Reading - 2018-19

17th and 18th Centuries

Communication:Speaking Listening, Media Literacy

The student will make informative and persuasive presentations.

a)  Gather and organize evidence to support a position.

b)  Present evidence clearly and convincingly.

d)  Support and defend ideas in public forums.

e)  Use grammatically correct language, including vocabulary appropriate to the topic, audience, and purpose.

g)  Use presentation technology.

h) Collaborate and report on small-group learning activities.


The student will make planned, informative, and persuasive, multimodal, interactive presentations, collaboratively and individually.

a) Select and effectively use multimodal tools to design and develop presentation content.

b) Credit information sources.

c) Demonstrate the ability to work collaboratively with diverse teams.

d) Respond thoughtfully and tactfully to diverse perspectives, summarizing points of agreement and disagreement.

h) Use vocabulary appropriate to the topic, audience, and purpose.


Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  •  Prewriting includes choosing a topic, considering purpose, identifying the audience, and gathering and organizing ideas. (11.1a)
  • Being a good listener is a way to show respect and understanding of another person's perspective. (11.1h and 11.1c)
  • Active listening involves not only paying attention to the words someone is saying but also trying to understand the complete message. (11.1h and 11.1c)
  • Technology can enhance the ability to research, collect, organize, evaluate, and communicate information. (11.1g and 11.1a)
  • Working as an effective team increases efficiency. (11.1h and 11.1c)
  • Brainstorming as a group often leads to more creative and innovative ideas than working alone. (11.1h and 11.1c)
  • Being part of an effective team creates a support network built on reliance and trust. (11.1h and 11.1c)
  • Most careers require that workers form teams in order to meet deadlines. (11.1h and 11.1c)
  • It is important to know how to use and understand verbal and nonverbal communication as both a member and leader of a group. (11.1h and 11.1c)
  • It is important to use verbal and nonverbal feedback to evaluate one's own contributions. (11.1h and 11.1c)
  • Formal grammar and language are used in situations that are serious or involve people that one doesn't know well.  Informal grammar and language are used in situations that are more relaxed and with people one knows well. (11.1e and 11.1h)
  • Grammar and vocabulary differ between formal and informal English. (11.1e and 11.1h)
  • Nonverbal communication is made up of pitch, volume, and inflection of voice, as well as posture, eye contact, gestures, facial expressions, and proximity. (11.1b)
  • Nonverbal communication can either reiterate the spoken message, contradict it, or complement its meaning. (11.1b)
  • Every medium creates meaning differently through the use of visual and verbal techniques. (11.1b, g and 11.1a)
  • Knowing the purpose and audience helps presenters know not only what to say but also how to say it. (11.1b, g and 11.1a)
  • Convincing arguments include facts, statistics, examples, supported opinions, and logical reasoning. (11.1b)
  • Synthesis allows a writer or presenter to gather information from various sources and reorganize and present that information to support a specific thesis statement or proposition. (11.1a, b)
  • Selecting precise words and information helps increase the impact of a presentation on the audience. (11.1b, e and 11.1h)
  • To effectively engage an audience, it is critical to present using the appropriate language and tone. (11.1e and 11.1h)
  • Understanding text structures allows presenters to organize their thinking for the most effective communication. (11.1a)
  • The degree to which an audience will comprehend and/or support the main idea or propositive of a presentation will depend on the details that are used to support the main idea or proposition. (11.1b, d)
  • Public forums offer a way for multiple viewpoints on various topics to be discussed and debated. (11.1d)
  • Forums allow the public to have more of a voice on a wide range of societal issues. (11.1d)
  • Multimodal tools allow writers to engage larger audiences by through the incorporation of visual and sounds. (11.1a)
  • Being respectful is critical to effective communication as being disrespectful puts listeners in adversarial frames of mind in which they will likely disregard or dispute what is subsequently said. (11.1d)
  • Plagiarism deprives the original author of due credit for his or her work; it is a form of intellectual theft. (11.1b)
  • It is important to properly cite the words and ideas of others. (11.1b)

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • Students will give effective informative and persuasive presentations, using appropriate oral-communication skills.
  • Students will use grammatically correct language in preparation and presentation of ideas and thoughts.
  • Students will become critical listeners by assessing the effectiveness of oral presentations.\

All students should

  • recognize rhetoric as the art of persuasion and argument

ESSENTIALS

All students should

· understand how reading, writing, and discussion can be used to generate ideas and plan presentations.

· understand how to support and defend their ideas.

· understand rhetorical devices and techniques.

· identify speech appropriate for audience, topic, and situation.

· understand effective oral-delivery techniques.

evaluate and critique content and delivery of oral presentations.


To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

·  define a position and select evidence to support that position through reading, writing, and discussion.

·  establish a purpose.

