Reading - 2018-19

Thematic Topic : Family

Communication:Speaking Listening, Media Literacy

The student will participate in and contribute to small-group activities.

a)  Communicate as leader and contributor.

b)  Evaluate own contributions to discussions.

c)  Summarize and evaluate group activities.

d)  Analyze the effectiveness of participant interactions.

The student will use effective oral communication skills in a variety of settings.

a) Listen actively and speak using appropriate discussion rules with awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues.

b) Participate as a facilitator and contributor in a group.

c) Participate in collaborative discussions with partners building on others’ ideas.

d) Ask questions to clarify the speaker’s purpose and perspective.

e) Summarize the main points a speaker makes.

f) Summarize and evaluate group activities.

g) Analyze the effectiveness of participant interactions.

h) Evaluate own contributions to discussions.

i) Demonstrate the ability to collaborate with diverse teams.

j) Work respectfully with others and show value for individual contributions.


Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  •  Most careers require that workers form teams in order to meet deadlines.  (6.1a, b, c, d and 6.1a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j)
  • It is important to know how to use and understand verbal and nonverbal communication as both a member and leader of a group. (6.1a, d and 6.1a, b, j)
  • It is important to use verbal and nonverbal feedback to evaluate one's own contributions. (6.1b and 6.1 a,h)
  • Working as an effective team increases efficiency. (6.1c, d and 6.1b, i, j)
  • Brainstorming as a group often produces more creative and effective ideas than brainstorming alone. (6.1d and 6.1c)
  • Being part of an effective team creates a support network built on reliance and trust. (6.1a, d and 6.1i, j )
·


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will use oral language effectively.
  • Students will evaluate the effectiveness of the contributions of participants in a variety of roles in a discussion group.
All students should understand verbal and nonverbal feedback from the audience should be used to evaluate contributions.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • interact as both group leader and member.
  • use verbal and nonverbal feedback from the audience to evaluate their own contributions.
  • process and verbalize the content and impact of each participant’s contribution to a discussion.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • ensure that all group members participate in the exchange of information.
  • use strategies that contribute to the discussion.
  • receive and understand feedback from the others.
  • pose and respond to questions.
  • relate and retell information.
  • restate briefly and critically the main idea(s) or theme(s) discussed within a group.
  • use active listening to focus on what is said and what is implied.
  • summarize what is heard.
  • retain and rethink ideas based on what is heard.
  • infer and assimilate new ideas.
  • use a checklist and/or rubric to evaluate the participation of self and others.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • ensure that all group members participate in the exchange of information
  • evaluate the effectiveness of the contributions of participants in a variety of roles in a discussion group
  • use strategies that contribute to the discussion
  • receive and understand feedback from others
  • pose and respond to questions
  • restate briefly and critically the main idea(s) discussed within a group
  • use active listening to focus on what is said and what is implied
  • retain and rethink ideas based on what is heard
  • infer and assimilate new ideas.

Updated: May 29, 2018

The student will present, listen critically, and express opinions in oral presentations.

d)  Paraphrase and summarize what is heard.



The student will create multimodal presentations that effectively communicate ideas

  • d) Paraphrase and summarize key ideas of a presentation.

  • Adopted: 2017

    BIG IDEAS

    • Being able to summarize allows one to discern the most important ideas and ignore irrelevant information. (6.2d and 6.2d)
    • Paraphrasing can help clarify something that is not clear by restating it without changing the meaning. (6.2d and 6.2d)
    • Being able to paraphrase information demonstrated comprehension. (6.2d and 6.2d)
    • Paraphrasing allows information to be more effectively stored in long-term memory. (6.2d and 6.2d)

    UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    • The intent of this standard is that students will refine and apply critical listening skills while participating in oral presentations as both the speaker and members of the audience.
    • Students will present convincing arguments and compare and contrast viewpoints.
    • Students will paraphrase and summarize what they have heard, using grammatically correct language and appropriate vocabulary.

    All students should

    • understand paraphrasing and summarizing means restating the main points more succinctly than the original presentation.

    ESSENTIALS

    All students should

    • recognize that facts can be verified and that opinions cannot.
    • recognize that each member brings to the group a unique viewpoint reflective of his or her background.
    • paraphrase by putting into their own words what has been said by others.
    • paraphrase and summarize by restating the main points more succinctly than the original presentation.
    • organize a presentation.

