Reading - 2018-19

Thematic Topic : Friends

Communication:Speaking Listening, Media Literacy

The student will participate in and contribute to small-group activities.

a)  Communicate as leader and contributor.

b)  Evaluate own contributions to discussions.

c)  Summarize and evaluate group activities.

d)  Analyze the effectiveness of participant interactions.

The student will use effective oral communication skills in a variety of settings.

a) Listen actively and speak using appropriate discussion rules with awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues.

b) Participate as a facilitator and contributor in a group.

c) Participate in collaborative discussions with partners building on others’ ideas.

d) Ask questions to clarify the speaker’s purpose and perspective.

e) Summarize the main points a speaker makes.

f) Summarize and evaluate group activities.

g) Analyze the effectiveness of participant interactions.

h) Evaluate own contributions to discussions.

i) Demonstrate the ability to collaborate with diverse teams.

j) Work respectfully with others and show value for individual contributions.


Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  •  Most careers require that workers form teams in order to meet deadlines.  (6.1a, b, c, d and 6.1a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j)
  • It is important to know how to use and understand verbal and nonverbal communication as both a member and leader of a group. (6.1a, d and 6.1a, b, j)
  • It is important to use verbal and nonverbal feedback to evaluate one's own contributions. (6.1b and 6.1 a,h)
  • Working as an effective team increases efficiency. (6.1c, d and 6.1b, i, j)
  • Brainstorming as a group often produces more creative and effective ideas than brainstorming alone. (6.1d and 6.1c)
  • Being part of an effective team creates a support network built on reliance and trust. (6.1a, d and 6.1i, j )
·


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will use oral language effectively.
  • Students will evaluate the effectiveness of the contributions of participants in a variety of roles in a discussion group.
All students should understand verbal and nonverbal feedback from the audience should be used to evaluate contributions.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • interact as both group leader and member.
  • use verbal and nonverbal feedback from the audience to evaluate their own contributions.
  • process and verbalize the content and impact of each participant’s contribution to a discussion.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • ensure that all group members participate in the exchange of information.
  • use strategies that contribute to the discussion.
  • receive and understand feedback from the others.
  • pose and respond to questions.
  • relate and retell information.
  • restate briefly and critically the main idea(s) or theme(s) discussed within a group.
  • use active listening to focus on what is said and what is implied.
  • summarize what is heard.
  • retain and rethink ideas based on what is heard.
  • infer and assimilate new ideas.
  • use a checklist and/or rubric to evaluate the participation of self and others.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • ensure that all group members participate in the exchange of information
  • evaluate the effectiveness of the contributions of participants in a variety of roles in a discussion group
  • use strategies that contribute to the discussion
  • receive and understand feedback from others
  • pose and respond to questions
  • restate briefly and critically the main idea(s) discussed within a group
  • use active listening to focus on what is said and what is implied
  • retain and rethink ideas based on what is heard
  • infer and assimilate new ideas.

Updated: May 29, 2018

Reading

The student will read and learn the meanings of unfamiliar words and phrases within authentic texts.

a)  Identify word origins and derivations.

b)  Use roots, cognates, affixes, synonyms, and antonyms to expand vocabulary.

c)  Use context and sentence structure to determine meanings and differentiate among multiple meanings of words.

d)  Identify and analyze figurative language.  

e) Use word-reference materials.

f)  Extend general and specialized vocabulary through speaking, listening, reading, and writing.


The student will read and determine the meanings of unfamiliar words and phrases within authentic texts.

a) Identify word origins and derivations.

b) Use roots, affixes, synonyms, and antonyms to expand vocabulary.

c) Use context and sentence structure to determine meanings and differentiate among multiple meanings of words.

d) Identify and analyze the construction and impact of figurative language.

e) Use word-reference materials.

f) Extend general and cross-curricular vocabulary through speaking, listening, reading, and writing.


Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • Understanding word structures  and origins and derivations helps to show relationships among words. (6.4a and 6.4a)
  • Many words are like Legos; they can be pulled apart and reassembled with other parts to make new words. (6.4b and 6.4b)
  • Many words have multiple meanings, and understanding the context as well as the dictionary definitions can help determine which meaning is appropriate. (6.4c,e and 6.4c,e)
  • Understanding words parts helps readers decode and understand the meanings of words more quickly and accurately. (6.4b and 6.4b)
  • Synonyms and antonyms can make meaning more precise when words are chosen not only for their denotative meanings but for their connotative meanings as well. (6.4b,c and 6.4b,c)
  • Figurative language is used by authors in part to make unfamiliar objects, settings, and situations more relatable to readers. (6.4d and 6.4d)
  • Word reference materials allows readers to determine or confirm word meanings, including their connotations, denotations, and etymologies. (6.4e and 6.4e)
  • Most professions and areas of study have specialized vocabularies that are specific to them. (6.4f and 6.4f)



UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will become independent learners of vocabulary. Teachers should choose vocabulary from context.
  • Students will be exposed to prefixes, suffixes, roots, derivations, and inflections of polysyllabic words and understand that words with similar parts may be related to each other in meaning and origin.
  • Teachers should use a study of cognates, words from the same linguistic family, to enhance vocabulary instruction Cognates can occur within the same language or across languages— night (English), nuit (French), Nacht (German), nacht (Dutch), nicht (Scots), natt (Swedish, Norwegian), nat (Danish), raat (Urdu), nátt (Faroese), nótt (Icelandic), noc (Czech, Slovak, Polish).
  • Figurative language will be introduced and, students will continue the use of context to help determine the meaning of unfamiliar words.
  • Students will be introduced to wordrelationships and nuances in word meanings.
  • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used as figurative language.
  • Students will develop independence with reference books to determine meaning, pronunciation, and origin of words.


All students should

  • understand that word structure can be analyzed to show relationships among words
  • understand that affixes and Greek and Latin roots are clues to determine meanings of words
  • recognize that many words have multiple meanings and that context and dictionaries are both supportive in determining which meaning is most appropriate
  • recognize that figurative language enriches text.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • use word structure to analyze and show relationships among words.
  • use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to determine meanings of common English words.
  • recognize that many words have multiple meanings and that context and dictionaries are both supportive in determining which meaning is most appropriate.
  • recognize that figurative language enriches text.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • use common Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., aud –  hearing, listening, or sound audience, auditory, audible.
  • identify Latin and Greek roots of common English words  as clues to the meaning.
  • separate and recombine known word parts to predict the meaning of unfamiliar words, such as separating poly from polygon and phone from telephone to predict the meaning of polyphony.
  • recognize common antonyms and synonyms.
  • notice relationships among inflected words, such as proceed and procession or internal and internalization.
  • use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning.
  • recognize word relationships, such as:
    • synonyms – small: little;
    • antonyms – up: down;
    • object/action – ear: hear;
    • source/product – tree: lumber;
    • part/whole – paw: dog; and
    • animal/habitat – bee: hive.
  • use context clues to determine meanings of unfamiliar words in text, such as:
    • examples;
    • restatements; and
    • contrast.
  • identify figurative language in text, including:
    • simile – figures of speech that use the words like or as to make comparisons;
    • hyperbole – intentionally exaggerated figures of speech; and
    • metaphor – a comparison equating two or more unlike things without using “like” or “as.”
  • consult word reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses, both print and online) to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its meaning.
  • determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on reading and content.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • use common Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., aud –  hearing, listening, or sound audienceauditoryaudible)
  • separate and recombine known word parts to predict the meaning of unfamiliar words, such as separating poly from polygon and phone from telephone to predict the meaning of polyphony
  • use context clues to determine meanings of unfamiliar words in text, such as examples, restatements, and contrast
  • identify figurative language in text, including simile, hyperbole, and personification
  • consult word reference materials to find the pronunciation of a word or to determine or clarify its meaning
  • determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on reading and content.

KEY VOCABULARY

Updated: May 31, 2018

The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of fictional texts, narrative nonfiction, and poetry.

c) Describe how word choice and imagery contribute to the meaning of a text.

d) Describe cause and effect relationships and their impact on plot.

g) Explain how character and plot development are used in a selection to support a central conflict or storyline.

k) Identify transitional words and phrases that signal an author’s organizational pattern.

The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of fictional texts, literary nonfiction, and poetry.

b) Describe cause-and-effect relationships and their impact on plot.

c) Explain how an author uses character development to drive conflict and resolution.

e) Describe how word choice and imagery contribute to the meaning of a text.

j) Identify transitional words and phrases that signal an author’s organizational pattern.


Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • se characters to symbolize qualities such as courage, malice, or love, so it is important to analyze characters to fully understand a story and its theme. (6.5g and 6.5c)
  • A reader's feelings about a story's characters influence how the plot in a story impacts the reader. (6.5g and 6.5c)
  • Because plots are interconnected series of events, every event has a specific purpose.  When all events are put together they establish connections, suggests causes, and show relationships. (6.5g and 6.5c)
  • The struggle and growth surrounding conflict are the main infrastructure of fiction.  The main character(s) in a story has to struggle and make choices to change. (6.5g and 6.5c)
  • Word choice, including attention to connotation as well as the use of figurative language, impacts the tone, imagery, voice, and mood of the text. (6.5c and 6.5e)
  • Because the world is experienced using our five senses, by using imagery authors create more realistic and vivid experiences for readers. (6.5c and 6.5e)
  • Text structure is the overall organizational pattern of text, and transitional words link ideas in that structure smoothly and logically so the paragraphs have coherence. (6.5k and 6.5j)
  • Cause and effect move the action in a plot forward. (6.5d and 6.5b)
  • Comprehension increases when readers recognize the relationships between what happens in a story (the events) and why they happened (the causes). (6.5d and 6.5b)
  • Sometimes multiple causes can contribute to a single event and sometimes multiple effects can come from a single cause. (6.5d and 6.5b)
  • Things happen for a reason: there is a cause for every event. (6.5d and 6.5b)

· 


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will read at and beyond the literal level in a variety of genres, including fiction, narrative nonfiction, and poetry, and understand the structures and characteristics of stories and poems.
  • Teachers will model higher-order thinking processes with materials at the students’ instructional reading level and move students gradually to collaborative and independent comprehension of age-appropriate materials at the independent reading level.
  • Students will become independent readers of age-appropriate text and will activate background knowledge and summarize or paraphrase text to demonstrate understanding.
  • Imagery is the use of words to recreate sensory impressions. Verbal imagery is most often visual, but imagery may also be words that recreate sound, smell, taste, or touch impressions.
  • Students will use a variety of reading strategies such as text annotation, QAR (Question-Answer Relationship), thinking aloud, etc. 


All students should

  • understand that the author uses images to craft a message and create characters
  • understand that imagery and figurative language enrich texts
  • recognize an author’s craft as the purposeful choice of vocabulary, sentence formation, voice, and tone.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • ·  recognize an author’s choice of words and images.
  • ·  describe how the author uses keywords and images to craft a message and create characters.
  • ·  analyze in detail how a key individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, and elaborated in a text (e.g., through examples or anecdotes).
  • ·  analyze how a text makes connections among and distinctions between individuals, ideas, or events (e.g., through comparisons or categories).
  • ·  identify and define the elements of narrative structure.
  • ·  understand that fiction includes a variety of genres, including short story, novel, and drama.
  • ·  understand that narrative nonfiction includes biography, autobiography, and personal essay.
  • ·  understand that poetry can be rhymed, unrhymed, and/or patterned.
  • ·  differentiate between narrative and poetic forms.
  • ·  understand that imagery and figurative language enrich texts.
  • ·  recognize an author’s craft as the purposeful choice of vocabulary, sentence formation, voice, and tone.
  • ·  recognize an author’s theme(s).
  • ·  recognize that prior or background  knowledge assists in making connections to the text.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • understand setting as time and place.
  • understand plot as:
    • the development of the central conflict and resolution;
    • the sequence of events in the story; and
    • the writer’s map for what happens, how it happens, to whom it  happens, and when it happens.
  • understand that character traits are revealed by:
    • what a character says;
    • what a character thinks;
    • what a character does; and
    • how other characters respond to the character.
  • determine a central idea or theme of a fictional text and how it is developed through specific details.
  • understand internal and external conflicts in stories, including:
    • internal conflicts within characters;
    • external conflicts between characters; and
    • changes in characters as a result of conflicts and resolutions in the plot.
  • describe how a fictional plot is often episodic, and how characters develop as the plot moves toward a resolution.
  • notice an author’s craft, including use of :
    • language patterns;
    • sentence variety;
    • vocabulary;
    • imagery; and
    • figurative language.
  • use strategies for summarizing, such as graphic organizers.
  • use graphic organizers to record plot elements that illustrate cause and effect relationships and plot development.
  • use graphic organizers to record changes in characters as a result of incidents in the plot.
  • use graphic organizers to record clues in the text and inferences or conclusions made by the reader as a result of those clues.
  • analyze author’s use of figurative language.
  • identify how transitional words signal an author’s organization such as words indicating time, cause and effect, or indicating more information.