·  develop well organized presentations to defend a position or present information.

·  apply and evaluate persuasive rhetorical devices and techniques including rhetorical questioning, parallel structuring, metaphor, imagery, figures of speech, alliterative expressions, etc.

·  use effective evidence and oral-delivery skills to convince an audience.

·  make oral-language choices based on predictions of target audience response.

·  listen actively by asking clarifying and elaborating questions.

·  develop effective multimedia presentations.

·  demonstrate mastery of content through small group collaboration.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

·  maintain appropriate eye contact.

·  address an audience with appropriate:

°  volume;

°  enunciation;

°  language choices; and

°  poise.

·  adopt appropriate tone.

·  maintain appropriate rhythm.

·  evaluate the use of persuasive techniques, such as:

°  introduction (for securing interest and establishing unity);

°  organization;

°  proof/support;

°  logic;

°  loaded language;

°  rhetorical devices, such as:

-  call to action

-  elevated language

-  rhetorical question

-  appeals to emotion

-  repetition

-  figurative language

-  addressing counterclaims

°  conclusion.

·  critique the accuracy, relevance, and organization of evidence.

·  critique the clarity and effectiveness of delivery.


To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • define a position and select evidence to support that position through reading, writing, and discussion
  • develop effective multimodal presentations to defend a position or present information
  • apply and evaluate persuasive rhetorical devices and techniques
  • use effective evidence and presentation skills to convince an audience
  • make purposeful language choices based on topic, audience, and situation
  • make choices based on predicted audience response
  • evaluate the use of persuasive techniques, such as
    • introduction (for securing interest and establishing unity)
    • organization
    • proof/support
    •  logic
    • conclusion
    • rhetorical devices, including but not limited to:
      • call to action
      • loaded and elevated language
      • rhetorical question
      • appeal to emotion
      • repetition
      • figurative language
      • addressing counterclaims

Updated: May 25, 2018

The student will examine how values and points of view are included or excluded and how media influences beliefs and behaviors.

a)  Use technology and other information tools to organize and display knowledge in ways others can view, use, and assess.

b)  Use media, visual literacy, and technology skills to create products.

c)  Evaluate sources including advertisements, editorials, blogs, Web sites, and other media for relationships between intent, factual content, and opinion.

d)  Determine the author’s purpose and intended effect on the audience for media messages.


The student will examine how values and points of view are included or excluded and how media influences beliefs and behaviors.

d) Analyze the impact of selected media formats on meaning.

e) Determine the author’s purpose and intended effect on the audience for medial messages.

f) Manage, analyze, and synthesize multiple streams of simultaneous information.

g) Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet when evaluating or producing creative or informational media messages.


Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • Knowing the audience determines the content to be presented and the language and visuals to include. (11.2a, b, c, d and 11.2e)
  • Media messages include ones used for propaganda and persuasion. (11.2c, d and 11.2e)
  • The type of media chosen to convey a message is determined by factors such as cost, size of audience, type of audience, purpose, and longevity. (11.2a, b, c, d and 11.2e)
  • The same message can have different effects on an intended audience depending on its method and format of delivery. (11.2a, b, c, d and 11.2e)
  • Based on media presentation, a particular opinion sometimes gets repeated through various media until a false vision is created in which perceived truth is not in line with actual truth. (11.2a, b, c, d and 11.2d)
  • Choices made in the creation of media reflect the values, attitudes, and perspectives of those creating the messages. (11.2a, b, c, d and 11.2d)
  • Using the Internet ethically involves avoiding stealing (plagiarism), avoiding untruthfulness, and avoiding cruelty. (11.2g)
  • The Internet provides a vast sea of information that users must deftly sift through to determine relevance and validity prior to using that information. (11.2f)


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

Students will continue to develop media literacy by examining how media messages influence people’s beliefs and behaviors.


All students should

  • recognize that media messages express viewpoints and contain values to influence the beliefs and behaviors of the intended audience
  • understand the difference between objectivity (fact) and subjectivity (bias) in media messages
  • comprehend the purposeful use of persuasive language and how word connotations convey viewpoint and bias.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

· recognize that media messages express viewpoints and contain values to influence the beliefs and behaviors of the intended audience.

· understand the difference between objectivity, or fact, and subjectivity,or bias, in media messages.

· realize the purposeful use of persuasive language and word connotations to convey viewpoint and bias.

· analyze how the media’s use of symbol, imagery, and metaphor affects the message.


To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

·  organize knowledge and display learning using visual images, text, graphics, and/or music to create media messages with visual, audio, and graphic effects.

·  demonstrate an awareness of the transactional and interactive nature of media by considering audience, context, and purpose in all stages of media production.

·  evaluate visual and verbal media messages for content (word choice and choice of information), intent (persuasive techniques), impact (public opinion trends), and effectiveness (effect on the audience).

