Reading - 2018-19

Unit 9: Reading/Universal Themes

Communication:Speaking Listening, Media Literacy

The student will analyze, produce, and examine similarities and differences between visual and verbal media messages.

a)  Use media, visual literacy, and technology skills to create products.

b)  Evaluate sources including advertisements, editorials, blogs, Web sites, and other media for relationships between intent, factual content, and opinion.

c)  Determine the author’s purpose and intended effect on the audience for media messages.

d) Identify the tools and techniques used to achieve the intended focus.


The student will examine, analyze, and produce media messages.Make strategic use of multimodal tools.

a) Create media messages for diverse audiences.

b) Credit information sources.

c) Evaluate sources for relationships between intent, factual content, and opinion.

d) Analyze the impact of selected media formats on meaning.

e) Analyze the purpose of information and persuasive techniques in diverse media formats.

f) Evaluate the motives (e.g., social, commercial, political) behind media presentation(s).

g) Describe possible cause-and-effect relationships between mass media coverage and public opinion trends.

h) Monitor, analyze, and use multiple streams of simultaneous information.

i) Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet when evaluating or producing creative or informational media messages.




Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • Word choices impact the meaning and emotional impact of a media message. (10.2c and 10.2e)
  • Selecting precise vocabulary and information helps increase the impact of a presentation on the audience. (10.2c and 10.2e)
  • Information to include in a media message should include reasons, descriptions, statistics, facts, examples, explanations, supported opinions, and comparisons to help the audience learn more about the topic or proposition. (10.2a)
  • Knowing the audience determines the content to be presented and the language and visuals to include. (10.2a, c, d and 10.2a, e)
  • Determining the accuracy of factual information can help someone judge the credibility of the author or presenter and provide clues to possible bias. (10.2b and 10.2c)
  • Information on the Internet is not regulated for accuracy so it is important for users to evaluate the resources and the information. (10.2b and 10.2c)
  • People learn abstract and new concepts more easily when they are presented in both textual and visual formats. (10.2a, d and 10.2a)
  • Visual and auditory effects in media make ideas more accessible and easier to recall than text media alone. (10.2a, d and 10.2a, d)
  • The special effects used in media help producers convey complex ideas in a short period of time. (1.2a, d and 10.2a, d)
  • Media messages include ones used for propaganda and persuasion. (10.2b, c, d and 10.2c, d, e, f)
  • The type of media chosen to convey a message is determined by factors such as cost, size of audience, type of audience, purpose, and longevity. (10.2a, c and 10.2a, d)
  • The same message can have different effects on an intended audience depending on its method and format of delivery. (10.2a, c, d and 10.2a, d, e)
  • Well crafted media messages help shape public opinion and play an important role in stimulating civic action, exposing problems to be addressed, and highlighting important issues. (10.2a, c, d and 10.2d, e, g)
  • Media are designed to accomplish one or more purposes including expressing an opinion or point of view, persuading, entertaining, and educating. (10.2a, b, c and 10.2d, e, f, g)
  • Media focus the public's attention on certain people and issues, causing the public to form opinions about those people and issues. (10.2a, b, c, da and 10.2d, e, f, g)
  • The effect of media is particularly pronounced in areas in which audiences do not possess direct knowledge or experience (10.2b, c and 10.2d)
  • Mass media largely dictate what is newsworthy and how it will be portrayed. (10.2b, c and 10.2d, e, f, g)
  • Based on media presentation, a particular opinion sometimes gets repeated through various media until a false vision is created in which perceived truth is not in line with actual truth. (10.2b, c and 10.2b, d, e, f)
  • Choices made in the creation of media reflect the values, attitudes, and perspectives of those creating the messages. (10.2a, b ,c and 10.2a, d, e, f)
  • Comparing information found in multiple sources allows one to identify conflicting and consistent information and thus evaluate sources. (10.2b and 10.2c, h)
  • Comparing and contrasting viewpoints gives one a more comprehensive view of a topic. (10.2b and 10.2c, h)
  • Technology can enhance the ability to research, collect, organize, evaluate, and communicate information. (10.2a, d and 10.2a, i)
  • Persuasive techniques can be divided into the three general categories of ethos, pathos, and logos.  The technique chosen for a media message will vary with respect to the content and audience. (10,2 a, b, c, d and 10.2c, e, f)
  • An author's motives behind media presentations help indicate information included or excluded as well as vocabulary choices. (10.2f)
  • Using the Internet ethically involves avoiding stealing (plagiarism), avoiding untruthfulness, and avoiding cruelty. (10.2i)
  • Plagiarism deprives the original author of due credit for his or her work; it is a form of intellectual theft. (10.2b)
  • It is important to properly cite the words and ideas of others. (10.2b)
  • Citing sources allows one to acknowledge the contributions of others. (10.2b)
  • Citations provide a way for others to locate the sources a writer used. (10.2b)
  • Citations provide evidence of research. (10.2b)

