social conventions in conversations and presentations.
  • Students will express opinions forthrightly yet respectfully, demonstrating interest in and respect for the opinions of others.
  • Students will use grammatically correct language.
  • Teachers should model active listening strategies. 

All students should

  • participate effectively in group discussions and presentations
  • understand audience, topic, and purpose impact language and style
  • recognize that each member brings a unique viewpoint to the group
  • understand verbal and nonverbal feedback from the audience should be used to evaluate and adjust presentations.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand and demonstrate appropriate audience behavior.
  • prepare and deliver oral presentations.
  • participate effectively in group discussions and presentations.
  • show awareness of audience, topic, and purpose.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • contribute relevant ideas, opinions, and feelings in large and small diverse groups.
  • offer and seek summary statements of their own ideas and the ideas of others.
  • select vocabulary, tone, and style with audience and purpose in mind.
  • state points clearly and directly.
  • include multimedia in presentations.
  • maintain a focused discussion.
  • ask clarifying questions and respond appropriately to others’ questions in order to encourage discussion, foster understanding, and bring the discussion back to the topic when needed.
  • provide feedback to other group members, acknowledge new insights expressed by others, and when justified, modify their own views.
  • use a variety of strategies to actively listen, including:
    • give speaker undivided attention;
    • use body language and gestures to show they are listening;
    • provide feedback or paraphrase;
    • allow the speaker to finish without interruptions; and
    • respond appropriately.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • contribute relevant ideas, opinions, and feelings in large and small diverse groups
  • offer and seek summary statements of ideas
  • select vocabulary, tone, and style with audience and purpose in mind
  • state points clearly and directly
  • maintain a focused discussion
  • ask clarifying questions and respond appropriately to others’ questions to encourage discussion, foster understanding, and bring the discussion back to the topic when needed
  • provide feedback to other group members, acknowledge new insights expressed by others, and when justified, modify own views
  • engage others in conversations by posing and responding to questions in a group situation
  • exercise flexibility and willingness in making compromises to accomplish a common goal
  • use a variety of strategies to actively listen and show attentiveness, including
    • focusing attention to the speaker
    • providing appropriate feedback
    • allowing the speaker to finish without interruptions.

Updated: May 29, 2018

Reading

The student will read to determine the meanings and pronunciations of unfamiliar words and phrases within authentic texts.

a)  Identify word origins and derivations.  

b)  Use roots, cognates, affixes, synonyms, and antonyms to expand vocabulary.  

c)  Identify and analyze figurative language.

d)  Identify connotations.

e)  Use context and sentence structure to determine meanings and differentiate among multiple meanings of words.

f)  Extend general and specialized vocabulary through speaking, listening, reading, and writing.


The student will read and determine the meanings of unfamiliar words and phrases within authentic texts.

a) Identify word origins and derivations.

b) Use roots, affixes, synonyms, and antonyms to expand vocabulary.

c) Identify and analyze the construction and impact of figurative language.

d) Identify connotations.

e) Use context and sentence structure to determine meanings and differentiate among multiple meanings of words.

f) Use word-reference materials to determine meaning and etymology.

g) Extend general and cross-curricular vocabulary through speaking, listening, reading, and writing.


Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • Understanding word structures and origins and derivations helps to show relationships among words. (7.4a, b and 7.4a, b)
  • Many words are like Legos; they can be pulled apart and reassembled with other parts to make new words. (7.4b and 7.4b)
  • Many words have multiple meanings, and understanding the context can help determine which meaning is appropriate. (7.4e and 7.4e)
  • Understanding words parts helps readers decode and understand the meanings of words more quickly and accurately. (7.4b and 7.4b)
  • Synonyms and antonyms can make meaning more precise when words are chosen not only for their denotative meanings but for their connotative meanings as well. (7.4d and 7.4d)
  • Figurative language is used by authors in part to make unfamiliar objects, settings, and situations more relatable to readers. (7.4c and 7.4c)
  • Most professions and areas of study have specialized vocabularies that are specific to them. (7.4f and 7.4g)
  • Connotations are the suggested meanings of words, including associations and emotional implications. (7.4d and 7.4d)
  • Connotations can influence mood or tone through the positive, negative, or neutral emotions they evoke. (7.4d and 7.4d)
  • Word reference materials, including dictionaries and thesauruses, can help clarify the meanings, origins, and parts of speech of words. (7.4f)

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will become independent learners of vocabulary by choosing from a variety of strategies to determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words.
  • Students come to understand affixes, including prefixes and suffixes, roots, derivations, and inflections of polysyllabic words and understand that words with similar parts may be related to each other in meaning and origin.
  • Teachers should use a study of cognates, words from the same linguistic family, to enhance vocabulary instruction.  Cognates can occur within the same language or across languages, e.g., night (English), nuit (French), Nacht (German), nacht (Dutch), nicht (Scots), natt (Swedish, Norwegian), nat (Danish), raat (Urdu), nátt (Faroese), nótt (Icelandic), noc (Czech, Slovak, Polish).
  • Students will continue the study of figurative language and use context to help determine the meaning of words.
  • Students will begin to notice connotations of words and use reference books and context to determine the nuances of connotative language.