    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • take notes to record facts/opinions or differing viewpoints.
    • organize convincing arguments to include:
      • facts;
      • statistics;
      • examples; and
      • logical reasoning.
    • paraphrase or summarize what others have said.
    • plan and deliver an oral presentation, using the following steps:
      • determine topic and purpose;
      • identify the intended audience;
      • gather information;
      • organize the information;
      • use multimedia to clarify presentation information;
      • choose vocabulary appropriate to topic, purpose, and audience;
      • phrase with grammatically correct language; and
      • practice delivery.
    • use strategies for summarizing, such as the following:
      • delete trivial and redundant information;
      • substitute a general term for a list; and
    • find or create a main idea statement.

    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • use strategies for summarizing, such as
      • deleting trivial and/or redundant information
      • substituting a general term for a list
      • creating a main idea statement

    Updated: May 30, 2018

    Reading

    The student will read and learn the meanings of unfamiliar words and phrases within authentic texts.

    b)  Use roots, cognates, affixes, synonyms, and antonyms to expand vocabulary.

    c)  Use context and sentence structure to determine meanings and differentiate among multiple meanings of words.

    e) Use word-reference materials.


    The student will read and determine the meanings of unfamiliar word and phrases within authentic texts.

    b)   Use roots, affixes, synonyms, and antonyms to expand vocabulary.

    c)   Use context and sentence structure to determine meanings and differentiate among multiple meanings of words.

    e)   Use word-reference materials.



    Adopted: 2017

    BIG IDEAS

    • Many words are like Legos; they can be pulled apart and reassembled with other parts to make new words. (6.4b and 6.4b)
    • Many words have multiple meanings, and understanding the context as well as the dictionary definitions can help determine which meaning is appropriate. (6.4c and 6.4c)
    • Understanding word parts helps readers decode and understand the meanings of words more quickly and accurately. (6.4b and 6.4b))
    • Word reference materials allow readers to determine or confirm word meanings, including their connotations, denotations, and etymologies. (6.4e and 6.4e)
    • Synonyms and antonyms can make meanings more precise when words are chosen not only for their denotative meanings but for their connotative meanings as well. (6.4b,c and 6.4b,c)

    UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    • The intent of this standard is that students will become independent learners of vocabulary. Teachers should choose vocabulary from context.
    • Students will be exposed to prefixes, suffixes, roots, derivations, and inflections of polysyllabic words and understand that words with similar parts may be related to each other in meaning and origin.
    • Teachers should use a study of cognates, words from the same linguistic family, to enhance vocabulary instruction Cognates can occur within the same language or across languages— night (English), nuit (French), Nacht (German), nacht (Dutch), nicht (Scots), natt (Swedish, Norwegian), nat (Danish), raat (Urdu), nátt (Faroese), nótt (Icelandic), noc (Czech, Slovak, Polish).
    • Figurative language will be introduced and, students will continue the use of context to help determine the meaning of unfamiliar words.
    • Students will be introduced to wordrelationships and nuances in word meanings.
    • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used as figurative language.
    • Students will develop independence with reference books to determine meaning, pronunciation, and origin of words.

    All students should

    • understand that word structure can be analyzed to show relationships among words
    • understand that affixes and Greek and Latin roots are clues to determine meanings of words
    • recognize that many words have multiple meanings and that context and dictionaries are both supportive in determining which meaning is most appropriate

    ESSENTIALS

    All students should

    • use word structure to analyze and show relationships among words.
    • use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to determine meanings of common English words.
    • recognize that many words have multiple meanings and that context and dictionaries are both supportive in determining which meaning is most appropriate.
    • recognize that figurative language enriches text.

    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • use common Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., aud –  hearing, listening, or sound audience, auditory, audible.
    • identify Latin and Greek roots of common English words  as clues to the meaning.
    • separate and recombine known word parts to predict the meaning of unfamiliar words, such as separating poly from polygon and phone from telephone to predict the meaning of polyphony.
    • recognize common antonyms and synonyms.
    • notice relationships among inflected words, such as proceed and procession or internal and internalization.
    • use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning.
    • recognize word relationships, such as:
      • synonyms – small: little;
      • antonyms – up: down;
      • object/action – ear: hear;
      • source/product – tree: lumber;
      • part/whole – paw: dog; and
      • animal/habitat – bee: hive.
    • use context clues to determine meanings of unfamiliar words in text, such as:
      • examples;
      • restatements; and
      • contrast.
    • identify figurative language in text, including:
      • simile – figures of speech that use the words like or as to make comparisons;
      • hyperbole – intentionally exaggerated figures of speech; and
      • metaphor – a comparison equating two or more unlike things without using “like” or “as.”
    • consult word reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses, both print and online) to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its meaning.
    • determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on reading and content.

