Reading - 2018-19

Unit 3

Communication:Speaking Listening, Media Literacy

The student will make a formal oral presentation in a group or individually.

a. Choose the purpose of the presentation.

b. Choose vocabulary, language, and tone appropriate to the audience, topic, and purpose.

c. Use details, illustrations, statistics, comparisons, and analogies to support the presentation.

d. Use media, visual literacy, and technology skills to create and support the presentation.

e. Use grammatically correct language, including vocabulary appropriate to the topic, audience, and purpose.

f. Collaborate and report on small group learning activities.

g. Evaluate formal presentations including personal, digital, visual, textual, and technological.

h Use a variety of listening strategies to analyze relationships among purpose, audience, and content of presentations.

i. Critique effectiveness of presentations.


The student will make planned, persuasive/argumentative, multimodal, interactive presentations collaboratively and individually.

a) Select and effectively use multimodal tools to design and develop presentation content.

b) Credit information sources.

c) Demonstrate the ability to work collaboratively with diverse teams.

d) Anticipate and address alternative or opposing perspectives and counterclaims.

e) Evaluate the various techniques used to construct arguments in multimodal presentations.

f) Use a variety of strategies to listen actively and speak, using appropriate discussion rules with awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues.

g) Critique effectiveness of multimodal presentations.


Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • Prewriting includes choosing a topic, considering purpose, identifying the audience, and gathering and organizing ideas. (12.1a and 12.1a)
  • Technology can enhance the ability to research, collect, organize, evaluate, and communicate information. (12.1d and 12.1a)
  • Nonverbal communication is made up of pitch, volume, and inflection of voice, as well as posture, eye contact, gestures, facial expressions, and proximity. (12.1h and 12.1f)
  • Nonverbal communication can either reiterate the spoken message, contradict it, or complement its meaning. (12.1h and 12.1f)
  • Every medium creates meaning differently through the use of visual and verbal techniques. (12.1b, c, d and 12.1a)
  • Understanding text structures allows presenters to organize their thinking for the most effective communication. (12.1a)
  • Multimodal tools allow writers to engage larger audiences by through the incorporation of visual and sounds. (12.1d and 12.1e)
  • Being respectful is critical to effective communication as being disrespectful puts listeners in adversarial frames of mind in which they will likely disregard or dispute what is subsequently said. (12.1f,h and 12.1f)
  • Plagiarism deprives the original author of due credit for his or her work; it is a form of intellectual theft. (12.1b)
  • It is important to properly cite the words and ideas of others. (12.1b)
  • Offering a counterclaim and then providing enough evidence to disprove it strengthens the presenter's/writer's argument by indicating that he/she is well-informed and able to consider multiple perspectives. (12.1d)
  • Constructive critiques allow a writer or presenter to take an objective look at what was written or presented and evaluate content, format, details, and presentation. (12.1g, i and 12.1g)
  • Being a good listener is a way to show respect and understanding of another person's perspective. (12.1f, h and 12.1f)
  • Active listening involves not only paying attention to the words someone is saying but also trying to understand the complete message. (12.1f, h and 12.1f)
  • Working as a team increases efficiency. (12.1f and 12.1c)
  • Brainstorming as a group often leads to more creative, innovative ideas than working alone. (12.1f and 12.1c)
  • Being part of an effective team creates a support network built on reliance and trust. (12.1f and 12.1c)
  • Most careers require that workers form teams in order to meet deadlines. (12.1f and 12.1c)
  • BIG IDEAS FOR 2010 SUBSTANDARD 12.1E ARE NOT INCLUDED.

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

All students should

  • recognize rhetoric as the art of persuasion
  • understand how to evaluate and critique content and delivery of presentations.

ESSENTIALS

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • choose appropriate vocabulary, language, and tone for the selected topic, purpose, context, and audience
  • examine and evaluate strengths and weaknesses when participating in small-group presentations 
  • evaluate the overall effectiveness of a group’s preparation and presentation
  • make compromises to accomplish a common goal and reach consensus
  • evaluate the content of presentation(s), including introduction, organization,  strengths/weaknesses in evidence and reasoning, and conclusion
  • monitor audience engagement, and adjust delivery accordingly.

Updated: May 29, 2018

The student will examine how values and points of view are included or excluded and how media influences beliefs and behaviors. 

a. Evaluate sources including advertisements, editorials, blogs, Web sites, and other media for relationships between intent, factual content, and opinion.

b. Determine the author's purpose and intended effect on the audience for media messages.