All students should

  • recognize that figurative language enriches text
  • understand that affixes and Greek and Latin roots are clues to determine meanings of words
  • understand that words have nuances of meaning, including figurative, connotative, and technical that help to determine the appropriate meaning.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • use word structure to analyze and find relationships among words.
  • recognize that figurative language and analogy enrich text.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • use common Greek or Latin affixes and roots to predict the meaning of unfamiliar words and make connections with word families (e.g. –phobia, and –ology).
  • separate and recombine known word parts to predict the meaning of unfamiliar words, such as separating dent from dentist and fric from friction to predict the meaning of dentifrice.
  • use synonyms and antonyms to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words.
  • use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonym/antonym, cause/effect, degree, etc.) to better understand words.
  • recognize that words have nuances of meaning (figurative, connotative, and technical), which help determine the appropriate meaning.
  • recognize, understand, and use  figurative language including:
    • simile – figure of speech that uses the words like or as to make comparisons;
    • metaphor – figure of speech that makes a comparison equating two or more unlike things.
    • personification – figure of speech that applies human characteristics to nonhuman objects; and
    • hyperbole – intentionally exaggerated figure of speech.
  • distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., refined, respectful, polite, diplomatic, condescending), recognizing that some words have technical meanings based on context such as stern.
  • recognize that synonyms may have connotations (e.g., elderly and mature; youthful and juvenile).
  • use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • consult word reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital to find the pronunciation of a word or determine/clarify meanings.


To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • use common Greek or Latin affixes and roots to predict the meaning of unfamiliar words
  • separate and recombine known word parts to predict the meaning of unfamiliar words
  • recognize, understand, use, and explain the impact of figurative language, including
    • simile
    • metaphor
    • personification
  • distinguish among the connotations of words with similar denotations
  • recognize that synonyms may have different connotations (e.g., elderly and mature; youthful and juvenile, inexpensive and cheap)
  • use context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase
  • consult word reference materials to find the pronunciation of a word or determine/clarify meanings.

KEY VOCABULARY

Affix; prefix; suffix; root; derivative; simile; metaphor; personification; hyperbole; connotation; denotation; dictionaries; glossaries; thesauruses

Affixes
Updated: May 31, 2018

The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of fictional texts, narrative nonfiction, and poetry.

g)  Make inferences and draw conclusions based on the text. 

l)  Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.


The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of fictional texts, literary nonfiction, poetry, and drama.

d) Differentiate between first and third person point of view.

h) Compare/contrast details in literary and informational nonfiction texts.

i) Make inferences and draw conclusions based on the text.

j) Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.


Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • Making inferences is like being a detective.  Readers must use their prior knowledge to find the meanings behind what is written in a passage. (7.5g and 7.5i)
  • Rather than being explicit, writers sometimes imply a main idea or theme, and it is up to the reader to figure out the main idea or theme by inferencing and drawing conclusions. (7.5g and 7.5i)
  • Details included in literary nonficition and informational nonfiction may be the same factually but are presented in different formats and styles. (7.5h)
  • Reading strategies are deliberate mental actions that allow readers to better comprehend and remember textual information. (7.5l and 7.5j)
  • Understanding the point of view from which a story is told helps a reader better understand the perspectives and potential biases of the narrator. (6.5d)

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will begin to analyze text including fiction, narrative nonfiction, and poetry.
  • Students will understand the interrelationship of setting, plot, theme, style, and form and recognize how an author’s craft makes an impact on readers.
  • Students will compare and contrast narrative and poetic forms and recognize poetic devices in prose and poetry.
  • Students will read at and beyond the literal level, including making inferences – making judgments or drawing conclusions based on what an author has implied.
  • The initiating event is the incident that introduces the central conflict in a story; it may have occurred before the opening of the story.
  • Voice shows an author’s personality, awareness of audience, and passion for his or her subject. It adds liveliness and energy to writing.
  • Mood refers to the emotional atmosphere produced by an author’s use of language.
  • Tone refers to an attitude a writer takes toward a subject.
  • Students will understand how authors use keywords and images to craft a message and establish tone.
  • Teachers will model higher-order thinking processes with materials at the students’ instructional reading level and move students gradually to collaborative and independent comprehension of age-appropriate materials at the independent reading level.
  • Students will use a variety of reading strategies such as text annotation, QAR (Question-Answer Relationship), thinking aloud, etc.

All students should

  • understand that literary nonfiction includes biography, autobiography, and personal essay
  • understand that poetry can be rhymed, unrhymed, and/or patterned

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • recognize that authors make deliberate choices to create literary works.
  • understand that language has an impact on readers.
  • make inferences and draw conclusions based on information supplied by an author combined with the reader’s own background knowledge.
  • use strategies and graphic organizers to summarize and analyze text.
  • analyze how a text makes connections among and distinctions between individuals, ideas, or events (e.g., through comparisons or categories).

