Reading - 2018-19

Unit 1: Friendly Letters (Approx. 3 Weeks)

For the novice teachers, ideas for the first week or two of school.

Oral Language

The student will demonstrate an understanding of oral language structure, and oral early literacy skills.

a)  Create oral stories to share with others.

b)  Create and participate in oral dramatic activities.

c)  Use correct verb tenses in oral communication.

d)  Use increasingly complex sentence structures in oral communication.

e)  Begin to self-correct errors in language use.

Participate in a variety of oral language activities, including choral speaking and recitation.

Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • So that when asked to retell a story, I can do so using correct language.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will continue to demonstrate their growth in the use of oral language and vocabulary.
  • Teachers will provide opportunities for students to use their knowledge of sentence structure, verb tenses, and vocabulary to create oral stories that have a beginning, middle, and end.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • participate in group activities by creating oral stories using complex sentences and appropriate verb tenses.
  • understand that telling oral stories and participating in creative dramatics develop comprehension.
  • understand that choral and echo speaking build oral literacy skills.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • use the story structure of beginning, middle, and end to tell a story of an experience.
  • maintain and manipulate voice, such as pausing, tempo, and pitch, to convey mood.
  • add appropriate elaboration and detail while recounting or describing an event, and telling oral stories. 
  • dramatize familiar stories (e.g., plays, skits, reader’s theater).
  • use present, past, and future tenses appropriately.
  • provide a referent for pronouns (e.g., Serena wanted to sing but she was afraid).
  • demonstrate subject-verb agreement.
  • use more complex sentence structure with conjunctions, such as while, when, if, because, so, and but, when describing events and giving explanations.
  • speak in complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation to provide details and clarification.
  • begin to self-correct errors made when communicating orally.
Updated: Jun 01, 2018

The student will expand vocabulary and use of word meanings.

a)  Increase listening and speaking vocabularies.

b)  Use words that reflect a growing range of interests and knowledge.

c)  Clarify and explain words and ideas orally.

d)  Identify and use synonyms and antonyms.

e)  Use vocabulary from other content areas.

Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • Because sometimes when I read, there may be words that I don’t know.  I can use words around them to help me understand better.
  • So that when an author uses synonyms or antonyms in a story to help explain the meaning of a word, I will better understand what I am reading.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will expand understanding and use of word meanings through the use of a variety of texts that reflect the Virginia Standards of Learning for English, history and social science, science, and mathematics.
  • Teachers will provide opportunities for students to use antonyms, synonyms, and descriptive language to explain and clarify ideas.
  • Growth in oral language aids in the development of fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand that specific vocabulary helps explain and clarify ideas.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • listen to and discuss a variety of texts.
  • use appropriate descriptive language to express ideas, opinions, and feelings.
  • use language to categorize objects, people, places, or events.
  • explain the meanings of words within the context of how they are used.
  • ask questions to clarify or gain further information.
  • recognize when two or more different words are being used orally to mean contrasting or opposite things.
  • recognize when different words are being used orally to mean the same or similar things.
  • use synonyms and antonyms in oral communication.
  • use specific content area vocabulary in discussions.
Updated: Jun 04, 2018

2.3 The student will use oral communication skills.

a)  Use oral language for different purposes: to inform, to persuade, to entertain, to clarify, and to respond.

b)  Share stories or information orally with an audience.

c)  Participate as a contributor and leader in a group/collaborative and partner discussions.

d)  Retell information shared by others.

e)  Restate and follow three- and four-step directions.

f)  Give three- and four-step directions

Listen actively and speak using appropriate discussion rules.

Speak audibly with appropriate voice level, phrasing, and intonation.

Ask and answer questions to see help, get information, or clarify information.

Work respectfully with others and show value for individual contributions.

Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • Because when I teach my friends how to play a new game, I need to communicate the rules clearly for them to understand.
  • So that when I go on a field trip, I am able to ask questions to my tour guide to understand the importance of where I am.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will use oral language skills to respond appropriately in group situations.
  • Students learn to use selected vocabulary and information to match their purpose — to inform, to persuade, to entertain, to clarify, and to respond.
  • Students will learn to retell information as they continue to share stories.
  • Teachers should provide opportunities for students to learn the dynamics and roles of working in small groups.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand that oral communication can be used for a variety of purposes.
  • participate in group activities by sharing stories or information and by following and giving directions.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • participate in a range of collaborative discussions building on others’ ideas and clearly expressing their own thoughts and opinions (e.g., one-on-one, small-group, teacher led).
  • participate in collaborative conversations for various purposes (e.g., to inform, to persuade, to entertain, to clarify, and to respond).
  • ask and respond to questions to check for understanding of information presented (e.g., stay on topic, link remarks to those of others).
  • follow rules for discussions and assigned group roles.
  • use proper pitch and volume.
  • speak clearly and distinctly.
  • share and retell an experience or story to an audience in a logical order, with appropriate facts, and descriptive details.
  • select vocabulary and nonverbal expressions appropriate to purpose and audience.
  • express ideas clearly and in an organized manner.
  • contribute information, ask questions, clarify, gather additional information, retell, respond, or build on another person’s idea in a small-group setting.
  • confer with small-group members about how to present information to the class.
  • carry out a specific group role, such as leader, recorder, materials manager, or reporter.
  • engage in taking turns in conversations by:
    • making certain all group members have an opportunity to contribute;
    • listening attentively by making eye contact while facing the speaker; and
    • eliciting information or opinions from others.
  • follow three-step and four-step directions.
  • give three-step and four-step directions.
  • sequence three or four steps chronologically in oral directions.
Updated: Jun 05, 2018

The student will orally identify, produce, and manipulate various units of phonemes within words.

a)  Count phonemes (sounds) within one-syllable words.

b)  Blend sounds to make one-syllable words.

c)  Segment one-syllable words into individual phonemes.

d)  Add or delete phonemes (sounds) to make words.

e)  Blend and segment multisyllabic words at the syllable level.

Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • Because manipulating sounds can help me when spelling unfamiliar words when writing a letter to my principal.
  • So that when spelling a word, it’s easier to spell it when I chunk it into syllables and spell one syllable at a time.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will orally identify, produce, and manipulate various units of speech sounds within words.
  • Explicit, step by step, instruction is engaging and allows students to consciously reflect on and manipulate sounds.
  • Through songs, poems, stories, and word play, students will count phonemes, create rhyming words, segment, substitute and blend sounds to make words.
  • Phonological awareness is the term used to describe a student’s understanding that spoken words consist of sounds.  Students who are phonologically aware demonstrate an ability to hear and manipulate the sound structure of language at each of the word, syllable and phoneme (individual sound) levels.
  • Phonological awareness typically progresses in a developmental continuum, (i.e., rhyming → sentence segmenting → syllable blending/segmenting → syllable splitting [onset and rime blending/segmenting] → phoneme blending, segmenting, and manipulating).
  • Phonemes are the smallest units of sound in language (e.g., man has three phonemes /m/-/a/-/n/).
  • Students who are phonemically aware are able to attend to the individual phonemes of spoken language by demonstrating the higher-order ability to blend, segment, and manipulate them.
  • Students orally blend phonemes (sounds) together to make a word (e.g., /m/-/a/-/n/ → man, /ch/-/o/-/p/ → chop).
  • Students segment spoken words into individual sounds (e.g., man → /m/- /a/- /n/, chop → /ch/-/o/- /p/).

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand that spoken words are made up of individual phonemes, which can be manipulated to make new words.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • count phonemes in one-syllable words (e.g., man has three phonemes /m/-/a/-/n/, chop has three phonemes /ch/-/o/-/p/, and drop has four phonemes /d/-/r/-/o/-/p/).
  • isolate and manipulate phonemes.
  • blend sounds to make one-syllable words (e.g., /p/-/a/-/n/ → pan , /d/-/r/-/i/-/p/ → drip).
  • segment words by saying each sound (e.g., pan → /p/-/a/-/n/, drip → /d/-/r/-/i/-/p/).
  • add a phoneme from an orally presented word or rime to make a new word (e.g., pie/pipe, four/fork, cab/crab, ot/lot, ap/map).
  • delete a phoneme from an orally presented word to make a new word (e.g., rice/ice, beach/bee, weight/weigh, couch/cow).
  • blend and segment multisyllabic words at the syllable level.
  • identify syllables in a word (e.g., students tap snowball /snow/- /ball/, clap out the word hamburger/ham/- /bur/-/ger/).
  • state the word created by blending given syllables together (e.g., /fan/-/tas/-/tic/fantastic).
  • delete a syllable from a word and state what remains (e.g., say celebrate without brate [cele]).
  • manipulate sounds in words to form new or nonsense words.
Updated: Jun 01, 2018

Reading

The student will use phonetic strategies when reading and spelling.

a)  Use knowledge of consonants, consonant blends, and consonant digraphs to decode and spell words.

b)  Use knowledge of short, long, and r-controlled vowel patterns to decode and spell words.