    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • use common Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., aud –  hearing, listening, or sound audienceauditoryaudible)
    • separate and recombine known word parts to predict the meaning of unfamiliar words, such as separating poly from polygon and phone from telephone to predict the meaning of polyphony
    • use context clues to determine meanings of unfamiliar words in text, such as examples, restatements, and contrast
    • consult word reference materials to find the pronunciation of a word or to determine or clarify its meaning
    • determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on reading and content.

    KEY VOCABULARY

    prefix; suffix; root; derivation; inflection; antonyms; synonyms; simile; hyperbole; metaphor; dictionaries; glossaries; thesauruses

    Affix

    Antonym

    Authentic text

    Clarify

    Context

    Differentiate
    Updated: May 31, 2018

    The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of fictional texts, narrative nonfiction, and poetry.

    a)  Identify the elements of narrative structure, including setting, character, plot, conflict, and theme.

    f)   Use information in the text to draw conclusions and make inferences.

    j)  Identify and analyze the author's use of figurative language.

    l)  Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.


    The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of fictional texts, literary nonfiction, and poetry.

    a) Identify elements of narrative structure, including setting, character, plot, conflict, and theme.

    f) Draw conclusions and make inferences using the text for support.

    h) Identify and analyze the author’s use of figurative language.

    k) Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.


    Adopted: 2017

    BIG IDEAS

    • Settings provide the underlying foundation or backdrop of a story and thus given a deeper meaning to the story as a whole. (6.5a and 6.5a)
    • Authors sometimes use characters to symbolize qualities such as courage, malice, or love, so it is important to analyze characters to fully understand a story and its theme. (6.5a and 6.5a)
    • A reader's feelings about a story's characters influence how the plot in a story impacts the reader. (6.5a and 6.5a)
    • Beyond the surface level of events, authors write stories to convey a larger meaning or theme.  If a reader can't identify a theme they are missing the overall point of the story. (6.5a and 6.5a)
    • Because plots are interconnected series of events, every event has a specific purpose.  When all events are put together they establish connections, suggests causes, and show relationships. (6.5 a and 6.5a)
    • The struggle and growth surrounding conflict are the main infrastructure of fiction.  The main character(s) in a story has to struggle and make choices to change. (6.5a and 6.5a)
    • Making inferences is like being a detective.  Readers must use their prior knowledge to find the meanings behind what is written in a passage. (6.5f and 6.5f)
    • Rather than being explicit, writers sometimes imply a main idea or theme, and it is up to the reader to figure out the main idea or theme by inferencing and drawing conclusions. (6.5f and 6.5f)
    • Figurative language allows writers to communicate more effectively ideas that aren't easily understood because they are complex or abstract.  By comparing the more abstract or complex idea to a second one, it makes the first idea easier to comprehend. (6.5j and 6.5h)
    • Reading strategies are deliberate mental actions that allow readers to better comprehend and remember textual information. (6.5k)

    UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    • The intent of this standard is that students will read at and beyond the literal level in a variety of genres, including fiction, narrative nonfiction, and poetry, and understand the structures and characteristics of stories and poems.
    • Teachers will model higher-order thinking processes with materials at the students’ instructional reading level and move students gradually to collaborative and independent comprehension of age-appropriate materials at the independent reading level.
    • Students will become independent readers of age-appropriate text and will activate background knowledge and summarize or paraphrase text to demonstrate understanding.
    • Imagery is the use of words to recreate sensory impressions. Verbal imagery is most often visual, but imagery may also be words that recreate sound, smell, taste, or touch impressions.
    • Students will use a variety of reading strategies such as text annotation, QAR (Question-Answer Relationship), thinking aloud, etc. 