To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • identify characters as protagonist and antagonist
  • identify characterization as the way an author presents a character and character traits are revealed by
    • what a character says
    • what a character thinks
    • what a character does
    • how other characters respond to the character
  • identify internal and external conflicts, including
    • internal conflicts within characters
    • external conflicts between characters
  • describe how a fictional plot is often episodic, and how characters develop as the plot moves toward a resolution
  • notice an author’s craft, including use of
    • language patterns
    • sentence variety
    • vocabulary
    • imagery
    • figurative language
    • word choice to develop mood and tone
  • recognize and analyze an author’s use of figurative language including
    • simile
    • hyperbole
    • metaphor
    • personification
  • recognize poetic forms, including, but not limited to,
    • haiku
    • limerick
    • ballad
    • free verse
  • recognize poetic elements in prose and poetry, including, but not limited to,
    • rhyme
    • rhythm
    • repetition
    • alliteration
    • onomatopoeia
  • describe how characters change as a result of incidents in the plot
  • identify how transitional words signal an author’s organization, such as words indicating time, cause and effect, or indicating more information
  • use evidence from the text(s) for support when drawing conclusions and making inferences
  • analyze how an individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, and elaborated in a text (e.g., through examples or anecdotes)
  • demonstrate comprehension and apply strategies to write about what is read.

Updated: Jun 07, 2018

The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of nonfiction texts.

  a) Use text structures such as type, headings, and graphics to predict and categorize information in both print and digital texts.

  e) Draw conclusions and make inferences based on explicit and implied information. 

  f)  Differentiate between fact and opinion.

  g)  Identify main idea.

  h)  Summarize supporting details.

  j)  Identify the author’s organizational pattern.

  l)  Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.

The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of nonfiction texts.

a) Skim material using text features such as type, headings, and graphics to predict and categorize information.

b) Identify main idea.

c) Summarize supporting details.

d) Create an objective summary including main idea and supporting details.

e) Draw conclusions and make inferences based on explicit and implied information.

f) Identify the author’s organizational pattern(s).

g) Identify transitional words and phrases that signal an author’s organizational pattern.

h) Differentiate between fact and opinion.

i) Identify cause-and-effect relationships.

k) Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.


Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • Making inferences is like being a detective.  Readers must use their prior knowledge to find the meanings behind what is written in a passage. (6.6e and 6.6e)
  • Rather than being explicit, writers sometimes imply a main idea or theme, and it is up to the reader to figure out the main idea or theme by inferencing and drawing conclusions. (6.6e and 6.6e)
  • Knowing the difference between fact and opinion helps readers evaluate the reliability and usefulness of text. (6.6f and 6.6h)
  • Differentiating between facts and opinions helps readers determine what is to be believed and what is just someone's perspective.(6.6f and 6.6h)
  • To be able to summarize a reader must be able to identify the main idea. (6.6g and 6.6b)
  • The main idea is the glue that holds all of the details in a passage together. (6.6g and 6.6b)
  • Text structure is the overall organizational pattern of text; it provides a path to aid comprehension because authors use these structures to arrange and connect ideas. (6.6j and 6.6f)
  • Recognizing text structure aids reading comprehension by providing a scaffold for the text. (6.6j and 6.6f)
  • The degree to which a reader will comprehend and/or support the main idea or proposition of a passage will depend on the details that are used to support that idea or proposition. (6.6h and 6.6c)
  • Properly skimming a text allows a reader to quickly grasp the main idea and most important points. (6.6a)
  • Summarizing demonstrates one's ability to identify the most important ideas in a text, distinguish relevant from irrelevant details, and integrate ideas in a meaningful way. (6.6d)
  • Signal words help readers identify a text's organizational pattern, which in turn clues readers into the purpose of the texts as well as assist them in understanding the text more thoroughly. (6.6g)
  • Reading comprehension increases when readers recognize the relationships between what happens (the effects) and why things happen (the causes). (6.6k and 6.6i)
  • Sometimes multiple causes can contribute to a single event and sometimes multiple effects can come from a single cause. (6.6k and 6.6i)
  • Things happen for a reason: there is a cause for every effect. (6.6k and 6.6i)
  • Reading strategies are deliberate mental actions that allow readers to better comprehend and remember textual information. (6.6l and 6.6k)
  • Knowing the purpose of different text features allows readers to decide where to look when they want to learn about specific information.  It's like a grocery store. Text features are like aisle markers; readers pick the aisles they want and then go get what they need. (6.6a and 6.6a)
  • Text features are the building blocks for a text's structure by providing a predictable placement of information. (6.6a and 6.6a)
  • By being predictable, text features allow readers to connect prior knowledge to a text. (6.6a and 6.6a)

