Reading - 2018-19

Unit 2

Communication:Speaking Listening, Media Literacy

The student will make a formal oral presentation in a group or individually.

a. Choose the purpose of the presentation.

b. Choose vocabulary, language, and tone appropriate to the audience, topic, and purpose.

c. Use details, illustrations, statistics, comparisons, and analogies to support the presentation.

d. Use media, visual literacy, and technology skills to create and support the presentation.

e. Use grammatically correct language, including vocabulary appropriate to the topic, audience, and purpose.

f. Collaborate and report on small group learning activities.

g. Evaluate formal presentations including personal, digital, visual, textual, and technological.

h Use a variety of listening strategies to analyze relationships among purpose, audience, and content of presentations.

i. Critique effectiveness of presentations.


The student will make planned, persuasive/argumentative, multimodal, interactive presentations collaboratively and individually.

a) Select and effectively use multimodal tools to design and develop presentation content.

b) Credit information sources.

c) Demonstrate the ability to work collaboratively with diverse teams.

d) Anticipate and address alternative or opposing perspectives and counterclaims.

e) Evaluate the various techniques used to construct arguments in multimodal presentations.

f) Use a variety of strategies to listen actively and speak, using appropriate discussion rules with awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues.

g) Critique effectiveness of multimodal presentations.


Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • Prewriting includes choosing a topic, considering purpose, identifying the audience, and gathering and organizing ideas. (12.1a and 12.1a)
  • Technology can enhance the ability to research, collect, organize, evaluate, and communicate information. (12.1d and 12.1a)
  • Nonverbal communication is made up of pitch, volume, and inflection of voice, as well as posture, eye contact, gestures, facial expressions, and proximity. (12.1h and 12.1f)
  • Nonverbal communication can either reiterate the spoken message, contradict it, or complement its meaning. (12.1h and 12.1f)
  • Every medium creates meaning differently through the use of visual and verbal techniques. (12.1b, c, d and 12.1a)
  • Understanding text structures allows presenters to organize their thinking for the most effective communication. (12.1a)
  • Multimodal tools allow writers to engage larger audiences by through the incorporation of visual and sounds. (12.1d and 12.1e)
  • Being respectful is critical to effective communication as being disrespectful puts listeners in adversarial frames of mind in which they will likely disregard or dispute what is subsequently said. (12.1f,h and 12.1f)
  • Plagiarism deprives the original author of due credit for his or her work; it is a form of intellectual theft. (12.1b)
  • It is important to properly cite the words and ideas of others. (12.1b)
  • Offering a counterclaim and then providing enough evidence to disprove it strengthens the presenter's/writer's argument by indicating that he/she is well-informed and able to consider multiple perspectives. (12.1d)
  • Constructive critiques allow a writer or presenter to take an objective look at what was written or presented and evaluate content, format, details, and presentation. (12.1g, i and 12.1g)
  • Being a good listener is a way to show respect and understanding of another person's perspective. (12.1f, h and 12.1f)
  • Active listening involves not only paying attention to the words someone is saying but also trying to understand the complete message. (12.1f, h and 12.1f)
  • Working as a team increases efficiency. (12.1f and 12.1c)
  • Brainstorming as a group often leads to more creative, innovative ideas than working alone. (12.1f and 12.1c)
  • Being part of an effective team creates a support network built on reliance and trust. (12.1f and 12.1c)
  • Most careers require that workers form teams in order to meet deadlines. (12.1f and 12.1c)
  • BIG IDEAS FOR 2010 SUBSTANDARD 12.1E ARE NOT INCLUDED.

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

All students should

  • recognize rhetoric as the art of persuasion
  • understand how to evaluate and critique content and delivery of presentations.

ESSENTIALS

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • choose appropriate vocabulary, language, and tone for the selected topic, purpose, context, and audience
  • examine and evaluate strengths and weaknesses when participating in small-group presentations 
  • evaluate the overall effectiveness of a group’s preparation and presentation
  • make compromises to accomplish a common goal and reach consensus
  • evaluate the content of presentation(s), including introduction, organization,  strengths/weaknesses in evidence and reasoning, and conclusion
  • monitor audience engagement, and adjust delivery accordingly.

Updated: May 29, 2018

Reading

The student will apply knowledge of word origins, derivations, and figurative language to extend vocabulary development in authentic texts.

a. Use structural analysis of roots, affixes, synonyms, antonyms, and cognates to understand complex words.

b. Use context, structure, and connotations to determine meanings of words and phrases.

c. Discriminate between connotative and denotative meanings and interpret the connotation.

d. Identify the meaning of common idioms, literary, and classical allusions in text.

e. Expand general and specialized vocabulary through speaking, reading, and writing.

f. Use knowledge of the evolution, diversity, and effects of language to comprehend and elaborate the meaning of texts.