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • recognize the elements of narrative structure including:
    • setting – time, place, and duration;
    • character(s);
    • external conflicts, such as
      • individual vs. individual
      • individual vs. nature
      • individual vs. society
      • individual vs. supernatural
      • individual vs. technology
    • internal conflict – individual vs. self;
    • plot – development of the central conflict, including
      • initiating event
      • rising action
      • climax
      • falling action
      • resolution
    • theme.
  • distinguish between narrative prose and poetic forms, including:
    • haiku – a 17-syllable, delicate, unrhymed Japanese verse, usually about nature;
    • limerick – a 5-line, rhymed, rhythmic verse, usually humorous;
    • ballad – a songlike narrative poem, usually featuring rhyme, rhythm, and refrain;
    • free verse – poetry with neither regular meter nor rhyme scheme
    • couplet – a pair of rhyming lines; and
    • quatrain – a stanza containing four lines.
  • read, understand, and compare/contrast the characteristics and narrative structures of:
    • short stories;
    • novels (including historical fiction);
    • folk literature;
      • tales
      • myths
      • legends
      • fables
    • plays; and
    • narrative nonfiction (including personal essays, biographies, and autobiographies).
  • use graphic organizers to record important details for summarizing and drawing conclusions.
  • identify characterization as the way an author presents a character and reveals character traits by:
    • what a character says;
    • what a character thinks;
    • what a character does; and
    • how other characters respond to the character.
  • determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text.
  • analyze an author’s choice and use of literary devices,  including:
    • foreshadowing – the use of clues to hint at coming events in a story; and
    • irony – the contrast between expectation and reality; between what is said and what is meant; between what appears to be true and what really is true.
  • analyze elements of an author’s style, including:
    • word choice;
    • sentence structure and language patterns;
    • imagery – the use of words to create sensory impressions — most often visual impressions but may be sound, smell, taste, or touch impressions;
    • contrasting points of view; and
    • figurative language – text enriched by word images and figures of speech.
  • define an author’s tone including, but not limited to:  serious, sarcastic, objective, humorous, disapproving, solemn, enthusiastic, and hostile.
  • recognize and analyze the impact of an author’s choice of poetic devices, including:
    • rhyme – recurring identical or similar final word sounds within or at the ends of lines of verse;
    • rhythm – the recurring pattern of strong and weak syllabic stresses;
    • meter – a fixed pattern of accented and unaccented syllables in lines of fixed length to create rhythm;
    • repetition – repeated use of sounds, words, or ideas for effect and emphasis;
    • alliteration – repetition of initial sounds, e.g., picked a peck of pickled peppers; and
    • onomatopoeia – the use of a word whose sound suggests its meaning, e.g., clatter.
  • explain how poetic devices of form, rhyme, rhythm, repetition, line structure, and punctuation convey the mood and meaning of a poem.
  • make predictions before, during, and after reading texts.
  • connect to prior knowledge of a subject.
  • visualize, and question a text while reading.
  • draw inferences.
  • synthesize information. 

To be successful with this standard, the students are expected to

  • identify and distinguish between first and third person point of view
  • distinguish between narrative prose and poetic forms, including
    • haiku
    • limerick
    • ballad
    • free verse
    • couplet
    • quatrain
  • identify characterization as the way an author presents a character and reveals character traits by
    • what a character says
    • what a character thinks
    • what a character does
    • how other characters respond to the character
  • provide an objective summary of the text
  • analyze an author’s choice and use of literary devices, including
    • foreshadowing
    • irony
  • analyze elements of an author’s style, including
    • word choice to develop tone
    • sentence structure
    • imagery
    • contrasting points of view 
    • figurative language
  • recognize and analyze the impact of an author’s choice of sound devices, including
    • rhyme
    • rhythm
    • repetition
    • alliteration
    • onomatopoeia
  • compare and contrast two or more texts on the same topic or with similar themes
  • use evidence from the text(s) for support when drawing conclusions or making inferences
  • analyze how an individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, and elaborated in a text (e.g., through examples or anecdotes)
  • demonstrate comprehension and apply strategies to write about what is read.

KEY VOCABULARY

Making inferences; initiating event; voice; mood; tone; narrative structure (setting; character(s); external conflicts; internal conflict; plot; theme); external conflict  (individual vs. individual; individual vs. nature; individual vs. society; individual vs. supernatural; individual vs. technology ); internal conflict (individual vs. self); plot development of the central conflict (initiating event; rising action; climax; falling action; resolution); haiku;  limerick;  ballad; free verse; couplet; quatrain; short story; novel (historical fiction); folk literature (tales; myths; legends; fables); plays; narrative nonfiction (personal essays; biographies; autobiographies; characterization (direct and indirect); theme/central idea; foreshadowing; irony; author’s tone; rhyme; rhythm;  meter; repetition;  alliteration; onomatopoeia

Alliteration

Anecdote

Autobiography

Ballad

Biography

Compare and contrast

Conclusion

Couplet

Differentiate 

Distinguish

Drama

Fictional text

Figurative language

First-person

Foreshadowing

Free verse

Haiku

Imagery

Inference

Irony

Limerick

Literary nonfiction

Narrative prose

Objective

Onomatopoeia

Patterned poetry

Personal essay

Poetry

Quatrain

Repetition
Updated: Mar 24, 2019

The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of nonfiction texts.

b)  Use text structures to aid comprehension. 

c)  Identify an author’s organizational pattern using textual clues, such as transitional words and phrases.

d)  Draw conclusions and make inferences on explicit and implied information.

e)  Differentiate between fact and opinion. 

g)  Describe how word choice and language structure convey an author’s viewpoint.  

k)  Organize and synthesize information for use in written formats.

l)  Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.