The student will examine how values and points of view are included or excluded and how media influences beliefs and behaviors.

a) Describe possible cause-and-effect relationships between mass media coverage and public opinion trends.

b) Evaluate media sources for relationships between intent and factual content.

c) Evaluate motives (e.g., social, commercial, political) behind media presentation(s).

d) Examine how values and viewpoints are included or excluded and how the media can influence beliefs, behaviors, and interpretations.

e) Evaluate sources, including advertisements, editorials, political cartoons, and feature stories for relationships between intent and factual content.

f) Manage, analyze, and synthesize multiple streams of simultaneous information.

g) Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet when evaluating or producing creative or informational media messages.


Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • Knowing the audience determines the content to be presented and the language and visuals to include. (12.2b and 12.2d)
  • Determining the accuracy of factual information can help someone judge the credibility of the author or presenter and provide clues to possible bias. (12.2a and 12.2b, e)
  • Information on the Internet is not regulated for accuracy so it is important for users to evaluate the resources and the information. (12.2 a and 12.2b, e)
  • Media messages include ones used for propaganda and persuasion. (12.2b and 12.2c)
  • Well crafted media messages help shape public opinion and play an important role in stimulating civic action, exposing problems to be addressed, and highlighting important issues. (12.2b and 12.2a, c)
  • Media are designed to accomplish one or more purposes including expressing an opinion or point of view, persuading, entertaining, and educating. (12.2b and 12.2a, c)
  • Media focus the public's attention on certain people and issues, causing the public to form opinions about those people and issues. (12.2b and 12.2a, c)
  • The effect of media is particularly pronounced in areas in which audiences do not possess direct knowledge or experience (12.2b and 12,2a, c)
  • Mass media largely dictate what is newsworthy and how it will be portrayed. (12.2b and 12.2a)
  • Based on media presentation, a particular opinion sometimes gets repeated through various media until a false vision is created in which perceived truth is not in line with actual truth. (12.2b and 12.2a, c)
  • Choices made in the creation of media reflect the values, attitudes, and perspectives of those creating the messages. (12.2b and 12.2c)
  • Comparing information found in multiple sources allows one to identify conflicting and consistent information and thus evaluate sources. (12.2a and 12.2b, f)
  • Comparing and contrasting viewpoints gives one a more comprehensive view of a topic. (12.1a and 12.2b, f)
  • Using the Internet ethically involves avoiding stealing (plagiarism), avoiding untruthfulness, and avoiding cruelty. (12.2g)
  • The Internet provides a vast sea of information that users must deftly sift through to determine relevance and validity prior to using that information. (12.2a and 12.2b, f)

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

All students should

  • recognize that media messages express points of view and contain values to influence the beliefs and behaviors of the intended audience
  • understand the difference between objectivity (fact) and subjectivity (bias) in media messages
  • understand the intentional use of persuasive language and word connotations to convey viewpoint and bias.

ESSENTIALS

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • organize knowledge and display learning using visual images, text, graphics, and/or music to create media messages with visual, audio, and graphic effects
  • evaluate media messages for content, intent, and impact
  • analyze and critique how media reaches the targeted audience for specific purposes
  • analyze media to determine the cause-and-effect relationship(s) between media coverage and public opinion trends
  • analyze how the media’s use of symbolism, imagery, metaphor, and bias affects the message
  • avoid plagiarism by giving credit whenever using another person’s media, facts, statistics, graphics, images, music and sounds, quotations, or paraphrases of  another person’s words.

Updated: May 30, 2018

Reading

The student will read, comprehend, and analyze the development of British literature and literature of other cultures.

a. Compare and contrast the development of British literature in its historical context.

e. Analyze the social and cultural function of British literature.

i. Compare and contrast dramatic elements of plays from American, British, and other cultures.


The student will read, comprehend, and analyze the development of British literature and the literature of other cultures.

a) Compare and contrast the development of British literature in its historical context.

d) Interpret the social and cultural function of British literature.

g) Evaluate how dramatic conventions contribute to the theme and effect of plays from American, British, and other cultures.


Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • Literature relates to the society/environment in which it is created. (12.4a, e and 12.4a, d)
  • People create writings, art, and music when moved by political situations. (12.4a, e and 12.4a, d)
  • British literature and literature of other cultures can be used to view social expectations or the norms of the time period from which they were written. (12.4a, e and 12.4a, d)
  • British literature and literature of other cultures serve a function, regardless of the time it was composed. (12.4a, e and 12.4a, d)
  • Each historical period creates its own unique literature, and this often builds on literary trends that have already happened. (12.4a, e and 12.4a, d)
  • British literature and literature of other cultures contain knowledge about the beliefs, perceptions, and philosophies of its people. (12.4a, e and 12.4a, d)
  • Literature not only serves the purpose of entertainment, but it can also enlighten the readers about the world around them, shape readers political or ideological views, and serve as a time capsule of the language and culture of the time in which it was written. (12.4e and 12.4d)
  • Because plays have a visual component, dramatic conventions unique to the literary form are used to create effects and contribute to meaning. (12.4i and 12.4g)

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

All students should

  • understand characteristics and cultures of historical periods and how the literature reflects those characteristics and cultures
  • understand diction affects the tone of literature.