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will read and comprehend at and beyond the literal level in a variety of nonfiction texts.
  • Teachers will model higher-order thinking processes with materials at the students’ instructional reading level and move students gradually to collaborative and independent comprehension of age-appropriate materials at the independent reading level.
  • Students will become independent and knowledgeable about the use of libraries and technology for doing research.
  • Teachers will collaborate to help students apply reading skills in a variety of content texts.
  • Students will use a variety of reading strategies such as text annotation, QAR (Question-Answer Relationship), thinking aloud, etc.

All students should

  • recognize an author’s patterns of organization can be an aid to comprehension
  • recognize an author’s use of technical vocabulary
  • understand text features are created purposefully and are an aid to comprehension
  • understand that all texts contain messages stated or implied by an author
  • understand that there are strategies including context, structural analysis, and reference sources, for determining the meaning of unfamiliar and technical vocabulary
  • understand that skilled readers of nonfictional texts apply different reading strategies.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • activate prior knowledge before reading.
  • be strategic before, during, and after reading.
  • recognize an author’s patterns of organization.
  • recognize an author’s use and clarification of technical vocabulary.
  • use graphic organizers to organize and summarize text.
  • read beyond the printed text to understand the message stated or implied by an author.
  • select appropriate sources of information based on the purpose for reading.
  • use a variety of strategies, including context, structural analysis, and reference sources, for determining the meaning of unfamiliar and technical vocabulary.
  • read in order to gather, organize, and synthesize information for written and oral presentations.
  • recognize an author’s purpose, including:
    • to entertain;
    • to inform; and
    • to persuade.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • activate prior knowledge before reading by use of, but not limited to:
    • small-group or whole-class discussion;
    • anticipation guides; and
    • preview of key vocabulary
  • pose questions prior to and during the reading process based on text structures, such as:
    • boldface and/or italics type;
    • type set in color;
    • vocabulary;
    • graphics or photographs; and
    • headings and subheadings.
  • use specific and helpful clues in the context, including:
    • definitions – which define words within the text;
    • signal words – which alert readers that explanations or examples follow;
    • direct explanations – which explain terms as they are introduced;
    • synonyms – which provide a more commonly used term;
    • antonyms – which contrast words with their opposites; and
    • inferences – which imply meaning and help readers deduce meaning.
  • give evidence from the text to support conclusions.
  • identify common patterns of organizing text including:
    • chronological or sequential;
    • comparison/contrast;
    • cause and effect;
    • problem-solution; and
    • generalization or principle.
  • predict and then read to validate or revise the prediction(s).
  • identify clue words and phrases that help unlock meaning of unfamiliar and technical terms.
  • comprehend and record details and/or facts in order to arrive at a conclusion, inference, or generalization.
  • recognize that a fact is something that can be proven, while an opinion is a personal feeling.
  • determine a central idea of a text and recognize how details support that idea.
  • use graphic organizers to show similarities and differences in the information found in several sources about the same topic.
  • use strategies and rules for summarizing, such as the following:
    • delete trivia and redundancy;
    • substitute a general term for a list; and
    • find or create a main idea statement.
  • summarize the text without providing a personal opinion.
  • compare and contrast similar information across several texts.


To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • preview texts using text features such as, but not limited to,
    • boldface and/or italics type
    • type set in color
    • vocabulary
    • graphics
    • headings and subheadings
  • identify common patterns of organizing text including
    • chronological or sequential
    • comparison/contrast,
    • cause and effect
    • problem-solution
    • generalization
    • process
  • use context, structural analysis, and reference sources to determine the meaning of unfamiliar and technical vocabulary
  • make inferences and draw conclusions using the text(s) for support
  • use strategies and rules for summarizing, such as
    • delete trivia and redundancy
    • substitute a general term for a list
    • find or create a main idea statement
  • summarize the text without providing a personal opinion
  • demonstrate comprehension and apply strategies to write about what is read

KEY VOCABULARY

boldface and/or italics type; type set in color; vocabulary; graphics or photographs; headings and subheadings; signal words;  direct explanations;  synonyms;  antonyms;  inferences; chronological or sequential; comparison/contrast; cause and effect; problem-solution; generalization or principle; fact vs. opinion; central idea

Boldface

Categorize

Cause and effect

Chronological
Updated: Jun 12, 2018

Writing

The student will write narration, description, exposition, and persuasion.

  e)  Compose a topic sentence or thesis statement if appropriate.

  f)  Write multiparagraph compositions with elaboration and unity.

  g)  Select vocabulary and information to enhance the central idea, tone, and voice.

  h) Expand and embed ideas by using modifiers, standard coordination, and subordination in complete sentences.

  i)  Revise sentences for clarity of content including specific vocabulary and information.