The student will apply knowledge of word origins, derivations, and figurative language to extend vocabulary development in authentic texts.

a) Use structural analysis of roots, affixes, synonyms, and antonyms to understand complex words.

b) Use context, structure, and connotations to determine meanings of words and phrases.

c) Discriminate between connotative and denotative meanings and interpret connotations.

d) Explain the meaning of common idioms and literary classical allusions in text.

e) Extend general and cross-curricular vocabulary through speaking, listening, reading, and writing.


Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • Understanding word structures and origins and derivations helps to show relationships among words. (12.3a and 12.3a, b)
  • Many words are like Legos; they can be pulled apart and reassembled with other parts to make new words. (12.3a and 12.3a )
  • Many words have multiple meanings, and understanding the context can help determine which meaning is appropriate. (12.3b, c and 12.3b, c)
  • Understanding words parts helps readers decode and understand the meanings of words more quickly and accurately. (12.3a and 12.3a, b)
  • Synonyms and antonyms can make meaning more precise when words are chosen not only for their denotative meanings but for their connotative meanings as well. (12.3a, b, c and 12.3b, c)
  • Most professions and areas of study have specialized vocabularies that are specific to them. (12.3e and 12.3f)
  • Connotations are the suggested meanings of words, including associations and emotional implications. (12.3b, c and 12.3c)
  • Connotations can influence mood or tone through the positive, negative, or neutral emotions they evoke. (12.3b, c and 12.3c)
  • Words that have the same denotative meaning can have drastically different connotative meanings. (12.3c and 12.3c)
  • Idioms can be used to communicate a meaning for which there is no exact word. (12.3d and 12.3d)
  • Idioms can be used as a short way of expressing a complex idea. (12.3d and 12.3d)
  • Allusions are based on the assumption that there is a shared body of knowledge that allows a reader to connect the significance of an allusion to the author's message. (12.3d and 12.3d)
  • An allusion stimulates ideas, associations, and extra information in a reader's mind with only a word or two. (12.3d and 12.3d)
  • Definitions of words can change over time both denotatively and connotatively. (12.3c and 12.3c)
  • BIG IDEAS FOR 2010 SUBSTANDARD 12.2C ARE NOT INCLUDED.

  • UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    All students should

    • recognize that words have nuances of meaning and that understanding the connotations may be necessary to determine the appropriate meaning
    • recognize how figurative language enriches text
    • understand that allusions are used to assist readers in providing connections to other works or historical events.

    ESSENTIALS

    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • use roots or affixes to determine or clarify the meaning of words
    • demonstrate an understanding of and explain the use of common idioms
    • use prior reading knowledge and other sources to identify and explain the meaning of allusions
    • interpret figures of speech (e.g., overstatement, paradox) in context and analyze their role in the text
    • analyze positive and negative connotations of words with similar denotations
    • demonstrate understanding of figurative language and connotations in word meanings.

    Updated: May 31, 2018

    The student will read, comprehend, and analyze the development of British literature and the literature of other cultures.

    f. Explain how the sound of a poem (rhyme, rhythm, onomatopoeia, repetition, alliteration, assonance, and parallelism) supports the subject, mood, and theme.

    g. Compare and contrast traditional and contemporary poems from many cultures.

    h. Analyze how dramatic conventions including character, scene, dialogue, and staging contribute to the theme and effect.


    The student will read, comprehend, and analyze the development of British literature and literature of other cultures.

    b) Analyze how authors use key literary elements to contribute to meaning and interpret how themes are connected across texts.

    e) Interpret how sound and imagery in poetry support the subject, mood, and theme, and appeal to the reader’s senses.

    f) Compare and contrast traditional and contemporary poems from many cultures.

    h) Use critical thinking to generate and respond logically to literal, inferential, and evaluative questions about text(s).


    Adopted: 2017

    BIG IDEAS

    • Formulating questions allows individuals to gather more information, work more effectively with teams, address challenges more proactively, and reflect more deeply. (12.4h)
    • During reading good readers analyze words, construct meaning, use background knowledge to relate, ask questions, predict, and inter. (12.4h)
    • Questioning is critical to successful reading comprehension because it is the process of asking questions, seeking and answers, and then asking additional questions that keeps the reading process going. (12.4h)
    • Because the world is experienced using our five senses, the use of imagery allows readers to more realistically experience a text. (12.4e)
    • Word choice impact the meaning and emotional impact of text. (12.4e)
    • Sound effects in text can create either pleasant, melodic effects or jarring, discordant effects. (12.4f and 12.4e)
    • Repetitive sounds can help set an atmosphere for the reader. (12.4f and 12.4e)
    • Word choice, including attention to connotation as well as the use of figurative language, impacts the tone, imagery, voice, and mood of text. (12.4e)
    • By making connections to a reader's senses or experiences, imagery and figures of speech help to evoke emotions in the reader that enables a deeper connection to the story. (12.4e)
    • While format, structure, and language often vary considerably between traditional and contemporary poetry, the subjects and themes can often be quite similar. (12.4g and 12.4f)
    • Themes often explore timeless and universal ideas, and these themes are often connected across different writing styles and genres. (12.4h and 12.4b)
    • Author's are purposeful in their writing and utilize literary elements and diction to support the meanings and themes of their pieces. (12.4h and 12.4b)

    UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    All students should

    • understand characteristics and cultures of historical periods and how the literature reflects those characteristics and cultures
    • understand diction affects the tone of literature.

    ESSENTIALS

    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • analyze texts to identify the author’s attitudes, viewpoints, and beliefs and critique how these relate to larger historical, social, and cultural contexts
    • recognize major themes and issues related to
      • religious diversity
      • political struggles
      • ethnic and cultural mores and traditions
      • individual rights, gender equity, and civil rights
    • differentiate between what is directly stated in a text from what is intended or implied because of the use of satire, sarcasm, irony, or understatement
    • compare  and contrast two or more texts on the same topic or with similar themes
    • use evidence from the text(s) for support when drawing conclusions or making inferences
    • demonstrate comprehension and apply writing strategies to analyze and reflect on what is read.

    Updated: Jun 05, 2018

    The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate a variety of nonfiction texts.

    a) Use critical thinking to generate and respond logically to literal, inferential, and evaluative questions about text(s).

    Adopted: 2017

    BIG IDEAS

    • Formulating questions allows individuals to gather more information, work more effectively with teams, address challenges more proactively, and reflect more deeply. (12.5a)
    • Prior to reading good readers set a goal for reading and note structure of texts. (12.5a)
    • During reading good readers analyze words, construct meaning, use background knowledge to relate, ask questions, predict, and inter. (12.5a)
    • After reading good readers reflect and summarize. (12.5a)

    UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    All students should

    • understand that background knowledge may be necessary to understand handbooks and manuals
    • recognize the text structure of informational and technical writing
    • understand that skilled readers of nonfiction texts and technical documents apply different reading strategies.

    ESSENTIALS

    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • identify different formats and purposes of informational and technical texts
    • recognize the non-linear, fragmented, and graphic elements found in informational and technical writing
    • demonstrate comprehension and apply strategies to write about what is read

    Updated: Jun 12, 2018

    Writing

    The student will develop expository and informational, analyses, and persuasive/argumentative writings.

    a. Generate, gather, and organize ideas for writing to address a specific audience and purpose.

    b. Produce arguments in writing that develop a thesis to demonstrate knowledgeable judgments, address counterclaims, and provide effective conclusions.

    c. Clarify and defend a position with precise and relevant evidence.

    d. Adapt content, vocabulary, voice, and tone to audience, purpose, and situation.\

    e. Use a variety of rhetorical strategies to accomplish a specific purpose.

    f. Create arguments free of errors in logic and externally supported.

    g. Revise writing for clarity of content, depth of information and technique of presentation.

    h. Use computer technology to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish writing.


    The student will write in a variety of forms to include persuasive/argumentative, reflective, interpretive, and analytic, with an emphasis on persuasion and argumentation.

    a) Apply components of a recursive writing process for multiple purposes to create a focused, organized, and coherent piece of writing to address a specific audience and purpose.

    b) Produce arguments in writing that develop a thesis to demonstrate knowledgeable judgements, address counterclaims, and provide effective conclusions.

    c) Use a variety of rhetorical strategies to clarify and defend a position, organizing claims, counterclaims, and evidence in a sustained and logical sequence.

    d) Blend multiple forms of writing, including embedding a narrative to produce effective essays.

    e) Adapt evidence, vocabulary, voice, and tone to audience, purpose, and situation.

    f) Use words, phrases, clauses, and varied syntax to connect all parts of the argument, creating cohesion from the information presented.

    g) Revise writing for clarity of content, depth of information, and technique of presentation.

    h) Write and revise to a standard acceptable both in the workplace and in postsecondary education.

    i) Write to clearly describe personal qualifications for potential occupational or educational opportunities.