·  determine author’s purpose and distinguish factual content from opinion and possible bias.

analyze and critique how media reach the targeted audience for specific purposes (to persuade, to entertain, to provoke to action, to appeal to ethics or beliefs, etc.).


To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • evaluate media messages for content, intent, and impact
  • analyze and critique how media reach the targeted audience for specific purposes
  • analyze media to determine the cause-and-effect relationship(s) between media coverage and public opinion trends
  • analyze how the media’s use of symbolism, imagery, and metaphor affects the message

KEY VOCABULARY

Objectivity; subjectivity; viewpoint; bias; audience; context; purpose; persuasive techniques (introduction; organization; proof/support; logic; loaded language; rhetorical devices; conclusion); rhetorical devices (call to action; elevated language; rhetorical question; appeals to emotion; repetition; figurative language; addressing counterclaims); author’s purpose; factual content; opinion

Analyze

Cause and effect

Critique
Updated: May 30, 2018

Reading

The student will apply knowledge of word origins, derivations, and figurative language to extend vocabulary development in authentic texts.

a)  Use structural analysis of roots, affixes, synonyms, antonyms, and cognates to understand complex words.

b)  Use context, structure, and connotations to determine meanings of words and phrases.

c)  Discriminate between connotative and denotative meanings and interpret the connotation.

d)  Identify the meaning of common idioms.

e)  Identify literary and classical allusions and figurative language in text.

f)  Extend general and specialized vocabulary through speaking, reading, and writing.

g)  Use knowledge of the evolution, diversity, and effects of language to comprehend and elaborate the meaning of texts.


The student will apply knowledge of word origins, derivations, and figurative language to extend vocabulary development in authentic texts.

a) Use structural analysis of roots, affixes, synonyms, and antonyms to understand complex words.

b) Use context, structure, and connotations to determine meanings of words and phrases.

c) Discriminate between connotative and denotative meanings and interpret the connotation.

d) Explain the meaning of common idioms.

e) Explain the meaning of literary and classical allusions and figurative language in text.

f) Extend general and cross-curricular vocabulary through speaking, listening, reading ,and writing.


Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • Understanding word structures and origins and derivations helps to show relationships among words. (11.3a, b and 11.3a, b)
  • Many words are like Legos; they can be pulled apart and reassembled with other parts to make new words. (11.3a and 11.3a)
  • Many words have multiple meanings, and understanding the context can help determine which meaning is appropriate. (11.3b, c and 11.3b, c)
  • Understanding words parts helps readers decode and understand the meanings of words more quickly and accurately. (11.3a, b and 11.3a, b)
  • Synonyms and antonyms can make meaning more precise when words are chosen not only for their denotative meanings but for their connotative meanings as well. (11.3b, c and 11.3b, c)
  • Most professions and areas of study have specialized vocabularies that are specific to them. (11.3f and 11.3f)
  • Connotations are the suggested meanings of words, including associations and emotional implications. (11.3c and 11.3c)
  • Connotations can influence mood or tone through the positive, negative, or neutral emotions they evoke. (11.3c and 11.3c)
  • Words that have the same denotative meaning can have drastically different connotative meanings. (11.3c and 11.3c)
  • Idioms can be used to communicate a meaning for which there is no exact word. (11.3d and 11.3d)
  • Idioms can be used as a short way of expressing a complex idea. (11.3d and 11.3d)
  • Allusions are based on the assumption that there is a shared body of knowledge that allows a reader to connect the significance of an allusion to the author's message. (11.3e and 11.3e)
  • An allusion stimulates ideas, associations, and extra information in a reader's mind with only a word or two. (11.3e and 11.3e)
  • Definitions of words can change over time both denotatively and connotatively. (11.3c, g and 11.3c)

  • UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    ·  The intent of this standard is that students will increase their independence as learners of vocabulary.

    ·  Students will use prefixes, suffixes, roots, derivations, and inflections of polysyllabic words to determine meaning and relationships among related words.

    ·  Teachers should use a study of cognates, words from the same linguistic family, to enhance vocabulary instruction. Cognates can occur within the same language or across languages, e.g.,  night (English), nuit (French), Nacht (German), nacht (Dutch), nicht (Scots), natt (Swedish, Norwegian), nat (Danish), raat (Urdu), nátt (Faroese), nótt (Icelandic), noc (Czech, Slovak, Polish).

    ·  Students will evaluate the use of figurative language in text.

    ·  Students will use context and connotations to help determine the meaning of synonymous words and appreciate an author’s choices of words and images.

    ·  Connotationis subjective, cultural, and emotional. A stubborn person may be described as being either strong-willed or pig-headed. They have the same literal meaning (i.e., stubborn). Strong-willed connotes admiration for the level of someone's will, while pig-headed connotes frustration in dealing with someone.

