Reading - 2018-19

Unit 5: Fiction (Approx. 4 Weeks)

Oral Language

The student will continue to demonstrate growth in the use of oral language and oral early literacy skills.

a)  Listen and respond to a variety of print, media materials, and electronic media and other age-appropriate materials.

b)  Tell and retell stories and events in sequential order.

c)  Participate in a variety of oral language activities, including choral speaking and reciting short poems, rhymes, songs, and stories with repeated patterns.

d)  Participate in creative dramatics.

e)  Express ideas orally in complete sentences.

Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • Because, when I spill my milk at lunch, if I just say “milk”, my teacher won’t understand what I need.  When I say “I’ve spilt my milk,” the teacher will be able to help me clean it up.
  • So that when giving a book that repeats, I will recognize the pattern, and reading the book will be easier.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will continue to demonstrate growth in the use of oral language and vocabulary by listening to and discussing a variety of texts that reflect the Virginia Standards of Learning in English, history and social science, science, and mathematics.
  • Students should have opportunities to interact with a variety of electronic media and participate in numerous oral language activities.
  • Students should be engaged in activities that encourage the use of complete sentences and include the telling or retelling of stories and events in logical order.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand that oral language is used to communicate a variety of ideas for a variety of purposes.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation.
  • participate in a variety of oral language activities, such as:
    • listening to stories and poems read aloud daily;
    • participating in discussions about stories and poems;
    • talking about words and their meanings as they are encountered in stories, poems, and conversations;
    • providing reactions to stories and poems;
    • asking and answering questions about what is said in order to gather additional information or clarify something not understood;
    • verbally express ideas and feelings; and
    • describe people, places, things, and events with details.
  • tell and retell stories and events in logical order by:
    • retelling stories orally and through informal drama;
    • dictating or retelling of stories;
    • indicating first, next, and last events in a story; and
    • creating their own stories, poems, plays, and songs.
  • participate in daily oral language activities (e.g., choral speaking and the reciting of short poems, rhymes, songs, and stories with repeated patterns).
  • participate in creative dramatics, (e.g., classroom songs, plays, skits, and group activities) designed to give students frequent opportunities for listening and speaking.
  • speak to one another, and listen to each other at appropriate times during lessons.

KEY VOCABULARY

Updated: May 31, 2018

The student will expand understanding and use of word meanings.

a)  Increase listening and speaking vocabularies.

b)  Begin to ask for clarification and explanation of words and ideas.

c)  Use common singular and plural nouns.

d)  Use vocabulary from other content areas.

Use adjectives to describe nouns.

Use verbs to identify actions.

Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • So that, when learning a new board game, if I don’t understand the rules, I will know how to ask for a clearer explanation.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will expand their listening and speaking vocabularies and their understanding and use of word meanings through activities across curricula.
  • Students should have opportunities to practice asking for clarification and explanation of unfamiliar words that are encountered across curricula.
  • Students should have opportunities to use vocabulary from other content areas.
  • Vocabulary growth aids in the development of reading comprehension as students progress in school.
  • One method for increasing listening (receptive) and speaking (expressive) vocabulary is for the teacher to pause at times during classroom read-aloud sessions to draw attention to key vocabulary and to encourage students to use the words while speaking.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand that specific word choice makes communication clearer.
  • understand that nouns can have quantifiable attributes (singular or plural).

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • learn and use new words encountered in discussions and in books that the teacher reads aloud.
  • participate in listening and speaking activities.
  • ask for meanings and clarification of unfamiliar words and ideas.
  • use common singular and plural nouns with matching verbs in basic sentences (e.g., She walks., We walk.).
  • use common irregular plural forms, such as man/men, child/children, and mouse/mice.
  • use common pronouns (e.g., I, me, mine; they, them, theirs, anyone, everything).
  • use articles (e.g., a, an, the), conjunctions (e.g., and, but, or, so, because), and prepositions (e.g., during, beyond, toward) correctly.
  • use vocabulary from other content areas.
  • ask for meanings and clarification of unfamiliar words and ideas
Updated: May 31, 2018

The student will develop and adapt or change oral communication and language to fit the situation.

a)  Initiate conversation with peers and adults.

b)  Follow rules for conversation using appropriate voice level in small-group settings.

c)  Ask and respond to questions to seek help, get information, or clarify information.

d)  Restate and follow simple two-step oral directions.

e)  Give simple two-step oral directions.