    Adopted: 2017

    BIG IDEAS

    • Knowing the purpose and audience for a piece of text not only helps writers know what to say but also how to say it. (12.6a, d and 12.6e)
    • The purpose and intended audience for a piece of text can impact the choice of text structure. (12.6a and 12.6e)
    • To effectively engage an intended audience, it is critical to use appropriate language and tone. (12.6 d and 12.6e)
    • Writing should focus on a central idea around which details will be added. The central idea is the glue that holds the organization of the text together. (12.6b, c and 12.6b)
    • Editing is proofreading text to correct errors in grammar and mechanics, whereas revising involves improvements in logic, clarity, flow, organization, and quality of evidence. (12.6g and 12.6g)
    • Rewriting allows one to learn how to write better as well as improving reading and analytical skills. (12.6g and 12.6g)
    • Revision is the opportunity to step back and re-envision text.  An author thinks about the goal of an essay and whether or not that goal was successfully accomplished. (12.6g and 12.6g)
    • A thesis statement controls the subject matter of an essay and states something significant. (12.6b and 12.6b)
    • Like the foundation of a building, a thesis statement or topic sentence provides a base on which all of an essay's ideas will be constructed. (12.6b and 12.6b)
    • Specific vocabulary helps create a writer's tone and enhances the purpose. (12.6d and 12.6e)
    • Selecting precise words and information helps increase the impact of a text on the audience. (12.6c, d, f and 12.6e)
    • Information to include in an essay should be reasons, descriptions, statistics, facts, examples, explanations, and comparisons to help readers learn more about the thesis statement or topic sentence. (12.6c and 12.6c)
    • The degree to which a reader will comprehend and/or support the main idea or proposition of a passage will depend on the details that are used to support the main idea or proposition. (12.6c and 12.6c)
    • Word choice impacts tone, imagery, voice, and mood. (12.6d and 12.6e)
    • Word choice contributes to both meaning and emotional effect. (12.6d and 12.6e)
    • Offering a counterclaim and then providing enough evidence to disprove it strengthens the presenter's/writer's argument by indicating that he/she is well-informed and able to consider multiple perspectives. (12.6b, f and 12.6b)
    • Rather than being linear, the process of writing is recursive where writers may jump between steps in the process and revisit previous steps as needed. (12.6a)
    • The use of anecdotal narrative evidence to illustrate points is a powerful persuasive and argumentative tool. (12.6e and 12.6d)
    • Varying syntax structures not only eliminates monotony in writing but can also be used effectively to emphasize certain ideas. (12.6e, f, and 12.6f)
    • Formal language is used in situations that are serious or involve people that one does not know well.  Informal language is used in situations that are more relaxes and with people one know's well. (12.6h)
    • Grammar and vocabulary differ between formal and informal English. (12.6h)
    • When writing for potential employers or educational opportunities it is important to know what qualities are being looked for in candidates and then effectively describing how one possesses those qualities. (12.6i)
    • BIG IDEAS FOR 2010 SUBSTANDARD 12.6H ARE NOT INCLUDED.

    UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    All students should

    • understand that writing requires a recursive process that includes planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing
    • understand that effective writing should be purposefully crafted with attention to deliberate word choice, precise information, and vocabulary
    • understand the features of the domains of writing, including composing, written expression, and usage/mechanics, are essential to quality writing
    • understand that voice and tone must be developed with awareness of audience and purpose.

    ESSENTIALS

    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • demonstrate the craft of writing as persuasive/argumentative, reflective, interpretive, or analytical
    • develop and apply embedded narrative techniques, such as dialogue, description, and pacing to develop experiences and enhance writing
    • refine the thesis by considering whether the claim is  logical, meaningful, and expresses the writer’s position in an argument
    • use embedded clauses for sentence variety
    • write persuasively/argumentatively, organizing reasons logically and effectively
    • analyze sources and determine the best information to support a position/argument
    • use credible, current research and expert opinions to support a position/argument
    • identify counterclaims and identify counterarguments that address those claims
    • compare/contrast and select evidence from multiple texts to strengthen a position/argument
    • revise writing for clarity and quality of information to effectively match the intended audience and purpose of a workplace and/or postsecondary education
    • anticipate and address counterevidence, counterclaims, and counterarguments 
    • use effective rhetorical appeals to establish credibility and persuade the intended audience
    • develop technical writings (e.g., job description, questionnaire, job application, or business communication) that address clearly identified audiences and have clearly identified purposes
    • complete employment forms (e.g. résumé, personal qualifications in a letter of application) 
    • complete applications, essays, and résumés for college admission
    • develop analytical essays that
      • examine and evaluate processes/problems and propose solutions
      • develop claim(s) and counterclaims thoroughly, supplying the most relevant data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both
      • create cohesion and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims
      • apply persuasive, rhetorical devices and techniques
      • recognize and avoid common logical fallacies or false premises
    • assess and strengthen the quality of writing through revision.

    Updated: Jun 13, 2018