    ·  Denotation  is a dictionary definition of a word.

    ·  Idiom is an expression peculiar to a particular language or group of people that means something different from the dictionary definition (e.g., blessing in disguise, chip on your shoulder).

    ·  An allusion is an indirect reference to a person, place, event, or thing – real or fictional.  J.D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye  is an allusion to a poem by Robert Burns. Stephen Vincent Benet's story By the Waters of Babylon  alludes to Psalm 137 in the Bible. 


    All students should

    • recognize that words have nuances of meaning and that understanding the connotations and context may be necessary to determine the appropriate meaning
    • recognize that figurative language enriches text
    • understand that word structure aids comprehension of unfamiliar and complex words
    • understand that affixes and Greek and Latin roots are clues to determine meanings of words
    • understand that allusions are used to assist readers in providing connections to other works or historical events.

    ESSENTIALS

    All students should

    · use word structure to analyze and relate words.

    · recognize that words have nuances of meaning and that understanding the connotations may be necessary to determine the appropriate meaning.

    recognize that figurative language enriches text.


    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    ·  use roots or affixes to determine or clarify the meaning of words.

    ·  demonstrate an understanding of idioms.

    ·  use prior reading knowledge and other study to identify the meaning of literary and classical allusions.

    ·  interpret figures of speech (e.g., euphemism, oxymoron, hyperbole, paradox) in context and analyze their roles in the text.

    ·  analyze the connotation of words with similar denotations.

    ·  use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

    ·  identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different

    meanings or parts of speech (e.g., conceive, conception, conceivable).

    ·  consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries,

      glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation

      of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, its

      etymology, or its standard usage.

    ·  demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and connotations in word meanings.


    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • use roots or affixes to determine or clarify the meaning of words
    • demonstrate an understanding of and explain common idioms
    • use prior reading knowledge and other sources to identify and explain the meaning of literary and classical allusions
    • interpret figures of speech (e.g., paradox) in context and analyze their roles in the text
    • analyze the connotation of words with similar denotations
    • demonstrate understanding of figurative language and connotations in word meanings.

    Updated: May 31, 2018

    The student will read, comprehend, and analyze relationships among American literature, history, and culture.

    a)  Describe contributions of different cultures to the development of American literature.

    b)  Compare and contrast the development of American literature in its historical context.

    c)  Discuss American literature as it reflects traditional and contemporary themes, motifs, universal characters, and genres.

    d)  Analyze the social or cultural function of American literature.

    e)  Analyze how context and language structures convey an author’s intent and viewpoint.

    f)  Explain how the sound of a poem (rhyme, rhythm, onomatopoeia, repetition, alliteration, assonance, and parallelism) supports the subject, mood, and theme.

    g)  Explain how imagery and figures of speech appeal to the reader’s senses and experience.

    h)  Explain how an author’s specific word choices, syntax, tone, and voice support the author’s purpose.

    i)  Read and analyze a variety of American dramatic selections.

    j)  Analyze the use of literary elements and dramatic conventions including verbal, situational and dramatic irony used in American literature.

    k)  Generate and respond logically to literal, inferential, evaluative, synthesizing, and critical thinking questions before, during, and after reading texts.


    The student will read, comprehend, and analyze relationships among American literature, history, and culture.

    a) Describe contributions of different cultures to the development of American literature.

    b) Compare and contrast the development of American literature in its historical context.

    c) Analyze American literature, as it reflects traditional and contemporary themes, motifs, universal characters, and genres.

    d) Interpret the social or cultural function of American literature.

    e) Analyze how context and language structures convey an author’s intent and viewpoint.

    f) Critique how authors use key literary elements to contribute to meaning, including character development, theme, conflict, and archetypes within and across texts.

    g) Interpret how sound and imagery of poetry support the subject, mood, and theme and appeal to the reader’s senses.

    h) Evaluate how specific word choices, syntax, tone, and voice support the author’s purpose.

    i) Analyze the use of dramatic conventions in American literature.

    j) Generate and respond logically to literal, inferential, evaluative, synthesizing, and critical-thinking questions about the text(s).

    k) Compare/contrast literary and informational nonfiction texts.