The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of nonfiction texts.

a) Skim materials using text features including type, headings, and graphics to predict and categorize information.

b) Identify an author’s organization pattern using textual clues, such as transitional words and phrases.

c) Make inferences and draw logical conclusions using explicit and implied textual evidence.

d) Differentiate between fact and opinion.

f) Describe how word choice and language structure convey an author’s viewpoint.

k) Organize and synthesize information for use in written and other formats.

l) Analyze ideas within and between selections providing textual evidence.

m) Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.


Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • Text structure is the overall organizational pattern of text; it provides a path to aid comprehension because authors use these structures to arrange and connect ideas. (7.6b and 7.6a)
  • Recognizing text structure aids reading comprehension by providing a scaffold for the text. (7.6b and 7.6a)
  • Viewpoint and purpose affect how authors shape and develop ideas.  It drives the information they include, the structure for writing they choose, and their word choices. (7.6g and 7.6f)
  • The denotative and connotative meanings of words impact the meaning and emotional effect of text. (7.6g and 7.6f)
  • Synthesis allows a writer to gather information from various texts and reorganize and present that information in a way that supports a specific topic or thesis statement. (7.6k and 7.6k)
  • Comparing and contrasting ideas found in multiple sources allows one to identify conflicting and consistent information and thus evaluate the validity of information. (7.6k and 7.6k)
  • Comparing and contrasting viewpoints gives one a more comprehensive view of a topic. (7.6k and 7.6k)
  • Knowing the difference between fact and opinion helps readers evaluate the reliability and usefulness of text. (7.6e and 7.6d)
  • Differentiating between facts and opinions helps readers determine what is to be believed and what is just someone's perspective.(7.6e and 7.6d)
  • Making inferences is like being a detective.  Readers must use their prior knowledge to find the meanings behind what is written in a passage. (7.6d and 7.6c)
  • Rather than being explicit, writers sometimes imply a main idea or theme, and it is up to the reader to figure out the main idea or theme by inferencing and drawing conclusions. (7.6d and 7.6c)
  • Recognizing text structure provides a scaffold for comprehension, and transitional words and phrases link the ideas within that structure smoothly and logically so that the text has coherence. (7.6c and 7.6b)
  • Properly skimming a text allows a reader to quickly grasp the main idea and most important points. (7.6a)
  • Signal words help readers identify a text's organizational pattern, which in turn clues readers into the purpose of the texts as well as assist them in understanding the text more thoroughly. (7.6c and 7.6b)
  • Reading strategies are deliberate mental actions that allow readers to better comprehend and remember textual information. (7.6l and 7.6m)
  • Skimming allows readers to rapidly look at a text for the general idea of the piece, and it is often paired with scanning, that involved rapidly looking at a piece for specific information. When there is a lot of reading to be done, skimming and scanning allow a reader to access information quickly without becoming fatigued. (7.6a)
  • Determining the veracity and significance of information often involves analyzing information within and between texts. (7.6l)
  • Background and prior knowledge provide the connections that allow readers to not only comprehend better but to also formulate better conclusions. (7.6a)
  • UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    • The intent of this standard is that students will read and comprehend at and beyond the literal level in a variety of nonfiction texts.
    • Students will use and understand the internal and external text structures common to textbooks and other nonfiction text.
    • An author’s viewpoint refers to his or her bias or subjectivity toward the subject. In general, a viewpoint can be positive or negative.
    • Teachers will model the higher-order thinking processes with materials at the students’ instructional reading level and move students gradually to collaborative and independent comprehension of age-appropriate materials at the independent reading level.
    • Students will work collaboratively and with teacher support to move toward higher-order thinking with instructional level materials.
    • Synthesis involves higher-order thinking and is a result of forming either a concrete or abstract whole from the logical relation of parts.
    • Students will use a variety of reading strategies  such as text annotation, QAR (Question-Answer Relationship), thinking aloud, etc.

    All students should

    • understand that an author’s use of connotations and persuasive language conveys viewpoint
    • understand that an author’s patterns of organization can aid comprehension
    • understand an author’s viewpoint refers to a bias or subjectivity toward the subject; a viewpoint can be positive or negative
    • understand that text features are created purposefully and are an aid to comprehension
    • understand that there are strategies, including context, structural analysis, and reference sources, for determining the meaning of unfamiliar and technical vocabulary
    • understand that skilled readers of nonfictional texts apply different reading strategies.