Apply decoding strategies to confirm or correct while reading.

Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • Because, when spelling a word, it’s easier to spell it when I chunk it into syllables and spell one syllable at a time.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will continue to learn and apply their phonetic skills to decode and spell words.
  • Consonant blends are voiced (each letter is heard) combinations of two or three consonants (e.g., fl-, cl-, dr-, str-).
  • Consonant digraphs are combinations of two consonants forming a new sound (e.g., sh-, wh-, ch-, th-). 
  • R-controlled vowel patterns – when a vowel is followed by an r it makes a special sound (e.g., /ar/- as in car, /or/- as in storm, /ir/- as in  bird, /ur/- as in turn, /er/- as in butter).

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand the need to apply phonetic strategies to decode and spell words.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • apply knowledge of consonants and consonant blends to decode and spell words.
  • apply knowledge of consonant digraphs (sh, wh, ch, th) to decode and spell words.
  • distinguish long and short vowels when reading one-syllable regularly spelled words.
  • apply knowledge of the consonant-vowel patterns, such as CV (e.g., go), VC (e.g., in) , CVC (e.g., pin), CVCE (e.g., take), CVVC (e.g., wait), and CVCC (e.g., wind), to decode and spell words.
  • apply knowledge of r-controlled vowel patterns to decode and spell words.
  • read regularly spelled one- and two-syllable words automatically.
  • use phonetic strategies and context to self-correct for comprehension.
  • use a variety of decoding strategies while reading to confirm or correct the pronunciation and use of words.
Updated: Jun 05, 2018

2.6 The student will use semantic clues and syntax to expand vocabulary when reading.

a)  Use information and context clues in the story to read words.

c)  Use knowledge of story structure and sequence.

d)  Reread and self-correct


Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • So that I understand, that many times an author will include hints in the story to help the reader figure out the meaning of the harder words that are used.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will use information from the story and their knowledge of semantic clues and syntax to expand vocabulary when reading.
  • Semantic clues are words that provide  meaning and help readers decode and comprehend a text (e.g., The bear scared me. The test was a bear.)
  • Syntactic (syntax) knowledge is based on familiar word order or grammar that helps readers determine meaning (e.g., students familiar with oral language would know which of the following two sentences sounds right and/or makes sense: The pitcher threw the ball or The ball threw the pitcher).

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand that they will use a variety of strategies to read unfamiliar words.
  • understand that specific vocabulary helps explain and clarify ideas.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • use meaning clues to support decoding.
  • use surrounding words in a sentence to determine the meaning of a word.
  • determine which of the multiple meanings of a word in context makes sense by using semantic clues.
  • use story structure, titles, pictures, and diagrams to check for meaning.
  • use phonetic strategies, semantic clues, and syntax to reread and self-correct.
  • reread to clarify meaning.

KEY VOCABULARY

Updated: May 11, 2018

2.7 The student will expand vocabulary and use of word meanings when reading.

c)  Use knowledge of antonyms and synonyms.

d)  Discuss meanings of words and develop vocabulary by listening and reading a variety of texts.

e)  Use vocabulary from other content areas.


Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • So that when an author uses synonyms or antonyms in a story to help explain the meaning of a word, I will better understand what I am reading.
  • Because when I write, I may use words that my readers are not familiar with, and I can add in synonyms(antonyms) to help the understand what I am saying.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    • The intent of this standard is that students will expand their vocabulary through an understanding of homophones, prefixes, suffixes, synonyms, and antonyms.
    • Students will also develop vocabulary by discussing meanings of words and by listening and reading a variety of text across the content areas.
    • Antonyms are words with opposite meanings (e.g., off/on, fast/slow).
    • Synonyms are words with similar meanings (e.g., small, little, tiny).