    Adopted: 2017

    BIG IDEAS

    • Literature relates to the society/environment in which it is created. (11.4a, b, i and 11.4a, b)
    • People create writings, art, and music when moved by political situations. (11.4a, b, i and 11.4a, b)
    • American literature can be used to view social expectations or the norms of the time period from which they were written. (11.4a, b, i and 11.4a, b)
    • American literature serves a function, regardless of the time it was composed. (11.4a, b, i and 11.4a, b)
    • Each historical period creates its own unique literature, and this often builds on literary trends that have already happened. (11.4a, b, i and 11.4a, b)
    • Sampling/mixing/mash-ups are modern day creations that build on the traditions that have gone before but still have a thematic relevance to today. (11.4c and 11.4c)
    • American literature contains knowledge about the beliefs, perceptions, and philosophies of its people. (11.4a, b, i and 11.4a, b)
    • Formulating questions allows individuals to gather more information, work more effectively with teams, address challenges more proactively, and reflect more deeply. (11.4k and 11.4j)
    • During reading good readers analyze words, construct meaning, use background knowledge to relate, ask questions, predict, and inter. (11.4k and 11.4j)
    • Questioning is critical to successful reading comprehension because it is the process of asking questions, seeking and answers, and then asking additional questions that keeps the reading process going. (11.4k and 11.4j)
    • Literature not only serves the purpose of entertainment, but it can also enlighten the readers about the world around them, shape readers political or ideological views, and serve as a time capsule of the language and culture of the time in which it was written. (11.4d and 11.4d)
    • Authors sometimes use characters to symbolize qualities such as courage, malice, or love, so it is important to analyze characters to fully understand a story and its theme. (11.4j and 11.4f)
    • Because plots are interconnected series of events, every event has a specific purpose.  When all events are put together they establish connections, suggests causes, and show relationships. (11.4j and 11.4f)
    • Settings provide the underlying foundation of a story that gives a deeper meaning to the story as a whole. (11.4j and 11.4f)
    • Themes make revelations that are often stated as generalizations. (11.4j and 11.4f)
    • An author's style is a reflection of his or her personality and beliefs. (11.4j and 11.4f)
    • Style includes elements such as syntax, diction, voice, and tone.  These elements can help readers make inferences and conclusions about a passage. (11.4h and 11.4h)
    • Style is a not a matter of right and wrong. (11.4h and 11.4h)
    • The degree to which a reader will comprehend and/or support the main idea or theme of a text will depend on the details that are used to support that main idea or theme. (11.4j and 11.4f)
    • Details included in literary nonficition and informational nonfiction may be the same factually but are presented in different formats and styles. (11.4k)
    • Because the world is experienced using our five senses, the use of imagery allows readers to more realistically experience a text. (11.4f and 11.4g)
    • Word choice impact the meaning and emotional impact of text. (11.4f and 11.4g)
    • Sound effects in text can create either pleasant, melodic effects or jarring, discordant effects. (11.4f and 11.4g)
    • Repetitive sounds can help set an atmosphere for the reader. (11.4f and 11.4g)
    • Word choice, including attention to connotation as well as the use of figurative language, impacts the tone, imagery, voice, and mood of text. (11.4f and 11.4g)
    • While they vary within genres of drama, dramatic conventions are a set of rules that are familiar to both writers/directors and readers/audiences that quickly signal the nature of action or character. (11.4j)
    • By making connections to a reader's senses or experiences, imagery and figures of speech help to evoke emotions in the reader that enables a deeper connection to the story. (11.4g and 11.4g)
    • Why an author chose to write a particular text (the context) helps shape the chosen structure or framework for the text.  The context and language structures are thus intertwined with the author's intent and viewpoint. (11.4e and 11.4e)

    UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    ·  Students will understand literature as it relates to the cultural and historical period in which it was written. More specifically, students will recognize how authors are influenced by the ideas and values of their times. For this reason, literary selections typically reflect not only the values and ideas of the authors who wrote them but also the values and ideas of the times in which they were written. Students will also learn how the ideas presented in literary works may influence the values or conditions of the society in which the works were written.

    ·  Students will read, analyze, critique, and compare a variety of contemporary and traditional poetry.

    ·  A list of poetic elements and techniques is included in the “Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes” column for English SOL 9.4

    ·  Students will read and critique a variety of dramatic selections.

    ·  A complete list of literary devices is found in Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes column for SOL 9.4.

    ·  Students will use a variety of reading strategies such as text annotation, QAR (Question-Answer Relationship), thinking aloud, etc.

    ·  Close reading entails close observation of the text, including annotating, determining all word meanings including connotations, syntax, and structure. It also involves paying close attention to figures of speech, and other features that contribute to a writer’s style. Close reading also involves reflecting on deeper meanings of text, including considering relationships to other texts or social or cultural history.


    All students should

    • understand characteristics and cultures of historical periods and how the literature reflects those characteristics
    • recognize and understand universal characters, themes, and motifs in American literature
    • understand how an author’s intent is achieved by the use of context and language
    • understand dramatic conventions and devices.

    ESSENTIALS

    All students should

    · understand characteristics and cultures of historical periods and literary movements associated with each century.

    · recognize and understand universal characters, themes, and motifs in American literature.

    · understand how an author’s intent is achieved by the use of context and language.

    understand dramatic conventions and devices.