ESSENTIALS

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • analyze texts to identify the author’s attitudes, viewpoints, and beliefs and critique how these relate to larger historical, social, and cultural contexts
  • recognize major themes and issues related to
    • religious diversity
    • political struggles
    • ethnic and cultural mores and traditions
    • individual rights, gender equity, and civil rights
  • compare  and contrast two or more texts on the same topic or with similar themes
  • use evidence from the text(s) for support when drawing conclusions or making inferences
  • demonstrate comprehension and apply writing strategies to analyze and reflect on what is read.

Updated: Jun 05, 2018

The student will read and analyze a variety of nonfiction texts.

a. Generate and respond logically to literal, inferential, evaluative, synthesizing, and critical thinking questions before, during, and after reading texts.

b. Analyze and synthesize information in order to solve problems, answer questions, and generate new knowledge.

c. Analyze two or more texts addressing the same topic to identify author's purpose and determine how authors reach similar or different conclusions.

d. Recognize and analyze use of ambiguity, contradiction, paradox, irony, overstatement, and understatement in text.

e. Identify false premises in persuasive writing

f. Draw conclusions and make inferences on explicit and implied information using textual support.


The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate a variety of nonfiction texts.

a) Use critical thinking to generate and respond logically to literal, inferential, and evaluative questions about text(s).

b) Identify and synthesize resources to make decisions, complete tasks, and solve specific problems.

c) Analyze multiple texts addressing the same topic to determine how authors reach similar or different conclusions.

d) Recognize and analyze use of ambiguity, contradiction, paradox, irony, overstatement, and understatement in text.

e) Analyze false premises claims, counterclaims, and other evidence in writing.


Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • Comparing and contrasting ideas found in multiple sources allows one to identify conflicting and consistent information and thus evaluate sources. (12.5c and 12.5c)
  • Comparing viewpoints on the same topic from multiple authors gives one a more comprehensive view of a topic. (12.5c and 12.5c)
  • Because a false premise is an incorrect proposition, the conclusions drawn by readers may be incorrect. (12.5e and 12.5e)
  • Irony is an indirect route to pointing out problematic relationships between perception and truth. (12.5d and 12.5d)
  • Irony can help one find humor even in grave situations. (12.5d and 12.5d)
  • Because paradoxes are contradictory statements that contain elements of truth, they lead readers to question traditional ideas. (12.5d and 12.5d)
  • Writers often use paradoxes to make readers think about ideas in innovative ways. (12.5d and 12.5d)
  • Overstatements and understatements are used by authors to emphasize ideas by making obvious contradictions between what is written and reality. (12.5d and 12.5d)
  • Authors use ambiguity to make their writing more complex, interesting, and realistic. (12.5d and 12.5d)
  • Ambiguity leaves room for interpretation by the reader. (12.5d and 12.5d)
  • Formulating questions allows individuals to gather more information, work more effectively with teams, address challenges more proactively, and reflect more deeply. (12.5a and 12.5a)
  • Prior to reading good readers set a goal for reading and note structure of texts. (12.5a and 12.5a)
  • During reading good readers analyze words, construct meaning, use background knowledge to relate, ask questions, predict, and inter. (12.5a and 12.5a)
  • The ability to synthesize information and then utilize what is compiled to make decisions and accomplish goals is critical for students and employees. (12.5b and 12.5b)
  • BIG IDEAS FOR 2010 SUBSTANDARD 12.5F ARE NOT INCLUDED.

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

All students should

  • understand that background knowledge may be necessary to understand handbooks and manuals
  • understand a variety of persuasive techniques and rhetorical devices
  • recognize the text structure of informational and technical writing
  • understand how format and style in informational text differ from those in narrative and expository texts
  • understand that skilled readers of nonfiction texts and technical documents apply different reading strategies.