Listen actively and speak using agreed-upon rules for discussion.

Adapt or change oral language to fit the situation.

Use appropriate voice level, phrasing, and intonation.

Participate in collaborative and partner discussions about various texts and topics.

Work respectfully with others.

Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • So that I can use the right words when retelling a story to my teacher and change the words I use when retelling the story for my baby sister to understand.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will use oral language to respond appropriately in group situations to both peers and adults.
  • Teacher modeling of questioning techniques will support students in generating a variety of questions across curricula and in using questions to guide their search for answers.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand that the setting influences the rules for communication.
  • understand that information can be gained by asking and answering relevant questions about a specific topic.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • initiate conversation in a variety of school settings.
  • participate in a range of collaborative discussions building on others’ ideas and clearly expressing their own thoughts and opinions (e.g., partner, small-group, teacher led).
  • ask and respond to questions to check for understanding of information presented (e.g., stay on topic, link remarks to those of others).
  • sustain two-person conversation through multiple exchanges.
  • use voice level and intonation appropriate for small-group settings.
  • follow rules for conversation, including listening and taking turns.
  • ask and respond to relevant questions in partner, group, and teacher-led settings.
  • follow simple two-step oral directions.
  • give simple two-step directions.
  • use words of time and position, including first, second, next, on, under, beside, and over, to give directions orally.
  • use verbs including, but not limited to, mark, circle, color, and draw, to give directions orally.
  • Speak in complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation.
Updated: Jun 05, 2018

The student will orally identify, produce, and manipulate various phonemes within words to develop phonological and phonemic awareness.

a)  Create rhyming words.

b)  Count phonemes (sounds) in one-syllable words.

c)  Blend sounds to make one-syllable words.

d)  Segment one-syllable words into individual speech sounds/phonemes.

e)  Add or delete phonemes (sounds) to make new words.

Blend and segment multisyllabic words at the syllable level

Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • So that I can use letter/spelling patterns I know to help me spell/read words I may not know.
  • So that when writing a long word, I can spell it one syllable at a time to make it easier.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will continue to build and practice phonological awareness skills.
  • Explicit instruction allows students to consciously reflect on, produce, and manipulate sounds.
  • Through songs, poems, stories, and word play, students will create rhyming words, count phonemes, blend sounds, and add or delete phonemes to make new words.
  • Phonological awareness is the term used to describe a student’s understanding that spoken words consist of sounds.  Students who are phonologically aware demonstrate an ability to hear and manipulate the sound structure of language at each of the word, syllable and phoneme (individual sound) levels.
  • Phonological awareness typically progresses in a developmental continuum, (i.e., rhyming → sentence segmenting → syllable blending/segmenting → syllable splitting [onset and rime blending/segmenting] → phoneme blending, segmenting, and manipulating).
  • Phonemes are the smallest units of sound in language.
  • Students who are phonemically aware are able to attend to the individual phonemes of spoken language by demonstrating the higher-order ability to blend, segment, and manipulate them.
  • Syllables are units of speech that consist of a vowel preceded and/or followed by consonants. Each time a syllable is produced; the mouth opens and closes. Each syllable spoken consists of a single rhythmic beat. For example, the word absent has two syllables: ab/sent.
  • Onsets are speech sounds (/b/, /j/, /s/, /p/) before a vowel. Rimes are the vowel and what follows (-ack). If a one-syllable word begins with a vowel, it has only a rime. Many words are formed by combining onsets and rimes (back, jack, sack, pack). (Note: Students are not expected to know these terms.)
  • Phonemic awareness can be developed as students practice distinguishing minimal pairs aurally. Minimal pairs are pairs of words which differ in only one phoneme (cape/tape, kite/tight, gas/gash). 