    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    ·  use reading strategies to improve comprehension and to achieve the purposes for reading:  predicting and adjusting predictions; questioning the text; restating main ideas and summarizing supporting details; and close reading. 

    ·  discuss how the subject matter, style, literary type, theme, and purpose of literary works often reflect the culture and events of the times in which the works were written.

    ·  analyze how connections among motifs, setting, character traits, character development, and plot suggest multiple themes.

    ·  analyze and critique themes across texts and within various social, cultural, and historical contexts.

    ·  describe and contrast literary movements and representative texts  associated with each literary movement, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics. Literary movements include:

    °  Colonialism/Puritanism (17th century);

    °  Revolutionary movement/Rationalism (18th century);

    °  Romanticism, Transcendentalism, Regionalism, Realism,

    Naturalism (19th century);

    °  Symbolism/Modernism, Harlem Renaissance, Postmodernism  (20thcentury); and

    °  Contemporary poetry (21st Century)

    ·  differentiate among archetypal characters in American literature, such as the:

    °  hero/heroine;

    °  trickster;

    °  faithful companion;

    °  outsider/outcast;

    °  rugged individualist;

    °  innocent;

    °  villain;

    °  caretaker;

    °  Earth mother;

    °  rebel;

    °  misfit;

    °  lonely orphan;

    °  shrew;

    °  mother/father figure;

    °  monster/villain; and

    °  scapegoat.

    ·  identify major themes in American literature, such as:

    °  the American Dream;

    °  loss of innocence;

    °  coming of age;

    °  relationship with nature;

    °  relationship with society;

    °  relationship with science;

    °  alienation and isolation;

    °  survival of the fittest;

    °  disillusionment; and

    °  rebellion and protest.

    ·  analyze texts to identify the author’s attitudes, viewpoints, and beliefs and critique how these relate to larger historical, social, and cultural contexts.

    ·  analyze the representation of a subject or a key scene in two different media.

    ·  describe how the use of context and language structures conveys an author’s intent and viewpoint.

    ·  analyze the impact of the author’s choices in developing

    the elements of a story or drama (e.g., setting, plot structure, and character development).

    ·  demonstrate knowledge of eighteenth-, nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century foundational works of American literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics.

    ·  analyze a case in which a point of view requires distinguishing what is directly stated in a text from what is really meant (e.g., satire, irony, sarcasm, understatement).

    ·  use poetic elements to explain, analyze, and evaluate poetry.

    ·  compare and contrast the subject matter, theme, form, language, development, and purpose of works of classic poets with those of contemporary poets.

    ·  compare how poems of the same form use elements - sound, figurative language, imagery, symbols, and allusions - differently to convey meaning.

    ·  identify and discuss the elements and techniques that poets use to achieve a desired result, such as:

    °  imagery;

    °  precise word choice;

    °  sound devices;

    °  metrical patterns; and

    °  metaphorical/figurative language.

    ·  describe the language choices and devices that authors use, such as:

    °  rhetorical question;

    °  sarcasm;

    °  satire;

    °  parallelism;

    °  connotation/denotation;

    °  pun;

    °  irony;

    °  tone;

    °  dialect;

    °  diction; and

    °  figurative language.

    ·  identify and describe dramatic conventions.

    ·  compare and evaluate adaptations and interpretations of a script for stage, film, television or other media.


    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • use appropriate reading strategies to approach different genres and reading tasks
    • discuss how the subject matter, style, genre, theme, and purpose of literary works often reflect the culture and events of the times in which the works were written
    • analyze how connections among motifs, setting, character traits, character development, and plot suggest multiple themes
    • analyze and critique themes across texts and within various social, cultural, and historical contexts
    • analyze and critique themes and issues within and across texts related to
      • religious diversity
      • political struggles
      • ethnic and cultural mores and traditions
      • individual rights, gender equity, and civil rights
    • describe and contrast literary movements and representative texts associated with each literary movement, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics
    • differentiate archetypes that are common in American  literature, including, but not limited to,
      • hero/heroine
      • trickster
      • outsider/outcast
      • shrew
      • rebel
      • misfit
      • scapegoat
    • analyze major themes in American literature through the perspective of various social, cultural, and historical contexts, including, but not limited to,
      • the American Dream
      • loss of innocence
      • coming of age
      • relationship with nature
      • alienation and isolation
      • rebellion and protest
    • analyze texts to identify the author’s viewpoints and beliefs and critique how these relate to larger historical, social, and cultural contexts
    • describe how the use of context and language structures conveys an author’s intent and viewpoint
    • analyze point of view and distinguish what is directly stated in a text from what is really meant (e.g., satire, irony, sarcasm, understatement)
    • use poetic elements to explain, analyze, and evaluate poetry
    • compare and contrast the subject matter, theme, form, language, development, and purpose of works of classic poets with those of contemporary poets
    • compare how poems of the same form use elements (e.g., sound, figurative language, imagery, symbols, and allusions)differently to convey meaning
    • describe the language choices and devices that authors use, including, but not limited to,
      • rhetorical question
      • sarcasm
      • satire
      • parallelism
      • connotation/denotation
      • pun
      • irony 
      • tone
      • dialect
      • diction
      • figurative language
    • compare  and contrast two or more texts on the same topic or with similar themes
    • use evidence from the text(s) for support when drawing conclusions or making inferences
    • demonstrate comprehension and apply strategies to write about what is read.