    All students should

    • understand that the author uses images to craft a message and create characters
    • understand that imagery and figurative language enrich texts
    • recognize an author’s craft as the purposeful choice of vocabulary, sentence formation, voice, and tone.

    ESSENTIALS

    All students should

    • ·  recognize an author’s choice of words and images.
    • ·  describe how the author uses keywords and images to craft a message and create characters.
    • ·  analyze in detail how a key individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, and elaborated in a text (e.g., through examples or anecdotes).
    • ·  analyze how a text makes connections among and distinctions between individuals, ideas, or events (e.g., through comparisons orcategories).
    • ·  identify and define the elements of narrative structure.
    • ·  understand that imagery and figurative language enrich texts.
    • ·  recognize an author’s craft as the purposeful choice of vocabulary, sentence formation, voice, and tone.

    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • understand setting as time and place.
    • understand plot as:
      • the development of the central conflict and resolution;
      • the sequence of events in the story; and
      • the writer’s map for what happens, how it happens, to whom it  happens, and when it happens.
    • understand that character traits are revealed by:
      • what a character says;
      • what a character thinks;
      • what a character does; and
      • how other characters respond to the character.
    • determine a central idea or theme of a fictional text and how it is developed through specific details.
    • understand internal and external conflicts in stories, including:
      • internal conflicts within characters;
      • external conflicts between characters; and
      • changes in characters as a result of conflicts and resolutions in the plot.
    • describe how a fictional plot is often episodic, and how characters develop as the plot moves toward a resolution.
    • make, revise, and evaluate predictions before, during, and after reading passages.
    • use graphic organizers to record plot elements that illustrate cause and effect relationships and plot development.
    • use graphic organizers to record changes in characters as a result of incidents in the plot.


    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • identify setting as time and place
    • explain plot as
      • the development of the central conflict and resolution
      • the sequence of events in the story
      • the writer’s map for what happens, how it happens, to whom it happens, when it happens, why it happens, and where it happens
    • identify characters as protagonist and antagonist
    • identify point of view and distinguish between first and third person
    • identify characterization as the way an author presents a character and character traits are revealed by
      • what a character says
      • what a character thinks
      • what a character does
      • how other characters respond to the character
    • determine a theme(s) and explain how it is developed through specific details
    • identify internal and external conflicts, including
      • internal conflicts within characters
      • external conflicts between characters
    • describe how a fictional plot is often episodic, and how characters develop as the plot moves toward a resolution
    • notice an author’s craft, including use of
      • language patterns
      • sentence variety
      • vocabulary
      • imagery
      • figurative language
      • word choice to develop mood and tone
    • recognize and analyze an author’s use of figurative language including
      • simile
      • hyperbole
      • metaphor
      • personification
    • recognize poetic elements in prose and poetry, including, but not limited to,
      • rhyme
      • rhythm
      • repetition
      • alliteration
      • onomatopoeia
    • describe how characters change as a result of incidents in the plot
    • compare and contrast two or more texts on the same topic or with similar themes
    • use evidence from the text(s) for support when drawing conclusions and making inferences
    • analyze how an individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, and elaborated in a text (e.g., through examples or anecdotes)
    • demonstrate comprehension and apply strategies to write about what is read.

    Updated: Jun 05, 2018

    The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of nonfiction texts.

      b)  Use prior knowledge and build additional background knowledge as context for new learning.

      c)  Identify questions to be answered.

      d)  Make, confirm, or revise predictions.

      e)  Draw conclusions and make inferences based on explicit and implied information. 

      g)  Identify main idea.

      h)  Summarize supporting details.

      l)  Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.

    The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of nonfiction texts.

    b) Identify main idea.

    c) Summarize supporting details.

    d) Create an objective summary including main idea and supporting details.

    e) Draw conclusions and make inferences based on explicit and implied information.

    k) Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.