The student will write in a variety of forms, to include narrative, expository, persuasive, and reflective, with an emphasis on narrative and reflective writing.

g) Compose a thesis statement for expository and persuasive writing.

h) Write multiparagraph compositions with elaboration and unity.

i) Use transition words and phrases.

j) Select vocabulary and information to enhance the central idea, tone, and voice.

k) Expand and imbed ideas by using modifiers, standard coordination, and subordination in complete sentences.

l) Revise writing for clarity of content including specific vocabulary and information.


Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • A thesis statement controls the subject matter of an essay and states something significant. (6.7e and 6.7g)
  • Like the foundation of a building, a thesis statement or topic sentence provides a base on which all of an essay's ideas will be constructed. (6.7e and 6.7g)
  • Specific vocabulary helps create a writer's tone and enhances the purpose. (6.7g and 6.7j)
  • Selecting precise words and information helps increase the impact of a text on the audience. (6.7g and 6.7j)
  • It is important to select precise words and information for an intended audience. (6.7g and 6.7j)
  • Information to include in an essay should be reasons, descriptions, statistics, facts, examples, explanations, and comparisons to help readers learn more about the thesis statement or topic sentence. (6.7g and 6.7j)
  • Dividing an essay into multiple paragraphs creates an organization that helps readers understand a writer's intent and information.  This is particularly true when the paragraphs follow an established text structure format. (6.7f and 6.7h)
  • Modifiers, such as adjectives and adverbs, are used to add emphasis, explanation, or detail to a particular word in sentences. (6.7h and 6.7k)
  • Modifiers make writing more descriptive and engaging. (6.7h and 6.7k)
  • Coordination and subordination allow authors to write more sophisticated text by combining words, phrases, and clauses into more complex forms. (6.7h and 6.7k)
  • Coordination allows two ideas of equal value to be joined. (6.7h and 6.7k)
  • Subordination joins two ideas in a way that makes one more important than the other. (6.7h and 6.7k)\
  • Using modifies, coordination, and subordination allows authors to incorporate variety into their writing. (6.7h and 6.7k)
  • Editing is proofreading text to correct errors in grammar and mechanics, whereas revising involves improvements in logic, clarity, flow, organization, and quality of evidence. (6.7i and 6.7l)
  • Rewriting allows one to learn how to write better as well as improving reading and analytical skills. (6.7i and 6.7l)
  • Revision is the opportunity to step back and re-envision text.  An author thinks about the goal of an essay and whether or not that goal was successfully accomplished. (6.7i and 6.7l)
  • Transition words and phrases not only show readers connections between ideas but also prevent awkward mental leaps between sentences and paragraphs. (6.7i)

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will demonstrate an awareness of audience and use a process for writing as they produce narrative, descriptive, expository, and persuasive pieces.
  • Teachers will focus direct instruction on all three domains of writing:
    • composing – the structuring and elaborating a writer does to construct an effective message for readers;
    • written expression – those features that show the writer purposefully shaping and controlling language to affect readers; and
    • usage/mechanics – the features that cause written language to be acceptable and effective for standard discourse.
  • Students will apply a process for writing, including planning, drafting, revising, proofreading, editing, and publishing.
  • Good writing includes elaboration, i.e., use of descriptive details and examples, within sentences to give detail and depth to an idea and across paragraphs to continue the flow of an idea throughout a piece.
  • Voice shows an author’s personality, awareness of audience, and passion for his or her subject. It adds liveliness and energy to writing.
  • Tone is used to express an author’s attitude toward the topic.
  • The writing process is nonlinear: returning to prewriting strategies or drafting at any point in the process may help the writer clarify and elaborate a drafted piece.
  • Students should have practice writing on demand, for shorter time frames, and over  extended periods of time.