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand that spoken words are made up of units of speech sounds within words, which can be manipulated to make new words.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • identify, isolate, produce, and manipulate various units of speech sounds within words (e.g., syllables, onsets, rimes, and phonemes).
  • orally produce words that rhyme with an audible guide word.
  • orally produce words that rhyme by changing the initial phoneme (e.g., sip/ship, heart/part).
  • count phonemes in one-syllable words.
  • blend separately spoken phonemes to make one-syllable words.
  • segment words by producing each phoneme.
  • determine whether the medial vowel sound is the same or different in a set of one-syllable words.
  • sort picture cards by beginning/initial, medial, and ending/final phonemes.
  • Delete/remove a phoneme from an orally presented word to make a new word (e.g., rice/ice, beach/bee, weight/weigh, couch/cow).
  • add a phoneme from an orally presented word or rime to make a new word (e.g., pie/pipe, four/fork, cab/crab, ot/lot, ap/map).
  • change phonemes orally to make new words (e.g., rug/jug, bunch/lunch, card/cart, sat/sit
Updated: May 31, 2018

Reading

The student will apply knowledge of how print is organized and read.
a)   Read from left to right and from top to bottom.

b)   Match spoken words with print.

c)   Identify letters, words, sentences, and ending punctuation.

d)   Read his/her own writing.


Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • So that when I write a letter to my friend, I will write the words in the right direction for them to be able to read it.
  • So that when my brother asks me to help him read a book, I can show him where to start reading, and where to go at the end of each page.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will understand how to read print.
  • As students begin to read, they will apply their knowledge of directionality of text and their ability to match the spoken word to the print.
  • The ability to match spoken words to print involves a student’s concept of word. A firm concept of word requires students to have an automatic knowledge of letter sounds, to be able to isolate consonant sounds at the beginning of words in context, and to remember previously viewed words from text.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand that written text consists of letters, words, and sentences.
  • understand that oral language can be written and read.
  • understand that all print in English follows similar patterns.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • demonstrate concept of word by tracking print from left to right and top to bottom, following print from one line to the next line (return sweep), and matching spoken words to print.
  • identify letters, words, sentences, and ending punctuation (i.e., periods, question and quotation marks, and exclamation points).
  • differentiate between letters and words by recognizing spaces between words in sentences and recognizing that a sentence starts with a capital letter and ends with a period, question mark, or exclamation point.
  • read their own writing.

KEY VOCABULARY

Updated: May 31, 2018

The student will apply phonetic principles to read and spell.

a)  Use beginning/initial and ending/final consonants to decode and spell one-syllable words.

b)  Use two-letter consonant blends to decode and spell one-syllable words.

c)  Use beginning consonant digraphs to decode and spell one-syllable words.

d)  Use short vowel sounds to decode and spell one-syllable words.

e)  Blend beginning/initial, middle/medial, and ending/final sounds to recognize and read words.

f)  Use word patterns to decode unfamiliar words.

g)  Read and spell simple two-syllable compound words.

h)  Read and spell commonly used sight words.

Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • So that when I write directions for a new game, I need to spell the words so that others can read and understand them.
  • So that when I’m reading a new story, when I come to a new word, I can use the sounds of the letters to help me to read it.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will continue to learn and apply phonetic principles to decode unfamiliar words.
  • Students will learn to apply phonetic skills rather than rely on pictures and context as their primary strategies for decoding words.
  • Students blend speech sound units (phonemes) together to produce a word (e.g., /m/-/a/-/n/ → man).
  • Students segment words into individual sounds (e.g., man→ /m/- /a/- /n/.
  • Students will transfer their knowledge of word patterns to identify other words with the same pattern.
  • Students will also continue to develop their skill at automatically recognizing commonly used sight words. Students who recognize words automatically spend less time decoding and can pay more attention to comprehending what is being read.
  • Onsets are speech sounds (/b/, /j/, /s/, /p/) before a vowel. Rimes are the vowel and what follows (-ack). If a one syllable word begins with a vowel, it has only a rime. Many words are formed by combining onsets and rimes (back, jack, sack, pack). (Note: Students are not expected to know these terms.)
  • Alphabet letters written between /slashes/ refer to their pronunciation (e.g., /sh/ refers to the initial sound heard in the word sugar).