ESSENTIALS

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • analyze the vocabulary (i.e., content-specific jargon, technical terminology) of informational texts from various academic disciplines to clarify understanding
  • analyze how authors use rhetorical devices to create ethos, pathos, and logos
  • organize and synthesize information from two texts while maintaining the intended purpose of each original text
  • analyze how authors use rhetoric to advance their point of view
  • identify different formats and purposes of informational and technical texts
  • recognize the non-linear, fragmented, and graphic elements found in informational and technical writing
  • demonstrate comprehension and apply strategies to write about what is read
  • identify the resources needed to address specific problems and synthesize new information to make decisions and complete tasks such as completing employment, college, and financial applications; compiling résumés; creating portfolios etc. 

Updated: Jun 12, 2018

Writing

The student will develop expository and informational, analyses, and persuasive/argumentative writings.

a. Generate, gather, and organize ideas for writing to address a specific audience and purpose.

b. Produce arguments in writing that develop a thesis to demonstrate knowledgeable judgments, address counterclaims, and provide effective conclusions.

c. Clarify and defend a position with precise and relevant evidence.

d. Adapt content, vocabulary, voice, and tone to audience, purpose, and situation.\

e. Use a variety of rhetorical strategies to accomplish a specific purpose.

f. Create arguments free of errors in logic and externally supported.

g. Revise writing for clarity of content, depth of information and technique of presentation.

h. Use computer technology to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish writing.


The student will write in a variety of forms to include persuasive/argumentative, reflective, interpretive, and analytic, with an emphasis on persuasion and argumentation.

a) Apply components of a recursive writing process for multiple purposes to create a focused, organized, and coherent piece of writing to address a specific audience and purpose.

b) Produce arguments in writing that develop a thesis to demonstrate knowledgeable judgements, address counterclaims, and provide effective conclusions.

c) Use a variety of rhetorical strategies to clarify and defend a position, organizing claims, counterclaims, and evidence in a sustained and logical sequence.

d) Blend multiple forms of writing, including embedding a narrative to produce effective essays.

e) Adapt evidence, vocabulary, voice, and tone to audience, purpose, and situation.

f) Use words, phrases, clauses, and varied syntax to connect all parts of the argument, creating cohesion from the information presented.

g) Revise writing for clarity of content, depth of information, and technique of presentation.

h) Write and revise to a standard acceptable both in the workplace and in postsecondary education.

i) Write to clearly describe personal qualifications for potential occupational or educational opportunities.


Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • Knowing the purpose and audience for a piece of text not only helps writers know what to say but also how to say it. (12.6a, d and 12.6e)
  • The purpose and intended audience for a piece of text can impact the choice of text structure. (12.6a and 12.6e)
  • To effectively engage an intended audience, it is critical to use appropriate language and tone. (12.6 d and 12.6e)
  • Writing should focus on a central idea around which details will be added. The central idea is the glue that holds the organization of the text together. (12.6b, c and 12.6b)
  • Editing is proofreading text to correct errors in grammar and mechanics, whereas revising involves improvements in logic, clarity, flow, organization, and quality of evidence. (12.6g and 12.6g)
  • Rewriting allows one to learn how to write better as well as improving reading and analytical skills. (12.6g and 12.6g)
  • Revision is the opportunity to step back and re-envision text.  An author thinks about the goal of an essay and whether or not that goal was successfully accomplished. (12.6g and 12.6g)
  • A thesis statement controls the subject matter of an essay and states something significant. (12.6b and 12.6b)
  • Like the foundation of a building, a thesis statement or topic sentence provides a base on which all of an essay's ideas will be constructed. (12.6b and 12.6b)
  • Specific vocabulary helps create a writer's tone and enhances the purpose. (12.6d and 12.6e)
  • Selecting precise words and information helps increase the impact of a text on the audience. (12.6c, d, f and 12.6e)
  • Information to include in an essay should be reasons, descriptions, statistics, facts, examples, explanations, and comparisons to help readers learn more about the thesis statement or topic sentence. (12.6c and 12.6c)
  • The degree to which a reader will comprehend and/or support the main idea or proposition of a passage will depend on the details that are used to support the main idea or proposition. (12.6c and 12.6c)
  • Word choice impacts tone, imagery, voice, and mood. (12.6d and 12.6e)
  • Word choice contributes to both meaning and emotional effect. (12.6d and 12.6e)
  • Offering a counterclaim and then providing enough evidence to disprove it strengthens the presenter's/writer's argument by indicating that he/she is well-informed and able to consider multiple perspectives. (12.6b, f and 12.6b)
  • Rather than being linear, the process of writing is recursive where writers may jump between steps in the process and revisit previous steps as needed. (12.6a)
  • The use of anecdotal narrative evidence to illustrate points is a powerful persuasive and argumentative tool. (12.6e and 12.6d)
  • Varying syntax structures not only eliminates monotony in writing but can also be used effectively to emphasize certain ideas. (12.6e, f, and 12.6f)
  • Formal language is used in situations that are serious or involve people that one does not know well.  Informal language is used in situations that are more relaxes and with people one know's well. (12.6h)
  • Grammar and vocabulary differ between formal and informal English. (12.6h)
  • When writing for potential employers or educational opportunities it is important to know what qualities are being looked for in candidates and then effectively describing how one possesses those qualities. (12.6i)
  • BIG IDEAS FOR 2010 SUBSTANDARD 12.6H ARE NOT INCLUDED.