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • Students will continue to develop media literacy by comparing and contrasting visual and verbal media messages.
  • Students will continue to create products that reflect their expanding knowledge of media and visual literacy.


All students should

  • recognize that media messages express a viewpoint and contain values
  • understand that there is a relationship between the author’s intent, the factual content, and opinion expressed in media messages
  • comprehend how the purposeful use of persuasive language and word connotations convey viewpoint and bias
  • understand the difference between objectivity (fact) and subjectivity (bias) in media messages
  • understand how special effects are employed in media messages to persuade viewers
  • recognize that each media message is constructed and that, to understand the whole meaning of the message, it must be deconstructed. 

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • recognize that media messages express a viewpoint and contain values.
  • understand that there is a relationship between the author’s intent, the factual content, and opinion expressed in media messages.
  • understand the purposeful use of persuasive language and word connotations convey viewpoint and bias.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • identify and analyze the sources and viewpoint of publications.
  • analyze, compare, and contrast visual and verbal media messages for content (word choice and choice of information), intent (persuasive techniques), impact (public opinion trends), and effectiveness (effect on the audience).
  • determine author’s purpose, factual content, opinion, and/or possible bias as presented in media messages.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • identify and analyze the sources and viewpoint of publications including advertisements, editorials, blogs, and websites.
  • analyze, compare, and contrast visual and verbal media messages for content (word choice and choice of information), intent (persuasive techniques), impact (public opinion trends), and effectiveness (effect on the audience).
  • determine the author’s purpose, factual content, opinion, and/or possible bias as presented in media messages.
  • recognize that persuasive techniques are used to convince viewers to make decisions, change their minds, take a stand on an issue, or predict a certain outcome, including, but not limited to,
    • ad hominem
    • red herring
    • straw man 
    • begging the question
    • testimonial
    • ethical appeal
    • emotional appeal and logical appeal
  • avoid plagiarism by giving credit whenever using another person’s media, facts, statistics, graphics, images, music and sounds, quotations, or paraphrases of another person’s words
  • analyze media to determine the cause-and-effect relationship(s) between media coverage and public opinion trends. 

Updated: May 30, 2018

Reading

The student will apply knowledge of word origins, derivations, and figurative language to extend vocabulary development in authentic texts.

  a)  Use structural analysis of roots, affixes, synonyms, antonyms, and cognates to understand complex words.

  b)  Use context, structure, and connotations to determine meanings of words and phrases.

  c)  Discriminate between connotative and denotative meanings and interpret the connotation.

  d)  Identify the meaning of common idioms.

  e)  Identify literary and classical allusions and figurative language in text.

  f)  Extend general and specialized vocabulary through speaking, reading, and writing.

  g)  Use knowledge of the evolution, diversity, and effects of language to comprehend and elaborate the meaning of texts.


The student will apply knowledge of word origins, derivations, and figurative language to extend vocabulary development in authentic texts.

a) Use structural analysis of roots, affixes, synonyms, and antonyms to understand complex words.

b) Use context, structure, and connotations to determine meanings of words and phrases.

c) Discriminate between connotative and denotative meanings and interpret the connotation.

d) Explain the meaning of common idioms.

e) Explain the meaning of literary and classical allusions and figurative language in text.

f) Extend general and cross-curricular vocabulary through speaking, listening, reading, and writing.


Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • Understanding word structures and origins and derivations helps to show relationships among words. (10.3a, b and 10.3a, b)
  • Many words are like Legos; they can be pulled apart and reassembled with other parts to make new words. (10.3a and 10.3a)
  • Many words have multiple meanings, and understanding the context can help determine which meaning is appropriate. (10.3b and 10.3b)
  • Understanding words parts helps readers decode and understand the meanings of words more quickly and accurately. (10.3a, b and 10.3a, b)
  • Synonyms and antonyms can make meaning more precise when words are chosen not only for their denotative meanings but for their connotative meanings as well. (10.3c and 10.3c)
  • Most professions and areas of study have specialized vocabularies that are specific to them. (10.3f and 10.3f)
  • Connotations are the suggested meanings of words, including associations and emotional implications. (10.3c and 10.3c)
  • Connotations can influence mood or tone through the positive, negative, or neutral emotions they evoke. (10.3c and 10.3c)
  • Words that have the same denotative meaning can have drastically different connotative meanings. (10.3c and 10.3c)
  • Idioms can be used to communicate a meaning for which there is no exact word. (10.3d and 10.3d)
  • Idioms can be used as a short way of expressing a complex idea. (10.3d and 10.3d)
  • Allusions are based on the assumption that there is a shared body of knowledge that allows a reader to connect the significance of an allusion to the author's message. (10.3e and 10.3e)
  • An allusion stimulates ideas, associations, and extra information in a reader's mind with only a word or two. (10.3e and 10.3e)
  • Definitions of words can change over time both denotatively and connotatively. (10.3c, g and 10.3c)

  • UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    ·  The intent of this standard is that students will increase their independence as learners of vocabulary.

    ·  Students will use prefixes, suffixes, roots, derivations, and inflections of polysyllabic words to determine meaning and relationships among related words.

    ·  Teachers should use a study of cognates, words from the same linguistic family, to enhance vocabulary instruction. Cognates can occur within the same language or across languages  night (English), nuit (French), Nacht (German), nacht (Dutch), nicht (Scots), natt (Swedish, Norwegian), nat (Danish), raat (Urdu), nátt (Faroese), nótt (Icelandic), noc (Czech, Slovak, Polish).

    ·  Students will evaluate the use of figurative language in text.

    ·  Students will use context and connotations to help determine the meaning of synonymous words and appreciate an author’s choices of words and images.

    ·  Connotation is subjective cultural and emotional. A stubborn person may be described as being either strong-willed or pig-headed. They have the same literal meaning (i.e., stubborn). Strong-willed connotes admiration for the level of someone's will, while pig-headed connotes frustration in dealing with someone.

    ·  Denotation is a dictionary definition of a word.

    ·  Idiom is an expression peculiar to a particular language or group of people that means something different from the dictionary definition (e.g., blessing in disguise, chip on your shoulder).

    ·  An allusion is an indirect reference to a person, place, event or thing – real or fictional.  J.D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye  is an allusion to a poem by Robert Burns. Stephen Vincent Benet's story By the Waters of Babylon  alludes to Psalm 137 in the Bible.


    ESSENTIALS

    All students should

    · use word structure to analyze and relate words.

    · recognize that words have nuances of meaning and that understanding the connotations may be necessary to determine the appropriate meaning.

    recognize that figurative language enriches text.


    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    ·  use roots or affixes to determine or clarify the meaning of words.

    ·  demonstrate an understanding of idioms.

    ·  use prior reading knowledge and other study to identify the meaning of literary and classical allusions.

    ·  interpret figures of speech (e.g., euphemism, oxymoron) in context and analyze their role in the text.

    ·  analyze connotations of words with similar denotations.

    ·  use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

    ·  identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different

    meanings or parts of speech (e.g., conceive, conception, conceivable).

    ·  consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses, both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, its etymology, or its standard usage.

    ·  demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and connotations in word meanings.


    KEY VOCABULARY

    prefix; suffix; root; derivative; inflection; connotation; denotation; idiom; allusion; figures of speech (euphemism; oxymoron)


    Updated: May 03, 2018

    The student will read, comprehend, and analyze literary texts of different cultures and eras.
    Bloom's: Understanding; Analyzing

    e)  Identify universal themes prevalent in the literature of different cultures.
    Bloom's: Remembering

    g)  Explain the influence of historical context on the form, style, and point of view of a literary text.
    Bloom's: Understanding


    Adopted: 2010

    BIG IDEAS

    • Universal themes apply to anyone regardless of cultural differences or geographic locations. (10.4e)
    • Universal themes imply ideas about human nature and the relationship of human beings to themselves, each other, and the universe. (10.4e)
    • Works of literature are influenced by the political context in which they are written, the authors' personal perspectives, and the societies that frame the works. (10.4g)
    • Some ideas can't be clearly comprehended without considering the time in which they text was written. (10.4g)
    • Literature gives insight to the political, cultural, and philosophical ideas of particular cultures in specific historical periods. (10.4g)



    UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    ·  Students will know the ways that literature is defined by a variety of literary works, themes, and universal themes. They will read a wide range of literary genres from different cultures and time periods in order to gain an appreciation of various cultural histories and recognize similarities in images and themes that connect all peoples.