    Adopted: 2017

    BIG IDEAS

    • Questions must be carefully considered before developing answers because answers to some questions are found directly in the text and thus require a reader to think and then search. (6.6c)
    • Different types of questions require different types of thinking, and understanding question-answer relationships allows readers to be more efficient and strategic. (6.6c)
    • Making predictions allows readers to connect prior knowledge to a text. (6.6d)
    • Making inferences is like being a detective.  Readers must use their prior knowledge to find the meanings behind what is written in a passage. (6.6e and 6.6e)
    • Rather than being explicit, writers sometimes imply a main idea or theme, and it is up to the reader to figure out the main idea or theme by inferencing and drawing conclusions. (6.6e and 6.6e)
    • Comparing and contrasting ideas about one topic found in multiple sources allows a reader to identify conflicting and consistent information and thus evaluate the validity of sources. (6.6i)
    • To be able to summarize a reader must be able to identify the main idea. (6.6g and 6.6b)
    • The main idea is the glue that holds all of the details in a passage together. (6.6g and 6.6b)
    • The degree to which a reader will comprehend and/or support the main idea or proposition of a passage will depend on the details that are used to support that idea or proposition. (6.6h and 6.6c)
    • Reading strategies are deliberate mental actions that allow readers to better comprehend and remember textual information. (6.6l and 6.6k)
    • Summarizing demonstrates one's ability to identify the most important ideas in a text, distinguish relevant from irrelevant details, and integrate ideas in a meaningful way. (6.6d)

    UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    • The intent of this standard is that students will read and comprehend at and beyond the literal level in a variety of nonfiction texts.
    • Teachers will model higher-order thinking processes with materials at the students’ instructional reading level and move students gradually to collaborative and independent comprehension of age-appropriate materials at the independent reading level.
    • Students will become independent and knowledgeable about the use of libraries and technology for doing research.
    • Teachers will collaborate to help students apply reading skills in a variety of content texts.
    • Students will use a variety of reading strategies such as text annotation, QAR (Question-Answer Relationship), thinking aloud, etc.

    All students should

    • recognize an author’s use of technical vocabulary
    • understand that all texts contain messages stated or implied by an author
    • understand that there are strategies including context, structural analysis, and reference sources, for determining the meaning of unfamiliar and technical vocabulary
    • understand that skilled readers of nonfictional texts apply different reading strategies.

    ESSENTIALS

    All students should

    • activate prior knowledge before reading.
    • be strategic before, during, and after reading.
    • recognize an author’s patterns of organization.
    • recognize an author’s use and clarification of technical vocabulary.
    • use graphic organizers to organize and summarize text.
    • read beyond the printed text to understand the message stated or implied by an author.
    • select appropriate sources of information based on the purpose for reading.
    • use a variety of strategies, including context, structural analysis, and reference sources, for determining the meaning of unfamiliar and technical vocabulary.
    • read in order to gather, organize, and synthesize information for written and oral presentations.
    • recognize an author’s purpose, including:
      • to entertain;
      • to inform; and
      • to persuade.

    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • activate prior knowledge before reading by use of, but not limited to:
      • small-group or whole-class discussion;
      • anticipation guides; and
      • preview of key vocabulary
    • pose questions prior to and during the reading process based on text structures, such as:
      • boldface and/or italics type;
      • type set in color;
      • vocabulary;
      • graphics or photographs; and
      • headings and subheadings.
    • use specific and helpful clues in the context, including:
      • definitions – which define words within the text;
      • signal words – which alert readers that explanations or examples follow;
      • direct explanations – which explain terms as they are introduced;
      • synonyms – which provide a more commonly used term;
      • antonyms – which contrast words with their opposites; and
      • inferences – which imply meaning and help readers deduce meaning.
    • give evidence from the text to support conclusions.
    • identify common patterns of organizing text including:
      • chronological or sequential;
      • comparison/contrast;
      • cause and effect;
      • problem-solution; and
      • generalization or principle.
    • predict and then read to validate or revise the prediction(s).
    • identify clue words and phrases that help unlock meaning of unfamiliar and technical terms.
    • comprehend and record details and/or facts in order to arrive at a conclusion, inference, or generalization.
    • recognize that a fact is something that can be proven, while an opinion is a personal feeling.
    • determine a central idea of a text and recognize how details support that idea.
    • use graphic organizers to show similarities and differences in the information found in several sources about the same topic.
    • use strategies and rules for summarizing, such as the following:
      • delete trivia and redundancy;
      • substitute a general term for a list; and
      • find or create a main idea statement.
    • summarize the text without providing a personal opinion.
    • compare and contrast similar information across several texts.


    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • use context, structural analysis, and reference sources to determine the meaning of unfamiliar and technical vocabulary
    • make inferences and draw conclusions using the text(s) for support
    • use strategies and rules for summarizing, such as
      • delete trivia and redundancy
      • substitute a general term for a list
      • find or create a main idea statement
    • summarize the text without providing a personal opinion
    • demonstrate comprehension and apply strategies to write about what is read.