    ESSENTIALS

    All students should

    • use the reading process to activate prior knowledge, predict, question, clarify, infer, organize, compare, summarize, and synthesize.
    • choose graphic organizers based on the internal text structure most prevalent in the text in order to track key points and summarize the text.
    • recognize an author’s purpose:
      • to entertain;
      • to inform; and
      • to persuade.
    • notice use of connotations and persuasive language to convey viewpoint.
    • make inferences, which imply meaning, and draw conclusions based on both explicit and implied information.
    • distinguish between a fact, which can be verified, and an opinion, which cannot.

    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • activate prior knowledge before reading by use of, but not limited to:
      • small-group or whole-class discussion;
      • anticipation guides; and
      • preview of key vocabulary.
    • use textual features to make predictions and enhance comprehension, including:
      • boldface and/or italics type;
      • type set in color;
      • underlining;
      • indentation;
      • sidebars;
      • illustrations, graphics, and photographs;
      • headings and subheadings; and
      • footnotes and annotations.
    • recognize organizational pattern to enhance comprehension, including:
      • cause and effect;
      • comparison/contrast;
      • enumeration or listing;
      • sequential or chronological;
      • concept/definition;
      • generalization; and
      • process.
    • recognize transitional words and phrases authors use to signal organizational patterns, including, but not limited to:
      • as a result of, consequently for cause and effect;
      • similarly, on the other hand for comparison/contrast;
      • first, three for enumeration or listing;
      • today, meanwhile for sequential or chronological;
      • refers to, thus for concept/definition;
      • always, in fact for generalization; and
      • begins with, in order to for process.
    • determine two or more central ideas in a text and analyze their development over the course of the text.
    • provide an objective summary of the text by recording the development of the central ideas.
    • analyze how two or more authors writing about the same topic shape their presentations or viewpoints of key information using facts, opinions, and reasoning. 


    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • use text features to make predictions and enhance comprehension, including, but not limited to,
      • boldface and/or italics type
      • type set in color
      • underlining
      • indentation
      • sidebars
      • illustrations, graphics, and photographs
      • headings and subheadings
      • footnotes and annotations
    • recognize organizational pattern to enhance comprehension, including
      • cause and effect
      • comparison/contrast
      • enumeration or listing
      • sequential or chronological
      • concept/definition
      • generalization
      • process
      • problem/solution
    • recognize transitional words and phrases authors use to signal organizational patterns,
    • determine the central ideas in a text and analyze its development over the course of the text
    • analyze how different authors write about the same topic and shape their presentations or viewpoints of key information using facts, opinions, and reasoning
    • demonstrate comprehension and apply strategies to write about what is read.

    KEY VOCABULARY

    Synthesis; text features/text structures (boldface and/or italics type; type set in color; underlining; indentation; sidebars; illustrations; graphics; photographs; headings and subheadings; footnotes and annotations); text structures/organizational patterns (cause and effect; comparison/contrast; enumeration or listing; sequential or chronological; concept/definition; generalization; process); Fact vs. opinion

    Analyze

    Annotation

    Bias

    Boldface

    Categorize
    Updated: Mar 24, 2019

    Writing

    The student will write in a variety of forms with an emphasis on exposition, narration, and persuasion.

    f)  Write multiparagraph compositions with unity elaborating the central idea.  

    g)  Select vocabulary and information to enhance the central idea, tone, and voice.

    i)  Use clauses and phrases for sentence variety.

    j)  Revise sentences for clarity of content including specific vocabulary and information.

    The student will write in a variety of forms to include narrative, expository, persuasive, and reflective, with an emphasis on expository and persuasive writing.

    g) Clearly state a position and organize reasons and evidence, using credible sources.

    h) Distinguish between fact and opinion to support a position.

    i) Write multiparagraph compositions with elaboration and unity.

    k) Develop and modify the central idea, tone, and voice to fit the audience and purpose.

    m) Use clauses and phrases for sentence variety.

    n) Revise writing for clarity of content including specific vocabulary and information.



    Adopted: 2017

    BIG IDEAS

    • Editing is proofreading text to correct errors in grammar and mechanics, whereas revising involves improvements in logic, clarity, flow, organization, and quality of evidence. (7.7j and 7.7n)
    • Rewriting allows one to learn how to write better as well as improving reading and analytical skills. (7.7j and 7.7n)
    • Revision is the opportunity to step back and re-envision text.  An author thinks about the goal of an essay and whether or not that goal was successfully accomplished. (7.7j and 7.7n)
    • Dividing an essay into multiple paragraphs creates an organization that helps readers understand a writer's intent and information.  This is particularly true when the paragraphs follow an established text structure. (7.7f and 7.7i)
    • Specific vocabulary helps create a writer's tone and enhances the purpose. (7.7g and 7.7k)
    • Selecting precise words and information helps increase the impact of a text on the audience. (7.7g and 7.7k)
    • It is important to select precise words and information for an intended audience. (7.7g and 7.7k)
    • Information to include in an essay should be reasons, descriptions, statistics, facts, examples, explanations, and comparisons to help readers learn more about the thesis statement or topic sentence. (7.7g)
    • Writing that is infused with a variety of sentence structure, including phrases and clauses, is more engaging that writing that lacks variety. (7.7i and 7.7m)
    • Using different types of sentence structure can help a writer emphasize specific words and ideas. (7.7i and 7.7m)
    • Opinions can be used effectively to support a position if factual evidence is also used to reinforce those opinions. (7.7i)
    • Information to include in an essay should be reasons, descriptions, statistics, facts, examples, explanations, and comparisons to help readers learn more about the thesis statement or topic sentence. (7.7g and 7.7k)
    • The degree to which a reader will comprehend and/or support the main idea or proposition in a text will depend on the details that are used to support the main idea or proposition. (7.7g and 7.7k)

    UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    • The intent of this standard is that students will become independent and proficient in composing a variety of types of writing.
    • Teachers will focus direct instruction on all three domains of writing:
      • composing – the structuring and elaborating a writer does to construct an effective message for readers;
      • written expression – those features that show the writer purposefully shaping and controlling language to affect readers; and
      • usage/mechanics – the features that cause written language to be acceptable and effective for standard discourse.
    • Students will gradually assume responsibility for revising, proofreading, and editing their own writing.
    • Elaboration can occur by using descriptive details and examples within a sentence to give detail and depth to an idea, or from paragraph to paragraph.
    • Voice shows an author’s personality, awareness of audience, and passion for his or her subject. It adds liveliness and energy to writing. Voice is the imprint of the writer — the capacity to elicit a response from the reader.
    • Tone expresses an author’s attitude toward the subject.
    • A writing process is nonlinear: returning to prewriting or drafting at any point in the process may help the writer clarify and elaborate the drafted piece.
    • Students should have practice writing on demand, for shorter time frames, and over  extended periods of time.

    All students should

    • understand that writing requires a recursive process that includes planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing
    • understand that voice in writing is purposefully crafted with attention to deliberate word choice, precise information, and vocabulary
    • understand that vocabulary and tone must be selected with awareness of audience and purpose
    • understand that effective writing includes elaboration
    • understand that effective writing has been improved through revision

    ESSENTIALS

    All students should

    • use a process for writing, including:
      • planning;
      • drafting;
      • revising;
      • proofreading;
      • editing; and
      • publishing.
    • understand that good writing includes elaboration.
    • recognize that a thesis statement is not an announcement of the subject, but rather a unified, and specific statement.
    • understand that good writing has been improved through revision.
    • understand and apply the elements of composing:
      • central idea;
      • elaboration;
      • unity; and
      • organization. 

    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • identify intended audience and purpose.
    • use a variety of prewriting strategies including:
      • brainstorming;
      • webbing;
      • mapping;
      • outlining;
      • clustering;
      • listing; and
      • using graphic organizers.
    • explain, analyze, or summarize a topic.
    • write an effective thesis statement focusing, limiting, or narrowing the topic.
    • differentiate between a thesis statement and a topic sentence.
    • choose an appropriate strategy for organizing ideas such as comparison/contrast, personal narrative, cause/effect, etc., and  provide transitions between ideas.
    • develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective techniques, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences when writing narratives.
    • organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
    • create multiparagraph compositions focusing on a central idea and using elaborating details, reasons, or examples as appropriate for audience and purpose.
    • include an appropriate introduction and satisfying conclusion.
    • sustain a formal style.
    • use written expression to draft and revise compositions with attention to:
      • voice;
      • tone;
      • selection of information;
      • embedded phrases and clauses that clarify meaning;
      • vivid and precise vocabulary;
      • figurative language; and
      • sentence variety.
    • recognize terms illustrative of tone, such as, but not limited to:
      • serious;
      • sarcastic;
      • objective;
      • enthusiastic;
      • solemn;
      • humorous;
      • hostile;
      • personal; and
      • impersonal.
    • apply revising procedures in peer and self-review, including:
      • rereading;
      • reflecting;
      • rethinking; and
      • rewriting.
    • vary sentence structure by using coordinating conjunctions: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so.
    • use subordinating conjunctions to form complex sentences:
      after, although, as, as if,  because, before, even if, even though, if, if only, rather than, since, that, though, unless, until, when, where, whereas, wherever, whether, which, and while.
    • incorporate variety into sentences using simple, compound, and compound-complex sentences, including, but not limited to:
      • coordination – joining words, phrases, clauses, or sentences by using appropriate coordinating conjunctions;
      • subordination – establishing the relationship between an independent and a dependent clause by using appropriate subordinate conjunctions; and
      • modifier– an adjective, an adverb, or a phrase or clause acting as an adjective or adverb.