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand that their knowledge of homophones, prefixes, suffixes, synonyms, and antonyms can help them read unfamiliar words.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • supply synonyms and antonyms for a given word.
  • use knowledge of antonyms when reading (e.g., hot/coldfast/slowfirst/last).
  • use knowledge of synonyms when reading (e.g., small/littlehappy/glad).
  • use a thesaurus to expand synonym knowledge
  • demonstrate an understanding of what the apostrophe signifies in singular possessive words (e.g., Maria’s).
  • demonstrate an understanding of the meaning of contractions (e.g., don’t- do not).
  • discuss meanings of words and develop vocabulary (e.g., closely related adjectives such as slender, thin, scrawny; closely related verbs such as look, peek, glance).
  • use knowledge of the meaning of individual words to predict the meaning of compound words (e.g., birdhouse, lighthouse, notebook).
  • use specific vocabulary from content area study to express interests and knowledge (e.g., in discussions, by summarizing, through generating and answering questions).

Updated: Jun 04, 2018

The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of fictional texts.

a)  Make and confirm predictions.

c)  Ask and answer questions about what is read using the text for support.

d)  Locate information to answer questions.

Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • So that when I’m asked to tell about my weekend, I know to do it in the correct sequence so that it’s not confusing.
  • Because there are times so when what happens in a story, is similar to what is happening in my life.  By reading and understanding the story, I can use this information to help me make decisions and solve problems.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will continue to develop and demonstrate comprehension skills by reading a variety of fictional texts.
  • Students will continue to learn to relate their prior knowledge to the topic of the text and use this knowledge, along with information from the text, to make and confirm predictions.
  • Strategies to increase prior knowledge include building on what students already know, discussing real-life experiences, and providing vicarious experiences through reading.
  • Students will demonstrate comprehension of story elements in fiction by identifying the characters, setting, and main idea.
  • The main idea is the most important idea from the paragraph or story.
  • Teachers should provide opportunities for students to respond in writing to what is read.
  • To determine a student’s functional reading level for a specific text consider these word accuracy rates from Virginia’s Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening (PALS):
    • independent level – 98-100% accuracy, or about two of every 100 words misread; student reads independently with little or no instructional support, and comprehension is strong.
    • instructional level – 90-97% accuracy, or  three to ten words of every 100 words misread; student reads with modest accuracy and variable fluency and comprehension should be closely  monitored.
    • frustration level – less than 90% accuracy, or more than ten of every 100 words misread; student reads with neither accuracy nor fluency, and therefore his or her comprehension will be affected.
  • Prosody refers to the rhythmic and intonational aspect of language, which should be noticeable during oral reading. Prosody contributes to reading fluency and comprehension.
  • The table below presents the results of research on oral reading fluency rates for students at the 90th, 75th and 50th percentiles throughout the school year. These rates are reported as words correct per minute (WCPM) for second-grade students reading second-grade text:
PercentileFall WCPMMidyear WCPMSpring WCPM
90106125142
7579100117
50517289

Hasbrouck, J.E., & Tindal, G.A. (2006)

  • When fully developed, reading fluency refers to a level of accuracy and rate where decoding is relatively effortless; where oral reading is smooth and accurate with correct prosody; and where attention can be allocated to comprehension.*

* Wolf, M. & Katzir-Cohen, T. (2001). Reading fluency and its intervention. Scientific Studies of Reading. (Special Issue on Fluency. Editors: E. Kame’enui & D. Simmons). 5, p. 211-238.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand that comprehension requires making, confirming and revising predictions.
  • understand that they must attend to the details of the text in order to comprehend.
  • understand the elements of fiction (i.e., characters, setting, plot events)
  • understand details are important to comprehend text.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • set a purpose for reading.
  • use prior knowledge to predict information, and to interpret pictures and diagrams.
  • use titles and headings to generate ideas about the text.
  • use information/details from a text to confirm and revise predictions made before, during, and after reading(e.g., recall and/or return to the text to locate information to confirm predictions). 
  • use information from a selection to confirm predictions (e.g., recall and/or return to the text to locate information to confirm predictions).
  • find evidence to support predictions (e.g., return to text to locate information, support predictions, and answer questions).
  • apply knowledge of story structure to predict what will happen next (e.g., beginning/middle/end, problem/solution).
  • ask and answer simple who, what, when, where, why, and how questions to demonstrate understanding of main details and events in text.
  • begin to skim for information to answer questions.
  • explain how illustrations and images contribute to and clarify text.
  • write responses to what they read to demonstrate comprehension (e.g., response logs, write the story with a new ending).