    ·  Students will interpret and paraphrase the meanings of poems to demonstrate understanding of the poems.

    ·  Students will interpret and paraphrase the meanings of poems to demonstrate understanding of the poems.

    ESSENTIALS

    All students should

    · understand that literature is universal and influenced by different cultures and eras.


    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    ·  construct meaning from text by making connections between what they already know and the new information they read.

    ·  use reading strategies to improve comprehension and to achieve the purposes for reading:  predicting and adjusting predictions; questioning the text; restating main ideas and summarizing supporting details; and close reading. 

    ·  identify universal themes, such as:
    °  struggle with nature;
    °  survival of the fittest;
    °  coming of age;
    °  power of love;
    °  loss of innocence;
    °  struggle with self;
    °  disillusionment with life;
    °  the effects of progress;
    °  power of nature;
    °  alienation and isolation;
    °  honoring the historical past;
    °  good overcoming evil;
    °  tolerance of the atypical;
    °  the great journey;
    °  noble sacrifice;
    °  the great battle;
    °  love and friendship; and
    °  revenge.

    ·  analyze works of literature for historical information about the period in which they were written.

    ·  analyze a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a literary work.


    KEY VOCABULARY

    historical context; universal theme; analyze

    Updated: Jul 18, 2017

    The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate nonfiction texts.
    Bloom's: Remembering; Understanding; Analyzing; Evaluating

    f)  Draw conclusions and make inferences on explicit and implied information using textual support as evidence.
    Bloom's: Analyzing; Evaluating

    g)  Analyze and synthesize information in order to solve problems, answer questions, and generate new knowledge.
    Bloom's: Analyzing; Evaluating


    Adopted: 2010

    BIG IDEAS

  • Making inferences is like being a detective.  Readers must use their prior knowledge to find the meanings behind what is written in a passage. (10.5f)
  • Rather than being explicit, writers sometimes imply a main idea or theme, and it is up to the reader to figure out the main idea or theme by inferencing and drawing conclusions. (10.5f)
  • The degree to which a reader will comprehend and/or support the main idea or proposition of a passage will depend on the details that are used to support the main idea or proposition. (10.5f)
  • Synthesis allows a writer to gather information from various sources and reorganize and present that information to support a specific topic or thesis statement. (10.5g)
  • Comparing and contrasting ideas found in multiple sources allows one to identify conflicting and consistent information and thus evaluate sources. (10.5g)
  • Comparing viewpoints gives one a more comprehensive view of a topic. (10.5g)
  • Determining the accuracy of factual information can help a reader judge the credibility of the author and provide clues of possible bias. (10.5g)

  • UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    ·  Students need to be skilled readers of nonfictional texts and technical manuals and have the ability to apply different reading strategies when engaging with a variety of such materials.

    Students will use a variety of reading strategies such as text annotation, QAR (Question-Answer Relationship), thinking aloud, etc.

    ESSENTIALS

    All students should

    · understand how format and style in informational text differ from those in narrative and expository texts.

    · understand reading strategies and in particular, how they are used to locate specific information in informational text.


    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    ·  identify the different formats and purposes of informational and technical texts.

    ·  analyze how authors use rhetoric to advance their point of view.

    ·  identify the main idea(s) in informational  text.

    ·  identify essential details in complex informational passages.

    ·  make inferences and draw conclusions from informational text.

    ·  synthesize information across multiple informational texts.


    KEY VOCABULARY

    conclusion; inference; analyze; synthsize

    Updated: May 23, 2017

    Writing

    The student will develop a variety of writing to persuade, interpret, analyze, and evaluate with an emphasis on exposition and analysis.

    Bloom's: Evaluating

    a)  Generate, gather, plan, and organize ideas for writing to address a specific audience and purpose.

    Bloom's: Creating; Applying; Evaluating; Analyzing

    b)  Synthesize information to support the thesis. 