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand that knowledge of phonetic principles can be applied to read and spell words.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • apply knowledge of letter sounds in single-syllable words by:
    • recognizing beginning/initial, medial, and ending/final phonemes;
    • segmenting the phonemes in a word into their complete sequence of individual phonemes (e.g., top: /t/-/o/-/p/, jump: /j/-/u/-/m/-/p/); and
    • blending phonemes to decode or spell a word.
  • accurately decode unknown unfamiliar, orthographically regular, single-syllable words and nonsense words (e.g., sit, zot), using letter-sound mappings to sound them out.
  • apply knowledge of word patterns to decode unfamiliar words by recognizing word patterns (e.g., CVC) using onsets and rimes to create, read, and spell new words that include blends (e.g., the l and r blends; and digraphs, including ch, sh, th, and wh).
  • use the consonant-vowel patterns CVC (e.g., pin), VC (e.g., in), and CVCC (e.g., wind), to decode and spell single-syllable words with a short vowel sound.
  • use the consonant-vowel patterns CVVC and CVCE to decode and spell some single-syllable words with a long vowel sound.
  • read and spell commonly used sight words.
  • differentiate between vowels and consonants.
Updated: May 31, 2018

The student will use semantic clues and syntax to expand vocabulary and for support when reading.

a)  Use words, phrases, and sentences.

b)  Use titles and pictures.

c)  Use information in the story to read words.

d)  Use knowledge of sentence structure.

e)  Use knowledge of story structure.

f)  Reread and self-correct.

Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • So that when you get to a word that you don’t know, you can use the picture on the page to help you learn what the word means.
  • Because when I look at the cafeteria lunch menu, I may not know some of the words, but I can look at the food to see what is being served, and then use the beginning sound of the food item to match the word on the menu.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will use semantic clues and syntax to assist in developing an understanding of a text.
  • Semantics refer to the meanings of words or sentences. Syntax refers to the rules or conventions for the formation of grammatical sentences. (Note: Students are not expected to know these terms.)
  • Students will use pictures as well as the understanding of the story and topic to predict and check for comprehension as they read.
  • Students’ knowledge of sentence structure will include understanding that a sentence is a complete idea, which has a subject and a predicate.
  • Teacher prompting and scaffolding to direct the student to reread and self-correct will support comprehension.
  • Prosody refers to the rhythmic and intonational aspect of language, which should be noticeable during oral reading. Prosody contributes to reading fluency and comprehension.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand that they will use a variety of strategies to read unfamiliar words and confirm meaning.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • expand vocabulary by using frequently occurring root words to read inflectional forms (e.g., look, looks, looked, looking).
  • use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of words and phrases.
  • use titles, pictures, and information in the story to make predictions about vocabulary and the text.
  • use pictures and/or rereading to confirm vocabulary choice.
  • use information in the story to make predictions about vocabulary and text.
  • notice when words or sentences do not make sense in context.
  • use intonation, pauses, and emphases that signal the structure of the sentence when reading aloud (prosody).
  • use punctuation clues, including period, question mark, exclamation point, commas, and quotation marks, to guide their comprehension.
  • use knowledge of story structure (i.e., characters, setting, problem/solution) to guide comprehension.
  • reread and self-correct when text does not make sense.
Updated: May 31, 2018

The student will expand vocabulary and use of word meanings.

a)  Discuss meanings of words in context.

b)  Develop vocabulary by listening to and reading a variety of texts.

c)  Ask for the meaning of unknown words and make connections to familiar words.

d)  Use text clues such as words or pictures to discern meanings of unknown words.

e)  Use vocabulary from other content areas.

Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • So that when you check out a new book on dinosaurs, you can learn what the new words mean in your story.
  • Sometimes new words look or sound like words you already know which can help you learn what a new word means.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will expand their vocabulary by participating in a variety of literacy experiences.
  • Teachers reading texts aloud provide opportunities for students to have language modeled for them and expose them to new words, in order to expand their working vocabularies. 

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand that word meanings can be comprehended through context, discussion, connections to familiar words, and knowledge of vocabulary from other content areas. 
  • understand and discuss the meanings of new words as presented in context.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • understand and discuss the meanings of new words as presented in context.
  • develop their vocabulary by listening to and reading a variety of texts (e.g., predictable, decodable, and narrative/expository texts written in the original, natural language of the authors).
  • use words, pictures, and other clues from text to confirm or self-correct, rereading as necessary.
  • ask for the meaning of unknown words and make connections to familiar words by:
    • sorting words into categories (e.g., colors, animals);
    • defining words by category and by one or more attributes (e.g., a swan is a bird that swims, a cardinal is a red bird); and
    • identifying real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., places that are safe).
  • use vocabulary from other content areas in literacy tasks.
  • ask for meanings and clarification of unfamiliar words and ideas.