    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • compose with attention to central idea, unity, elaboration, and organization
    • elaborate to give detail, add depth, and continue the development of an idea
    • analyze and use mentor texts as models for writing
    • explain, analyze, or summarize a topic
    • write an effective thesis statement that focuses on the topic and explains the writer’s position in an argument
    • choose an appropriate strategy for organizing ideas, such as comparison/contrast, cause and effect, etc., and provide transitions between ideas
    • write reflectively to explain and analyze a text, a presentation, an experience, a skill, or an event
    • recognize that three examples of reflective writing include
      • technical— – which includes what worked or did not work and reasons why, problem-solving techniques, and theories that were used or tested
      • collaborative— – which is centered on team dynamics, how everyone worked together and why, and what worked or did not work and why.
      • individual—focuses on questions such as, “What did I learn?” “How did I learn it?” and “What could I have done better?”
    • write persuasively, organizing reasons logically and effectively
    • create multiparagraph compositions focusing on a central idea and using elaborating details, reasons, or examples as appropriate for audience and purpose
    • include an appropriate introduction and conclusion
    • sustain a formal style when appropriate
    • use written expression to draft and revise compositions with attention to
      • voice
      • tone
      • selection of information
      • embedded phrases and clauses that clarify meaning
      • vivid and precise vocabulary
      • figurative language
      • sentence variety
    • recognize terms illustrative of tone in mentor texts and student writing 
    • apply revising procedures in peer and self-review, including
      • rereading
      • reflecting
      • rethinking
      • rewriting to clarify, elaborate, and make writing more precise
    • revise drafts for improvement using teacher assistance, peer collaboration, and growing independence
    • vary sentence structure by using coordinating conjunctions
    • use subordinating conjunctions to form complex sentences
    • incorporate variety into sentences using simple, compound, and compound-complex sentences, including, but not limited to, coordination, subordination, and modifier.

    KEY VOCABULARY

    composing; written expression;  usage/mechanics; voice; tone; thesis statement vs. topic sentence; modifier; coordination; subordination; unity; organization; revising procedures (rereading; reflecting; rethinking; rewriting); coordinating conjunctions; subordinating conjunctions; the specific tone descriptors; complex sentence; simply sentence; compound sentence; compound-complex sentence

    Analyze

    Cause and effect

    Clarify

    Clause

    Comparison and contrast

    Compound sentence

    Compound-complex sentence

    Coordinating conjunction

    Credible

    Distinguish

    Editing

    Elaboration

    Embedded

    Expository

    Fact

    Figurative language

    Illustrative

    Mentor text

    Modifier
    Updated: Jun 13, 2018

    The student will edit writing for correct grammar, capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, and paragraphing.

    a)  Use a variety of graphic organizers, including sentence diagrams, to analyze and improve sentence formation and paragraph structure.

    b)  Choose appropriate adjectives and adverbs to enhance writing.

    e)  Edit for verb tense consistency and point of view.


    The student will self- and peer-edit writing for capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, paragraphing, and Standard English.

    a) Choose appropriate adjectives and adverbs to enhance writin

    d) Edit for verb tense consistency and point of view.


    Adopted: 2017

    BIG IDEAS

    • Maintaining a consistent point of view gives a text focus and clarity and helps to show purpose.  Unnecessary and inconsistent shifts in point of view are distracting to the reader and can cause a confusing change in perspective. (7.8e and 7.8d)
    • It is important to maintain consistent verb tense so readers can follow the progression of ideas and arguments easily. (7.8e and 7.8d)
    • Verb tense allows writers to express the time relationship among ideas and events. (7.8e and 7.8d)
    • Adjectives allow writers to indicate the positive and negative qualities of people, places, things, and ideas. (7.8b and 7.8a)
    • Adverbs provide extra information about adjectives, verbs, and other adverbs that clarify meaning and enhance imagery. (7.8b and 7.8a)
    • Adverbs provide information to answer questions such as how much? where? when? how often? and how much? (7.8b and 7.8a)
    • Graphic organizers, such as sentence diagramming, can be beneficial in creating a visual representation of how word relationships within sentences. (7.8a)

    UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    • The intent of this standard is that students will understand and apply all the conventions of language learned at the elementary school level with increasing independence.
    • Students will maintain correct use of language to enhance writing and to avoid confusing or distracting the reader.
    • Students will understand that the conventions of correct language are an integral part of the writing process.
    • A diagram of a sentence is a tool to increase understanding of its structure.

    All students should

    • understand that correct use of language enhances writing and avoids confusing or distracting the reader


    ESSENTIALS

    All students should

    • proofread and edit drafts with teacher assistance, peer collaboration, and growing independence.
    • become independent in checking spelling, using dictionaries and/or electronic tools.
    • examine sentences to identify eight parts of speech with the intent of improving sentence structure and variety, including:
      • noun;
      • verb;
      • pronoun;
      • adjective;
      • adverb;
      • preposition;
      • conjunction; and
      • interjection.

    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • use complete sentences with appropriate punctuation, including the punctuation of dialogue.
    • use reference sources to select the correct spelling and usage of words.
    • maintain verb tense (present, past, future) throughout an entire piece of writing.
    • use quotation marks to represent the exact language (either spoken or written) of another.
    • choose adjectives and adverbs appropriately.