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

All students should

  • understand that writing requires a recursive process that includes planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing
  • understand that effective writing should be purposefully crafted with attention to deliberate word choice, precise information, and vocabulary
  • understand the features of the domains of writing, including composing, written expression, and usage/mechanics, are essential to quality writing
  • understand that voice and tone must be developed with awareness of audience and purpose.

ESSENTIALS

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • demonstrate the craft of writing as persuasive/argumentative, reflective, interpretive, or analytical
  • develop and apply embedded narrative techniques, such as dialogue, description, and pacing to develop experiences and enhance writing
  • refine the thesis by considering whether the claim is  logical, meaningful, and expresses the writer’s position in an argument
  • use embedded clauses for sentence variety
  • write persuasively/argumentatively, organizing reasons logically and effectively
  • analyze sources and determine the best information to support a position/argument
  • use credible, current research and expert opinions to support a position/argument
  • identify counterclaims and identify counterarguments that address those claims
  • compare/contrast and select evidence from multiple texts to strengthen a position/argument
  • revise writing for clarity and quality of information to effectively match the intended audience and purpose of a workplace and/or postsecondary education
  • anticipate and address counterevidence, counterclaims, and counterarguments 
  • use effective rhetorical appeals to establish credibility and persuade the intended audience
  • develop technical writings (e.g., job description, questionnaire, job application, or business communication) that address clearly identified audiences and have clearly identified purposes
  • complete employment forms (e.g. résumé, personal qualifications in a letter of application) 
  • complete applications, essays, and résumés for college admission
  • develop analytical essays that
    • examine and evaluate processes/problems and propose solutions
    • develop claim(s) and counterclaims thoroughly, supplying the most relevant data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both
    • create cohesion and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims
    • apply persuasive, rhetorical devices and techniques
    • recognize and avoid common logical fallacies or false premises
  • assess and strengthen the quality of writing through revision.

Updated: Jun 13, 2018

The student will write, revise, and edit writing.

a. Edit, proofread, and prepare writing for intended audience and purpose.

b. Apply grammatical conventions to edit writing for correct use of language, spelling, punctuation, and capitalization.

c. Use a style manual, such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA), to apply rules for punctuation and formatting of direct quotations.


The student will self- and peer-edit writing for Standard English.

a) Use complex sentence structure to infuse sentence variety in writing.

b) Edit, proofread, and prepare writing for intended audience and purpose.

c) Use a style manual, such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA), to apply rules for punctuation and formatting of direct quotations.


Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • Text structures create a path to aid comprehension.  Authors choose the structures that best arrange and connect ideas for the intended audiences and purposes. (12.7a and 12.7b)
  • Editing is proofreading text to correct errors in grammar and mechanics, whereas revising involves improvement in logic, clarity, flow, organization, and quality of evidence. (12.7a, b and 12.7b)
  • Revision is the opportunity to step back and re-envision text.  An author thinks about the goal of an essay and whether or not that goal was successfully accomplished.  (12.7a and 12.7b)
  • Sentence variety enhances the flow of ideas, emphasizes points, and maintains reader engagement. (12.7a)
  • Knowing the purpose and audience not only helps a writer know what to say but also how to say it.  (12.7a and 12.7b)
  • Use of a style guide such as MLA or APA allows for uniformity in style and formatting within a document and across multiple documents. (12.7c and 12.7c)
  • Revising, editing, and proofreading not only give writers the chance to correct errors in their writing but also to ensure that their wording, structure, and content are best suited to their audiences and goals. (12.7a, b and 12.7b)

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

All students should understand grammatical conventions adjust sentence and paragraph structures for a variety of purposes and audiences.

ESSENTIALS

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • use a variety of strategies to evaluate whether the draft is effectively supported and adequately developed
  • edit one’s own and others’ work for grammar, style, and tone appropriate to audience, purpose, and context
  • apply current MLA or APA style for punctuation conventions and formatting direct quotations, particularly for in-text citation in documented papers.

Updated: Jun 14, 2018