KEY VOCABULARY

Updated: May 31, 2018

The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of fictional texts.

a)  Preview the selection.

b)  Set a purpose for reading.

c)  Relate previous experiences to what is read.

d)  Make and confirm predictions.

e)  Ask and answer who, what, when, where, why, and how questions about what is read.

f)  Identify characters, setting, and important events.

g)  Retell stories and events, using beginning, middle, and end in a sequential order.

h)  Identify the theme.

i)  Read and reread familiar stories, poems, and passages with fluency, accuracy, and meaningful expression.

Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • So that when my teacher asks me to retell a story, I can do it in the correct order so that it makes sense.
  • So that when my friend asks me what I am reading about, I can tell them quickly with just the main idea.
  • So that when I read a story to my little sister, I can read it with great expression and make it more exciting for her.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will build fluency and experience success as readers while reading aloud and will begin to develop and demonstrate comprehension skills by reading a variety of fiction and poetry selections.
  • Students will demonstrate comprehension of story elements in fiction and poetry selections by identifying the character, setting, and topic or main idea.
  • Students will continue to learn to relate their prior knowledge to the topic of the text and use this knowledge and information from the text to make and confirm predictions as well as to ask and answer questions.
  • Teachers should read a wide range of fiction and nonfiction texts aloud and explain differences between books that tell stories and books that provide information.
  • To determine a student’s functional reading level for a specific text consider these word accuracy rates from Virginia’s Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening (PALS):
    • independent level – 98-100% accuracy, or about two of every 100 words misread; student reads independently with little or no instructional support, and comprehension is strong.
    • instructional level – 90-97% accuracy, or three to ten words of every 100 words misread (For preprimer text, instructional level is between 85%-97%.); student reads with modest accuracy and variable fluency and comprehension should be closely monitored.
    • frustration level – less than 90% accuracy, or more than ten of every 100 words misread (For preprimer text, frustration level is less than 85%.); student reads with neither accuracy nor fluency, and therefore his or her comprehension will be affected.
  • Fluency develops as students have the opportunity to practice reading on their independent reading level.
  • The table below presents the results of research on oral reading fluency rates for students at the 90th, 75th and 50th percentiles throughout the school year. These fluency rates are reported as words correct per minute (WCPM) for first-grade students reading first-grade text:
    Percentile  Midyear WCPM Spring WCPM
    90 81 111
    75 47 82
    50 23 53

    Hasbrouck, J.E., & Tindal, G.A. (2006)

  • Prosody refers to the rhythmic and intonational aspect of language, which should be noticeable during oral reading. Prosody contributes to reading fluency and comprehension.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand that they should use a variety of strategies to assist with comprehension of fictional texts.
  • understand that orally read text has a rhythm and expression that helps convey meaning.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • preview reading material by looking at the book’s cover and illustrations and by reading titles and headings.
  • set a purpose for reading by looking at the illustrations, activating prior knowledge, and predicting the outcome of the selection.
  • identify who is telling the story at various points in a text.
  • use knowledge from their own experience to make sense of and talk about a text.
  • draw on prior knowledge to make and confirm predictions before, during, and after reading.
  • ask and answer simple questions (e.g., who, what, when, where, why, and how) about a selection.
  • identify and describe characters, settings, and important events in a story using details.
  • use illustrations and details to describe characters, settings, and important events in a story.
  • demonstrate comprehension by retelling stories and events orally or in writing, using beginning, middle, and end structure, and demonstrating comprehension of the central message or lesson.
  • identify the overall theme (e.g., friendship, family, working hard) of a short fiction selection.
  • identify words and phrases in stories or poems that suggest feelings or appeal to the senses.
  • read a wide variety of self-selected and teacher-selected stories and poems aloud.
  • use expression and intonation to convey meaning when reading aloud (prosody).
  • reread as necessary to confirm and self-correct word recognition and understanding.
  • practice reading and rereading familiar stories, poems, and passages at their independent reading level to develop fluency, accuracy, and meaningful expression.
  • demonstrate comprehension by writing about what is read
  • retell stories using the characters, settings, and events in correct sequence from beginning to end
Updated: Jun 11, 2018

The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of nonfiction texts.
a)   Preview the selection.

b)   Use prior and background knowledge as context for new learning.

c)   Set a purpose for reading.

d)   Identify text features such as pictures, headings, charts, and captions.

e)   Make and confirm predictions.

f)   Ask and answer who, what, where, when, why, and how questions about what is read.

Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • So that when I’m learning to play a new game, I can understand how the directions are written.
  • So that when I’m helping my family plant flowers or a garden, I can help them with the directions on the seed packets.
  • So that when my teacher asks me what the weather will be like today, I can look it up in the newspaper.
  • Because when I help my grandmother bake, I can understand how a recipe is written.
  • So that when ordering dessert, I can find the ice cream on a restaurant menu.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will read and demonstrate comprehension of nonfiction texts across the curriculum, including age-appropriate materials that reflect the Virginia Standards of Learning in English, history and social science, science, and mathematics.
  • Students will continue to learn to relate their prior knowledge to the topic of the text and use this knowledge and information from the text to make and confirm predictions as well as to ask and answer questions.
  • Strategies to increase prior knowledge include building on what students already know, discussing real-life experiences, and providing vicarious experiences through reading.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand that they should use a variety of strategies to assist with comprehension of nonfiction texts.
  • understand that orally read text has a rhythm and expression that helps convey meaning.
  • understand that nonfictional texts provide information
  • understand text features serve a purpose

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • read with purpose and understanding.
  • preview reading material by looking at the book’s cover and illustrations or other graphics and by reading titles and headings.
  • set a purpose for reading by looking at the illustrations or other graphics, activating prior knowledge, and predicting the outcome of the selection.
  • identify and use text features (e.g., illustrations, photographs, headings, charts and captions).
  • use text features to locate facts and information in a text (e.g., headings, tables of contents, glossaries).
  • distinguish between information provided by pictures or illustrations and information provided by words in the text.
  • make and confirm predictions before, during, and after reading.
  • ask and answer simple questions (e.g., who, what, when, where, why, and how) about a selection.
  • read a wide variety of self-selected and teacher-selected informational texts aloud.
  • read various nonfiction forms, including letters, lists, recipes, newspapers, and magazines.
  • practice reading and rereading texts on their independent reading level to develop accuracy, fluency, and meaningful expression.
Updated: May 31, 2018

The student will use simple reference materials.
a)   Use knowledge of alphabetical order by first letter.

b)   Use a picture dictionary to find meanings of unfamiliar words.


Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • So that I can find a name faster in a phone’s contact list.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that simple, and accessible reference materials will serve as resources for student learning.
  • Students will use their knowledge of alphabetical order by first letter to find words in picture dictionaries.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand that many reference materials are organized in alphabetical order.
  • understand that reference materials provide information.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • use simple reference materials.
  • alphabetize a list of five to eight words according to first letter.
  • use a picture dictionary to locate unfamiliar words.
Updated: Jun 05, 2018

Writing

The student will print legibly in manuscript.

a)  Form letters accurately.

b)  Space words within sentences.

c)  Use the alphabetic code to write unknown words phonetically.


Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • So that, when I make posters to advertise the school carnival, I put spaces between words for people to read.
  • So that when I write my assignments in my agenda, my family will be able to read it and help me remember to do my homework.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will learn to produce manuscript writing that can be easily read.
  • Students need explicit, direct instruction in order to learn to form uppercase and lowercase letters correctly.
  • Students also need many purposeful opportunities to develop sound-symbol correspondence while practicing and mastering handwriting skills.
  • Students need to develop their understanding that each speech sound or phoneme of language has its own distinctive graphic representation. This is referred to as the alphabetic principle.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand that there are correct ways to write the letters of the alphabet and that proper spacing is necessary in order for writing to be legible.
  • understand sound-symbol correspondence in writing unfamiliar words.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • use appropriate pencil grip.
  • use manuscript letter formation.
  • print all capital/upper and lowercase letters in sequence and in random order.
  • print first and last names, beginning each with a capital letter.
  • use manuscript number formation.
  • space words in sentences.
  • apply the alphabetic principle while writing unfamiliar words.

KEY VOCABULARY

alphabetic principle

Updated: May 31, 2018

The student will write in a variety of forms to communicate ideas for a variety of purposes to include narrative, descriptive, and opinion.

Identify audience and purpose

a)  Use prewriting activities to generate ideas.

b)  Focus on one topic.

Organize writing to suit purpose

c)  Revise by adding descriptive words when writing about people, places, things, and events.  

d)  Share writing with others.

Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • Because, when I text my friend about coming over to play, I can make sure I use the correct punctuation so that my message makes sense.
  • So that, when I write a story about my weekend, the details I include need to match what I’m writing, or the reader will get very confused.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will understand that writing is used for a variety of purposes, including sharing events and telling stories (narrative writing), informing others and making reports (informational writing), labeling and making lists (functional writing), and responding to literature.
  • Students will use their phonetic knowledge and growing knowledge of commonly used sight words to spell words correctly when writing.
  • Providing opportunities for students to share their writing with friends, family, and teachers gives student writing a purpose.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand that writers communicate ideas for a variety of purposes.
  • understand that writers plan, write, revise, and share their writing with others.
  • understand sound-symbol correspondence is used to write unfamiliar words.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • use previous experiences to generate ideas.
  • identify the intended audience and purpose for writing (e.g., letters, stories, journals, etc.)
  • participate in teacher-directed brainstorming activities to generate ideas.
  • participate in shared research and writing projects
  • participate in teacher-directed prewriting strategies, such as webbing, clustering, and semantic mapping, to organize ideas and information.
  • use prewriting strategies, including, but limited to: webbing, clustering, brainstorming, and semantic mapping, to organize ideas and information.
  • write to describe a person, place, or thing using adjectives
  • write to express an opinion with supporting reason(s)
  • write informative/explanatory texts that introduce a topic, state an opinion or some facts, and provide a concluding sentence.
  • write narrative pieces that include at least two sequenced events, with some details, and conclusion.
  • revise their written pieces by adding descriptive words (adjectives) when writing about people, places, things, and events; focusing on the topic; and responding to questions and suggestions from peers and teachers.
  • in final copies, use complete sentences that begin with a capital letter, use correct ending punctuation, and use commas in dates.
  • capitalize days of the week and months of the year.
  • capitalize names of people.
  • spell commonly used sight words and phonetically regular words correctly in final copies.
  • apply the alphabetic principle when writing words.
  • use print resources in the classroom in order to spell words.
  • use familiar writing forms, including lists, letters, stories, reports, messages, and poems.
  • distinguish draft writing from final-product writing.
  • share their writing with others.
Updated: Jun 05, 2018

The student will edit writing for capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

a)  Use complete sentences

b)  Begin each sentence with a capital letter and ending punctuation

c)  Use correct spelling for commonly used sight words and phonetically regular words.


Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

ESSENTIALS

All students should:

  • understand the difference between revision and editing
  • understand that editing writing helps others to read and understand what is written.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to:

  • capitalize the pronoun I
  • use complete sentences that begin with a capital letter, use correct ending punctuation, and use commas in dates.
  • capitalize days of the week and months of the year.
  • capitalize names of people.
  • spell commonly used sight words and phonetically regular words correctly in final copies.
  • use resources in the classroom to spell words
  • use tools to produce and publish writing
  • share writing with others.

Updated: May 31, 2018

The student will use available technology for reading and writing.

Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • Technology is a tool to help me with reading and writing.
  • Technology can help me improve my reading and writing.

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will use available technology for reading and writing.
  • Students also need opportunities to explore and use available technology to facilitate their writing. 

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand that technology provides a way to interact with print.
  • understand that reading and writing skills can be adapted for use with available technology.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • use digital tools to produce and publish writing including in collaboration with peers.
  • use available media for reading and writing.
  • use electronic templates (e.g., graphic organizers) to organize information.
  • ask and respond to questions about material presented through various media formats.
  • share their writing with others.

KEY VOCABULARY

digital

technology


Updated: May 31, 2018

Research

The student will conduct research to answer questions or solve problems using available resources.

a)  Generate topics of interest.

b)  Generate questions to gather information.

c)  Identify pictures, texts, or people as sources of information.

d)  Find information from provided sources.

e)  Record information.

Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD


ESSENTIALS

All students should:

  • Understand that research can be used to answer questions or solve problems.
  • Understand that many different sources, including people, can help provide information.

To be successful with this standard, students need to:

  • generate ideas for topics based on interest or content areas (e.g., favorite animals, life cycles, community helpers).
  • work collaboratively to generate questions to gather information.
  • identify if pictures, various texts, media, or people can be used as sources of information.
  • use provided sources to answer questions or solve problems.
  • use templates (e.g., graphic organizers, charts, graphs) to organize information.

Updated: May 31, 2018