    KEY VOCABULARY

    boldface and/or italics type; type set in color; vocabulary; graphics or photographs; headings and subheadings; signal words;  direct explanations;  synonyms;  antonyms;  inferences; chronological or sequential; comparison/contrast; cause and effect; problem-solution; generalization or principle; fact vs. opinion; central idea


    Conclusion

    Context

    Implied

    Inference

    Nonfiction text

    Redundant

    Reference material

    Structural analysis

    Summarize

    Technical vocabulary

    Trivia


    Updated: Jun 12, 2018

    Writing

    The student will write narration, description, exposition, and persuasion.

      a)  Identify audience and purpose.  

      b)  Use a variety of prewriting strategies including graphic organizers to generate and organize ideas.

      c)  Organize writing structure to fit mode or topic.

      d)  Establish a central idea and organization.


    The student will write in a variety of forms, to include narrative, expository, persuasive, and reflective, with an emphasis on narrative and reflective writing.

    a) Engage in writing as a recursive process.

    b) Choose audience and purpose.

    c) Use a variety of prewriting strategies to generate and organize ideas.

    d) Organize writing to fit mode or topic.

    f) Establish a central idea, incorporating evidence and maintaining an organized structure.


    Adopted: 2017

    BIG IDEAS

    • Knowing the purpose and audience for a piece of text not only helps writers know what to say but also how to say it. (6.7a and 6.7b)
    • The purpose and intended audience for a piece of text can impact the choice of text structure. (6.7a and 6.7b)
    • To effectively engage an intended audience, it is critical to use appropriate language and tone. (6.7a and 6.7b)
    • Prewriting makes the writing process more efficient. (6.7b and 6.7c)
    • Prewriting involves choosing a topic, considering purpose, identifying the audience, gathering information, and organizing ideas. (6.7b and 6.7c)
    • Prewriting provides a path for a writer to follow. (6.7b and 6.7c)
    • Writing should focus on a central idea around which details will be added. The central idea is the glue that holds the organization of the text together. (6.7d and 6.7f)
    • Author's can organize writing to fit their given purposes and topics. (6.7c and 6.7d)
    • Knowing text structures, transition words, and text features allow writers to organize their thinking to match the structure needed for effective communication and comprehension. (6.7c and 6.7d)
    • Rather than being linear, the process of writing is recursive where writers may jump between steps in the process and revisit previous steps as needed. (6.7a)

    UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    • The intent of this standard is that students will demonstrate an awareness of audience and use a process for writing as they produce narrative, descriptive, expository, and persuasive pieces.
    • Teachers will focus direct instruction on all three domains of writing:
      • composing – the structuring and elaborating a writer does to construct an effective message for readers;
      • written expression – those features that show the writer purposefully shaping and controlling language to affect readers; and
      • usage/mechanics – the features that cause written language to be acceptable and effective for standard discourse.
    • Students will apply a process for writing, including planning, drafting, revising, proofreading, editing, and publishing.
    • Good writing includes elaboration, i.e., use of descriptive details and examples, within sentences to give detail and depth to an idea and across paragraphs to continue the flow of an idea throughout a piece.
    • Voice shows an author’s personality, awareness of audience, and passion for his or her subject. It adds liveliness and energy to writing.
    • Tone is used to express an author’s attitude toward the topic.
    • The writing process is nonlinear: returning to prewriting strategies or drafting at any point in the process may help the writer clarify and elaborate a drafted piece.
    • Students should have practice writing on demand, for shorter time frames, and over  extended periods of time.

    All students should

    • understand that writing requires a recursive process that includes planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing
    • understand that writing should be purposefully crafted with attention to
      • deliberate word choice
      • precise information and vocabulary
      • sentence variety
      • tone and voice
    • understand that a thesis statement is not an announcement of the subject (statement of intent) but rather a unified and specific statement.