All students should

  • understand that writing requires a recursive process that includes planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing
  • understand that writing should be purposefully crafted with attention to
    • deliberate word choice
    • precise information and vocabulary
    • sentence variety
    • tone and voice
  • understand that vocabulary impacts tone and must be selected with awareness of audience and purpose
  • understand that a thesis statement is not an announcement of the subject (statement of intent) but rather a unified and specific statement.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • compose with attention to:
    • central idea;
    • unity;
    • elaboration; and
    • organization.
  • craft writing purposefully with attention to:
    • deliberate word choice;
    • precise information and
  •   vocabulary;
    • tone and voice.
  • elaborate writing to continue the flow from idea to idea without interruption.
  • use appropriate transitions to clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
  • select vocabulary and tone with awareness of audience and purpose.
  • revise drafts for improvement, using teacher assistance, peer collaboration, and growing independence.
  • recognize that a thesis statement is not an announcement of the subject, but rather a unified, and specific statement. 

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective techniques, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences when writing narratives.
  • engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
  • use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
  • write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information.
  • develop the topic using  relevant facts, definitions, details, quotations, and/or examples.
  • use transitional words or phrases to connect parts of sentences in order to:
    • show relationships between ideas;
    • signal a shift or change in the writer's thoughts;
    • signal levels of importance;
    • suggest a pattern of organization; and
    • make sentences clearer.
  • provide an appropriate conclusion for the purpose and mode of writing.
  • write using descriptive details.
  • elaborate to:
    • give detail;
    • add depth; and
    • continue the flow of an idea.
  • write an effective thesis statement focusing, limiting, or narrowing the topic.
  • differentiate between a thesis statement and a topic sentence.
  • write more than one paragraph on any central theme or topic demonstrating elaboration, coherence, and unity.
  • use available computer technology to enhance the writing process.


To be successful with this standard, students are expected to 

  • compose with attention to central idea, unity, elaboration, and organization
  • analyze and use mentor texts as models for writing
  • use narrative techniques, such as pacing and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters
  • write reflectively to explain and analyze an experience, a skill, or an event, and as a response to reading
  • recognize that three examples of reflective writing include
    • technical— – which includes what worked or did not work and reasons why, problem-solving techniques, and theories that were used or tested
    • collaborative— – which is centered on team dynamics, how everyone worked together and why, and what worked or did not work and reasons why
    • individual—focused on questions such as, “What did I learn?” “How did I learn it?” and “What could I have done better?”
  • write expository texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information
  • write using organizational patterns such as definition, comparison/contrast, and cause and effect
  • develop the topic using relevant facts, definitions, details, quotations, and/or examples
  • use transitional words or phrases to connect parts of sentences to show relationships between ideas, signal a shift or change in the writer's thoughts, signal levels of importance, suggest a pattern of organization, and make sentences clearer
  • establish and maintain a formal style of writing when appropriate
  • provide an appropriate conclusion for the purpose and form of writing
  • identify audience and purpose for any piece of writing
  • elaborate to give detail, add depth, and continue the development of an idea
  • write an effective thesis statement focusing, limiting, or narrowing the topic
  • differentiate between a thesis statement and a topic sentences
  • write on any central theme or topic, demonstrating elaboration, coherence, and unity
  • incorporate variety into sentences, using appropriate modifier, coordination, or subordination
  • revise drafts for improvement using teacher assistance and peer collaboration
  • understand that revising to improve a draft includes rereading, reflecting, rethinking, and rewriting to clarify, elaborate, and make more precise.

Updated: Jun 12, 2018

The student will edit writing for correct grammar, capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, and paragraphing.

a)  Use a variety of graphic organizers, including sentence diagrams, to analyze and improve sentence formation and paragraph  structure.

b)  Use subject-verb agreement with intervening phrases and clauses.

c)  Use pronoun-antecedent agreement to include indefinite pronouns.

d)  Maintain consistent verb tense across paragraphs.

e)  Eliminate double negatives.

f)  Use quotation marks with dialogue.

g)  Choose adverbs to describe verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.

h)  Use correct spelling for frequently used words.

The student will self- and peer-edit writing for capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, paragraphing, and Standard English

a) Use subject-verb agreement with intervening phrases and clauses.

b) Use pronoun-antecedent agreement to include indefinite pronouns.

c) Maintain consistent verb tense across paragraphs.

d) Eliminate double negatives.

e) Use quotation marks with dialogue.

f) Choose adverbs to describe verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.

g) Use correct spelling for frequently used words.

h) Use subordinating and coordinating conjunctions.


Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • Subject-verb agreement is important because without it a reader could become confused. (6.8b and 6.8a)
  • The subject-verb pair unifies a sentence.  It can be surrounded by modifiers, phrases, and clauses, but it will still be the basic unit of meaning. (6.8b and 6.8a)
  • Subjects and verbs need to agree in number since they are units that hold the overall meanings of sentences. (6.8b and 6.8a)
  • If a pronoun does not agree with its antecedent in terms of number (singular/plural), person (1st/2nd/3rd), and gender (masculine/feminine/neutral), confusions can arise. (6.8c and 6.8b)
  • It is important to maintain consistent verb tense so readers can follow the progression of ideas and arguments easily. (6.8d and 6.8c)
  • Verb tense allows writers to express the time relationship among ideas and events. (6.8d and 6.8c)
  • Double negatives create confusion because the two negatives cancel each other out.  The sentence sounds negative but is actually positive. (6.8e and 6.8d)
  • Writers use quotation marks to clearly show which words in a passage are dialogue. (6.8f and 6.8e).
  • Adverbs provide extra information about adjectives, verbs, and other adverbs that clarify meaning and enhance imagery. (6.8g and 6.8f)
  • Adverbs provide information to answer questions such as how much? where? when? how often? and how much? (8.6g and 6.8f)
  • Proper spelling facilitates streamlines and effective communication. (8.6h and 6.8g)
  • Coordinating clauses allow writers to connect two ideas of equal importance and subordinating conjunctions allows writers to connect two ideas where one is of lesser value than the other. (8.6h)

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will understand and apply all the conventions of language learned at the elementary school level.
  • Students will maintain correct use of language to enhance writing and to avoid confusing or distracting the reader.
  • Students will understand that the conventions of correct language are an integral part of the writing process and their proper use is a courtesy to the reader.
  • Indefinite pronouns refer to a person(s) or thing(s) not specifically named and include all, any, anyone, both, each, either, everybody, many, none, nothing.
  • A diagram of a sentence is a tool used to increase the understanding of the structure of a sentence.

All students should

  • understand that correct use of language enhances writing and avoids confusing or distracting the reader
  • understand that pronouns need to have recognizable antecedents that agree in number and gender.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • proofread and edit drafts with teacher assistance, peer collaboration, and growing independence.
  • differentiate between subjects and objects when choosing pronouns.
  • understand that pronouns need to have recognizable antecedents that agree in number and gender.
  • use reference sources to differentiate among homophones and easily confused words,(e.g., a lot/allot, effect/affect, bored/board).
  • replace colloquial expressions with correct usage (e.g., I could of rode my bike becomes  I could have ridden my bike.).

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • use complete sentences with appropriate punctuation.
  • avoid comma splices and fused sentences.
  • avoid using coordinating conjunctions at the beginning of a sentence (e.g., and, so).
  • diagram sentences with phrases and clauses.
  • use singular verbs with singular subjects and plural verbs with plural subjects (e.g., The driver of the bus aware of children drives very carefully. The students in the class discuss many topics).
  • use reference sources to select the correct spelling and usage of words such as their, there, and they’re.
  • use first person pronouns appropriately in compound subjects and objects (e.g., John and I went to the store. Mother gave presents to Jim and me.).
  • recognize and correct vague pronouns (i.e., ones with unclear or ambiguous antecedents).
  • choose adjectives and adverbs appropriately (e.g., He is a good student. He does really well in all his studies).
  • capitalize language classes or classes followed by a number (e.g., French, Algebra II ).
  • capitalize mom and dad only when those titles replace names or are used as proper nouns (e.g., My mom told me to go to bed, and I replied, "No, Mom, I don’t want to.”).
  • punctuate and format dialogue.
  • correctly use the apostrophe for contractions and possessives.
  • maintain a consistent verb tense within sentences and throughout and across paragraphs.
  • eliminate double negatives.
  • correctly use quotation marks in dialogue.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • edit drafts with teacher assistance, peer collaboration, and growing independence
  • use complete sentences with appropriate punctuation
  • avoid comma splices and run-on sentences
  • avoid using coordinating conjunctions at the beginning of a sentence (e.g., andso)
  • use first-person pronouns appropriately in compound subjects and objects
  • differentiate between subjects and objects when choosing pronouns
  • recognize and correct vague pronouns
  • maintain a consistent verb tense within sentences and throughout and across paragraphs.

Updated: Jun 14, 2018