    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • use punctuation to set off nonrestrictive clauses
    • maintain consistent verb tense throughout an entire piece of writing
    • maintain consistent point of view through a piece of writing

    KEY VOCABULARY

    quotation marks; verb tense; dialogue; each of the eight parts of speech

    Consistency

    Editing

    Enhance

    Nonrestrictive clause

    Standard English


    Updated: Jun 14, 2018

    Research

    The student will apply knowledge of appropriate reference materials to produce a research product.

    a)  Collect and organize information from multiple sources including online, print and media.

    b)  Evaluate the validity and authenticity of sources.

    c)  Use technology as a tool to research, organize, evaluate, and communicate information.


    The student will find, evaluate, and select appropriate resources to create a research product.

    a) Formulate and revise questions about a research topic.

    b) Collect, organize, and synthesize information from multiple sources.

    c) Analyze and evaluate the validity and credibility of resources.


    Adopted: 2017

    BIG IDEAS

    • Knowing the purpose for text helps readers evaluate the validity of the text. (7.9b and 7.9c)
    • Understanding the qualifications of a writer, helps a reader evaluate the validity and usefulness of a text. (7.9b and 7.9c)
    • Viewpoint and purpose affect how an author shapes and develops ideas.  It drives the information that is included and word choices.  Viewing the topic through the author's eyes aids the reader in evaluating a text. (7.9b and 7.9c)
    • Collecting information from multiple sources allows a reader to identify conflicting and consistent information and thus evaluate the authenticity and validity of sources. (7.8a, b and 7.9b, c)
    • Comparing and contrasting viewpoints on a topic gives a reader a more comprehensive view of a topic. (7.9a and 7.9b)
    • Technology can enhance the ability to research, collect, organize, synthesize, evaluate, share, and present information. (7.9c)
    • Synthesis allows a writer to gather information from various texts and reorganize and present that information to support a specific topic or thesis statement. (7.9a and 7.9b)
    • Formulating a good research question is important because it provides a foundation for research.  (7.9a)

    UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    • The intent of this standard is that students will use both print and electronic sources to find, read, and organize information for presentations and papers.
    • Students will synthesize information from a variety of sources and will document sources, using a standard format.
    • Students will realize in order to avoid plagiarism, credit must be given when using: another person’s idea, opinion, or theory; facts, statistics, graphs, drawings, etc. , quotations of another person’s actual spoken or written words; or paraphrase of another person’s spoken or written words.
    • Teachers should assist students in determining the authenticity and validity of sources.
    • Teachers should make students aware of possible consequences of plagiarism.
    • Teachers will collaborate with library media specialists to assist students as the students learn to become independent with research.
    • Students will have the opportunity to practice writing over shorter time frames as well as for extended ones.


    All students should

    • understand that a primary source is an original document or a firsthand or eyewitness account of an event
    • a secondary source discusses information originally presented somewhere else (i.e., secondary sources provide analysis, interpretation, or evaluation of the original information)

    ESSENTIALS

    All students should

    • understand that research tools are available in school media centers and libraries.
    • understand that a primary source is an original document or a firsthand or eyewitness account of an event.
    • understand that a secondary source  discusses information originally presented somewhere else. Secondary sources provide analysis, interpretation, or evaluation of the original information.

    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • use available resource tools, including:
      • educational online resources;
      • reference books;
      • scholarly journals;
      • magazines;
      • the Internet, as appropriate for school use; and
      • general and specialized (or subject-specific) databases.
    • organize and synthesize information with tools, including:
      • graphic organizers;
      • outlines;
      • spreadsheets;
      • databases; and
      • presentation software.
    • create a “Works Cited” page using MLA format for oral and written presentations.
    • differentiate between a primary and a secondary source.
    • gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources; assess the credibility and validity of each source;
    • prevent plagiarism and its consequences by giving credit to authors when ideas and/or words are used in direct quotation or paraphrases.
    • evaluate the validity and authenticity of texts, using questions, such as:
      • Does the source appear in a reputable publication?
      • Is the source free from bias? 
      • Does the writer have something to gain from his opinion?
      • Does the information contain facts for support?
      • Is the same information found in more than one source?
    • summarize and cite specific evidence from the text to support conclusions. 


    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • use available resource tools
    • organize and synthesize information found in a variety of sources
    • differentiate between a primary and a secondary source
    • gather relevant information from multiple sources; assess the credibility and validity of each source
    • evaluate the validity and credibility of texts using questions such as
      • Does the writer have something to gain from his opinion?
      • Does the information contain facts for support?
      • Is the same information found in more than one source?
      • Is contact information provided?
      • Is there a copyright symbol on the page?
      • What is the purpose of the page?
      • What is the date of the most recent publication?
    • summarize and cite specific evidence from texts to support conclusions. 

    KEY VOCABULARY

    Primary source; secondary source; source credibility/validity/authenticity; “Works Cited”

    Analyze

    Cite

    Copyright

    Credibility

    Differentiation

    Evaluate

    Formulate

    Primary resource

    Relevant

    Secondary resource

    Synthesize

    Updated: Jun 25, 2018