    ESSENTIALS

    • use prewriting strategies to select and narrow topics.
    • compose with attention to:
      • central idea;
      • unity;
      • elaboration; and
      • organization.
    • craft writing purposefully with attention to:
      • deliberate word choice;
      • precise information and
    •   vocabulary;
      • sentence variety; and
      • tone and voice.
    • elaborate writing to continue the flow from idea to idea without interruption.
    • use appropriate transitions to clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
    • select vocabulary and tone with awareness of audience and purpose.
    • revise drafts for improvement, using teacher assistance, peer collaboration, and growing independence.

    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective techniques, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences when writing narratives.
    • engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
    • use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
    • write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information.
    • include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when appropriate.
    • develop the topic using  relevant facts, definitions, details, quotations, and/or examples.
    • use transitional words or phrases to connect parts of sentences in order to:
      • show relationships between ideas;
      • signal a shift or change in the writer's thoughts;
      • signal levels of importance;
      • suggest a pattern of organization; and
      • make sentences clearer.
    • establish and maintain a formal style of writing when appropriate.
    • provide an appropriate conclusion for the purpose and mode of writing.
    • identify audience and purpose for any piece of writing.
    • use selected prewriting techniques, such as:
      • brainstorming;
      • webbing;
      • mapping;
      • clustering;
      • listing;
      • organizing graphically;
      • questioning; and
      • outlining.
    • write using descriptive details.
    • elaborate to:
      • give detail;
      • add depth; and
      • continue the flow of an idea.
    • write more than one paragraph on any central theme or topic demonstrating elaboration, coherence, and unity.
    • understand that revising to improve a draft includes:
      • rereading;
      • reflecting;
      • rethinking; and
      • rewriting.
    • use available computer technology to enhance the writing process.


    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to 

    • compose with attention to central idea, unity, elaboration, and organization
    • analyze and use mentor texts as models for writing
    • write reflectively to explain and analyze an experience, a skill, or an event, and as a response to reading
    • recognize that three examples of reflective writing include
      • technical— – which includes what worked or did not work and reasons why, problem-solving techniques, and theories that were used or tested
      • collaborative— – which is centered on team dynamics, how everyone worked together and why, and what worked or did not work and reasons why
      • individual—focused on questions such as, “What did I learn?” “How did I learn it?” and “What could I have done better?”
    • write expository texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information
    • write using organizational patterns such as definition, comparison/contrast, and cause and effect
    • develop the topic using relevant facts, definitions, details, quotations, and/or examples
    • use transitional words or phrases to connect parts of sentences to show relationships between ideas, signal a shift or change in the writer's thoughts, signal levels of importance, suggest a pattern of organization, and make sentences clearer
    • establish and maintain a formal style of writing when appropriate
    • provide an appropriate conclusion for the purpose and form of writing
    • identify audience and purpose for any piece of writing
    • elaborate to give detail, add depth, and continue the development of an idea
    • write on any central theme or topic, demonstrating elaboration, coherence, and unity
    • revise drafts for improvement using teacher assistance and peer collaboration
    • understand that revising to improve a draft includes rereading, reflecting, rethinking, and rewriting to clarify, elaborate, and make more precise.


    Updated: Jun 12, 2018

    The student will edit writing for correct grammar, capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, and paragraphing.

    a)  Use a variety of graphic organizers, including sentence diagrams, to analyze and improve sentence formation and paragraph  structure.

    b)  Use subject-verb agreement with intervening phrases and clauses.

    c)  Use pronoun-antecedent agreement to include indefinite pronouns.

    d)  Maintain consistent verb tense across paragraphs.

    e)  Eliminate double negatives.

    f)  Use quotation marks with dialogue.

    g)  Choose adverbs to describe verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.

    h)  Use correct spelling for frequently used words.

    The student will self- and peer-edit writing for capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, paragraphing, and Standard English

    a) Use subject-verb agreement with intervening phrases and clauses.

    b) Use pronoun-antecedent agreement to include indefinite pronouns.

    c) Maintain consistent verb tense across paragraphs.

    d) Eliminate double negatives.

    e) Use quotation marks with dialogue.

    f) Choose adverbs to describe verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.

    g) Use correct spelling for frequently used words.

    h) Use subordinating and coordinating conjunctions.