    Updated: Jun 05, 2018

    The student will read and analyze a variety of nonfiction texts.

    a)  Use information from texts to clarify understanding of concepts.

    b)  Read and follow directions to complete an application for college admission, for a scholarship, or for employment.

    c)  Generalize ideas from selections to make predictions about other texts.

    d)  Draw conclusions and make inferences on explicit and implied information using textual support.

    e)  Analyze two or more texts addressing the same topic to identify authors’ purpose and determine how authors reach similar or different conclusions.

    f)  Identify false premises in persuasive writing.

    g)  Recognize and analyze use of ambiguity, contradiction, paradox, irony, overstatement, and understatement in text.

    h)  Generate and respond logically to literal, inferential, evaluative, synthesizing, and critical thinking questions before, during, and after reading texts.


    The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate a variety of nonfiction texts, including employment documents and technical writing.

    a) Apply information from texts to clarify understandings of concepts.

    b) Read and correctly interpret an application for employment, workplace documents, or an application for college admission.

    c) Analyze technical writing for clarity

    d) Paraphrase and synthesize ideas within and between texts.

    e) Draw conclusions and make inferences on explicit and implied information using textual support.

    f) Analyze multiple texts addressing the same topic to determine how authors reach similar or different conclusions.

    g) Analyze false premises, claims, counterclaims, and other evidence in persuasive writing.

    h) Recognize and analyze use of ambiguity, contradiction, paradox, irony, sarcasm, overstatement, and understatement in text.

    i) Generate and respond logically to literal, inferential, evaluative, synthesizing, and critical-thinking questions about the text(s).


    Adopted: 2017

    BIG IDEAS

    • Applications give basic information to potential employers and school administrators.  (11.5b and 11.5b)
    • Because it is often impractical to interview all candidates, applications provide an initial impression and help narrow the pool of applicants. (11.5b and 11.5b)
    • It is often necessary to read more than one text on a given topic so that you have a better understanding of the topic. (11.4e and 11.4d, e)
    • Making inferences is like being a detective.  Readers must use their prior knowledge to find the meanings behind what is written in a passage. (11.5d and 11.5e)
    • Rather than being explicit, writers sometimes imply a main idea or theme, and it is up to the reader to figure out the main idea or theme by inferencing and drawing conclusions. (11.5d and 11.5e)
    • The degree to which a reader will comprehend and/or support the main idea or proposition of a passage will depend on the details that are used to support the main idea or proposition. (11.5d and 11.5e)
    • Comparing and contrasting ideas found in multiple sources allows one to identify conflicting and consistent information and thus evaluate sources. (11.5e and 11.5f)
    • Comparing viewpoints on the same topic from multiple authors gives one a more comprehensive view of a topic. (11.5e and 11.5f)
    • Because a false premise is an incorrect proposition, the conclusions drawn by readers may be incorrect. (11.5f and 11.5g)
    • Irony is an indirect route to pointing out problematic relationships between perception and truth. (11.5g and 11.5h)
    • Irony can help one find humor even in grave situations. (11.5g and 11.5h)
    • Because paradoxes are contradictory statements that contain elements of truth, they lead readers to question traditional ideas. (11.5g and 11.5h)
    • Writers often use paradoxes to make readers think about ideas in innovative ways. (11.5g and 11.5h)
    • Overstatements and understatements are used by authors to emphasize ideas by making obvious contradictions between what is written and reality. (11.5g and 11.5h)
    • Authors use ambiguity to make their writing more complex, interesting, and realistic. (11.5 g and 11.5h)
    • Ambiguity leaves room for interpretation by the reader. (11.5g and 11.5h)
    • Formulating questions allows individuals to gather more information, work more effectively with teams, address challenges more proactively, and reflect more deeply. (11.5h and 11.5i)
    • Prior to reading good readers set a goal for reading and note structure of texts. (11.5h and 11.5i)
    • During reading good readers analyze words, construct meaning, use background knowledge to relate, ask questions, predict, and inter. (11.5h and 11.5i)
    • After reading good readers reflect and summarize. (11.5h and 11.5i)
    • Technical writing is used within workplaces for communication, documents, and manuals.  It is generally intended to be formal and clear, and the vocabulary and format may vary by occupational field. (11.5c)
    • Text structure is the overall organizational pattern of text; it provides a path to aid comprehension because authors use these structures to arrange and connect ideas. (11.5a and 11.5a)
    • Viewpoint and purpose affect how authors shape and develop ideas.  It drives the information they include, the structure for writing they choose, and their word choices. (11.5a and 11.5a)
    • Knowing the purpose of different text features allows readers to decide where to look when they want to understand a text better. (11.5a and 11.5a)
    • Because the purpose of a text often drives the format that it will take and the text features it will employ, knowing the patterns used can help readers make predictions about text. (11.5c)
    • Generalized trends within an author's body of work and between the works of a various writers help readers make predictions. (11.5c)

    UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    ·  Students will read, understand, and use a variety of informational texts. They will develop specific reading skills in order to generalize ideas, make predictions, and follow directions. They will identify and analyze the steps in their own reading process in order to broaden their critical understanding.

    ·  Students should recognize persuasive techniques such as:

    °  ad hominem means “to the man” does not argue the issue, instead it argues the person;

    °  red herring is a deliberate attempt to divert attention;

    °  straw man creates the illusion of having refuted a proposition by substituting a similar yet weaker proposition (the "straw man"); and

    °  begging the question assumes the conclusion is true without proving it; circular argument.

    ·  Students will use a variety of reading strategies such as text annotation, QAR (Question-Answer Relationship), thinking aloud, etc.


    All students should

    • understand how to analyze informational material 
    • understand a variety of persuasive techniques and rhetorical devices
    • recognize the text structure of informational and technical writing
    • understand how format and style in informational text differ from those in narrative and expository text
    • understand that skilled readers of nonfiction texts and technical documents apply different reading strategies.

    ESSENTIALS

    All students should

    · understand how to analyze informational material.

    · understand reading strategies and use those strategies to analyze text.


    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    ·  analyze the vocabulary (jargon, technical terminology, and content-specific) and ideas of informational texts from various academic disciplines in order to clarify understandings of concepts.

    ·  know the purpose of the text they are to read and their own purpose in reading it.

    ·  use format (page design and layout), text structures, and features to aid in understanding of text.

    ·  understand how an organizational pattern enhances the meaning of a text.

    ·  distinguish main ideas from supporting details in complex informational text to generalize ideas and make predictions about other texts

    ·  analyze information from a text to make inferences and draw conclusions.

    ·  analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific individuals, ideas, or events interact and develop over the course of the text.

    ·  compare and contrast how two or more texts treat two or more of the same ideas and analyze the development of those ideas including how they interact and build on one another to provide a complex analysis.

    ·  provide an objective summary of the text.

    ·  analyze how a variety of logical arguments could reach conflicting conclusions.

    ·  evaluate the relevance and quality of evidence used to support a claim.

    ·  analyze and identify false premises that intentionally manipulate audiences.

    ·  determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a rhetorically rich text, analyzing how ambiguity, contradiction, paradox, irony, hyperbole, overstatement, and understatement contribute to text.

    ·  before, during, and after reading texts, generate and respond to a variety of critical thinking questions to activate prior knowledge, engage actively with learning new information, and reflect on new learning or fresh insights.


    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • activate background knowledge to understand handbooks and manuals
    • analyze the vocabulary (i.e., content-specific jargon, technical terminology) and ideas of informational texts from various academic disciplines to clarify understandings of concepts
    • recognize the non-linear, fragmented, and graphic elements found in informational and technical writing
    • analyze and use a variety of persuasive techniques and rhetorical devices, including, but not limited to,
      • ethos
      • pathos
      • logos
      • claims/counterclaims
      • false premises
      • ad hominem arguments
      • begging the question
      • straw man
    • organize and synthesize information from paired texts while maintaining the intended purpose of each
    • analyze how authors use persuasive techniques and rhetorical devices to advance their purpose, including, but not limited to,
      • ambiguity
      • contradiction
      • paradox
      • irony
      • hyperbole
      • overstatement and understatement 
    • identify how authors use rhetorical devices to create ethos, pathos, and logos
    • identify different formats and purposes of informational and technical texts
    • analyze information from multiple texts to make inferences and draw conclusions
    • compare and contrast how complex texts treat the same topics
    • provide an objective summary of a text
    • analyze how a variety of logical arguments could reach conflicting conclusions
    • evaluate the relevance and quality of evidence used to support a claim and address a counterclaim
    • analyze and identify false premises that intentionally manipulate audiences
    • demonstrate comprehension and apply strategies to write about what is read.

    KEY VOCABULARY

    Updated: Jun 11, 2018