KEY VOCABULARY

Updated: Jun 11, 2018

Writing

The student will write in a variety forms to include narrative (stories), descriptive, opinion, and expository, letters, and simple explanations.

Understand that writing as a process.

Identify audience and purpose.

a)  Use prewriting strategies to generate ideas before writing.

Use strategies for organization according to the type of writing.

b)  Organize writing to include a beginning, middle, and end for narrative and expository writing.

Write facts about a subject to support a main idea

Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • So that after I go on a field trip, I can write the tour guide a thank you note for all of their help.
  • Because not everyone knows how to play kickball.  I may need to write directions for my friend on how to play kickball.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will continue to learn the process for communicating their ideas through writing.
  • The emphasis will be on generating and organizing ideas before writing and revising for clarity after writing.
  • At this level, teachers should introduce two important modes for writing:
    • Informative/explanatory – students write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly; and
    • Narrative - students write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
  • The three domains of writing are:
    • composing – the structuring and elaborating a writer does to construct an effective message for readers (e.g., staying on topic; providing a beginning, middle, and end);
    • written expression – those features that show the writer purposefully shaping and controlling language to affect readers (e.g., specific vocabulary, descriptive words, tone/voice); and
    • usage/mechanics – the features that cause written language to be acceptable and effective for standard discourse (e.g., spelling, punctuation, capitalization, grammar). (Note: Students are not expected to know these terms.)

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand that written communication should be well planned and clear to the reader.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • generate ideas and organize information before writing by:
    • participating in brainstorming activities;
    • making lists of information;
    • talking to classmates or teacher about what to write; and
    • using graphic organizers to plan their writing.
  • include a beginning, middle, and end in narrative and expository writing.
  • participate in shared research and writing projects.
  • write informative/explanatory pieces that introduce the topic, use facts or opinions, and provide a concluding statement.
  • stay on topic/develop writing by focusing on one topic. 
  • write complete sentences.
  • use adjectives to elaborate and expand simple sentences.
  • describe events, ideas, and personal stories with descriptive details.
  • use time-order words, such as first, next, then, and last, to sequence and organize their writing.
  • begin to learn and use the writing domains of composing, written expression, and usage/mechanics.
Updated: Sep 21, 2018

The student will edit writing for correct grammar (Standard English), capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

a)  Recognize and use complete sentences.

b)  Use and punctuate declarative, interrogative, and exclamatory sentences.

c)  Capitalize all proper nouns and the word I.

h)  Use correct spelling for commonly used sight words, including compound words and regular plurals.

i)  Use commas in the salutation and closing of a letter.

j)  Use verbs and adjectives correctly in sentences.

Use past and present verbs.

Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • So that when I write a story my family, they understand the story I am telling.
  • Because when I share my story with my class, it will be more exciting for them if I include good details and action.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will continue to learn to edit and self-correct their writing.
  • Students should apply grammatical rules to their writing.
  • Declarative sentences form a statement (e.g., She is my friend.).
  • Interrogative sentences form a question (e.g., What time is it?).
  • Exclamatory sentences use powerful emotions or feelings (e.g., We won the game!).

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand that proper grammar, capitalization, punctuation and spelling contribute to the meaning of writing.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • recognize and use complete sentences.
  • punctuate declarative, interrogative, and exclamatory sentences (e.g., period, question mark, exclamation point).
  • capitalize all proper nouns and words at the beginning of sentences.
  • capitalize the word I.
  • spell commonly used sight words, compound words, and regular plurals correctly.
  • use commas in the salutation (e.g., Dear Tyrell, ) and closing (e.g., (Sincerely, ) of a letter.
  • use verbs and adjectives correctly in sentences (e.g., The friendly girls talk loudly. The friendly girl talks loudly.)
Updated: Jun 04, 2018

The student will use available technology for reading and writing.
Bloom's:  Remember, Apply

Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • So that when I am reading books online (Epic Books, RAZ Kids, etc), I know how to navigate through the book so that I don’t have to focus on how to use the website instead of reading the story.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will make use of available technology for reading and writing.
  • Provide opportunities for students to explore and use available technology to facilitate their reading and writing.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • use available technology for reading and writing.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • use available technology and media for reading and writing, including in collaboration with peers.
  • use available technology to produce writing.
  • use available media for reading and writing.
  • ask and respond to questions about material presented through various media formats.

KEY VOCABULARY

technology

Updated: Apr 25, 2018