    Adopted: 2017

    BIG IDEAS

    • Subject-verb agreement is important because without it a reader could become confused. (6.8b and 6.8a)
    • The subject-verb pair unifies a sentence.  It can be surrounded by modifiers, phrases, and clauses, but it will still be the basic unit of meaning. (6.8b and 6.8a)
    • Subjects and verbs need to agree in number since they are units that hold the overall meanings of sentences. (6.8b and 6.8a)
    • If a pronoun does not agree with its antecedent in terms of number (singular/plural), person (1st/2nd/3rd), and gender (masculine/feminine/neutral), confusions can arise. (6.8c and 6.8b)
    • It is important to maintain consistent verb tense so readers can follow the progression of ideas and arguments easily. (6.8d and 6.8c)
    • Verb tense allows writers to express the time relationship among ideas and events. (6.8d and 6.8c)
    • Double negatives create confusion because the two negatives cancel each other out.  The sentence sounds negative but is actually positive. (6.8e and 6.8d)
    • Writers use quotation marks to clearly show which words in a passage are dialogue. (6.8f and 6.8e).
    • Adverbs provide extra information about adjectives, verbs, and other adverbs that clarify meaning and enhance imagery. (6.8g and 6.8f)
    • Adverbs provide information to answer questions such as how much? where? when? how often? and how much? (8.6g and 6.8f)
    • Proper spelling facilitates streamlines and effective communication. (8.6h and 6.8g)
    • Coordinating clauses allow writers to connect two ideas of equal importance and subordinating conjunctions allows writers to connect two ideas where one is of lesser value than the other. (8.6h)

    UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    • The intent of this standard is that students will understand and apply all the conventions of language learned at the elementary school level.
    • Students will maintain correct use of language to enhance writing and to avoid confusing or distracting the reader.
    • Students will understand that the conventions of correct language are an integral part of the writing process and their proper use is a courtesy to the reader.
    • Indefinite pronouns refer to a person(s) or thing(s) not specifically named and include all, any, anyone, both, each, either, everybody, many, none, nothing.
    • A diagram of a sentence is a tool used to increase the understanding of the structure of a sentence.

    All students should

    • understand that correct use of language enhances writing and avoids confusing or distracting the reader
    • understand that pronouns need to have recognizable antecedents that agree in number and gender.

    ESSENTIALS

    All students should

    • proofread and edit drafts with teacher assistance, peer collaboration, and growing independence.
    • differentiate between subjects and objects when choosing pronouns.
    • understand that pronouns need to have recognizable antecedents that agree in number and gender.
    • use reference sources to differentiate among homophones and easily confused words,(e.g., a lot/allot, effect/affect, bored/board).
    • replace colloquial expressions with correct usage (e.g., I could of rode my bike becomes  I could have ridden my bike.).

    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • use complete sentences with appropriate punctuation.
    • avoid comma splices and fused sentences.
    • avoid using coordinating conjunctions at the beginning of a sentence (e.g., and, so).
    • diagram sentences with phrases and clauses.
    • use singular verbs with singular subjects and plural verbs with plural subjects (e.g., The driver of the bus aware of children drives very carefully. The students in the class discuss many topics).
    • use reference sources to select the correct spelling and usage of words such as their, there, and they’re.
    • use first person pronouns appropriately in compound subjects and objects (e.g., John and I went to the store. Mother gave presents to Jim and me.).
    • recognize and correct vague pronouns (i.e., ones with unclear or ambiguous antecedents).
    • choose adjectives and adverbs appropriately (e.g., He is a good student. He does really well in all his studies).
    • capitalize language classes or classes followed by a number (e.g., French, Algebra II ).
    • capitalize mom and dad only when those titles replace names or are used as proper nouns (e.g., My mom told me to go to bed, and I replied, "No, Mom, I don’t want to.”).
    • punctuate and format dialogue.
    • correctly use the apostrophe for contractions and possessives.
    • maintain a consistent verb tense within sentences and throughout and across paragraphs.
    • eliminate double negatives.
    • correctly use quotation marks in dialogue.

    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • edit drafts with teacher assistance, peer collaboration, and growing independence
    • use complete sentences with appropriate punctuation
    • avoid comma splices and run-on sentences
    • avoid using coordinating conjunctions at the beginning of a sentence (e.g., and, so)
    • use first-person pronouns appropriately in compound subjects and objects
    • differentiate between subjects and objects when choosing pronouns
    • recognize and correct vague pronouns
    • maintain a consistent verb tense within sentences and throughout and across paragraphs.


    Updated: Jun 14, 2018