    Bloom's: Evaluating

    c)  Elaborate ideas clearly through word choice and vivid description.

    Bloom's: Evaluating

    d)  Write clear and varied sentences, clarifying ideas with precise and relevant evidence.

    Bloom's: Remembering; Applying

    e)  Organize ideas into a logical sequence using transitions. 

    Bloom's: Analyzing

    f)  Revise writing for clarity of content, accuracy, and depth of information. 

    Bloom's: Evaluating

    g)  Use computer technology to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish writing.

    Bloom's: Applying; Evaluating; Analyzing; Evaluating; Creating


    Adopted: 2010

    BIG IDEAS

    • Writing is a process.
    • When writing for school, it is important to maintain a formal style and objective tone.
    • In order for writing to be effective, the author must be clear with what readers need to understand. 
    • While all academic writing needs a thesis, analytical writing needs clear support for each division of the paper.

    UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    • Students will know how to move through the stages of a writing process, from planning to drafting, revising, editing, and proofreading.
    • Students will understand that expository writing is prose that explains ideas through the use of a clear general statement of the writer’s point (thesis) and through the development of ideas, using specific evidence and illustrations for support.
    • Analytical writing uses precise language and often divides the subject into parts and provides evidence on each part.
    • Students should have practice writing for shorter time frames as well as extended time frames.

    ESSENTIALS

    All students should

    • understand that writing is a process.
    • understand expository and analytical texts and develop products that reflect that understanding.
    • understand effective organizational patterns

    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • write expository texts that:
      • explain a process;
      • compare and contrast ideas;
      • show cause and effect;
      • enumerate details; or
      • define ideas and concepts.
    • develop written products that demonstrate their understanding of composing, written expression, and usage/mechanics.
    • write persuasively and analytically on a variety of literary and nonliterary subjects.
    • develop writing that analyzes complex issues.
    • plan and organize their ideas for writing.
    • state a thesis and support it.
    • elaborate ideas in order to provide support for the thesis.
    • use visual and sensory language as needed for effect.
    • vary sentence structures for effect.
    • identify and apply features of the writing domains, including
      • effective organization;
      • clear structure;
      • sentence variety;
      • unity and coherence;
      • tone and voice;
      • effective word choice;
      • clear purpose;
      • appropriate mechanics and usage; and
      • accurate and valuable information.
    • develop ideas deductively and inductively and organize ideas into a logical sequence, applying effective organizational patterns/techniques, such as:
      • comparison/contrast;
      • chronological order;
      • spatial layout;
      • cause and effect;
      • definition;
      • order of importance;
      • explanation;
      • generalization;
      • classification;
      • enumeration; and
      • problem/solution.
    • evaluate analytical writing by examining and understanding how individual parts of the text relate to the whole, including the writing’s purpose and structure.
    • revise writing for clarity of content and presentation.
    • use peer- and self-evaluation to review and revise writing.
    • use computer technology to assist in the writing process.

    KEY VOCABULARY

    Expository writing; analytical writing; persuasive writing; thesis statement; writing domain features (effective organization; clear structure; sentence variety; unity and coherence; tone and voice; effective word choice; clear purpose; appropriate mechanics and usage; accurate and valuable information); organizational patterns/techniques (comparison/contrast; chronological order; spatial layout; cause and effect; definition; order of importance; explanation; generalization; classification; enumeration; problem/solution)


    Updated: Aug 14, 2015

    The student will self- and peer-edit writing for correct grammar, capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, and paragraphing.

    a)  Distinguish between active and passive voice. 

    b)  Apply rules governing use of the colon.

    c)  Use a style manual, such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA), to apply rules for punctuation and formatting of direct quotations.

    d)  Differentiate between in-text citations and works cited on the bibliography page.

    e)  Analyze the writing of others.

    f)  Describe how the author accomplishes the intended purpose of a piece of writing.

    g)  Suggest how writing might be improved.

    h)  Proofread and edit final product for intended audience and purpose.


    The student will self- and peer-edit writing for capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, paragraphing, and Standard English.

    a) Use parallel structure across sentences and paragraphs.

    b) Use complex sentence structure to infuse sentence variety in writing.

    c) Distinguish between active and passive voice.

    d) Use colons correctly.

    e) Analyze the writing of others and suggest how writing might be improved.


    Adopted: 2017

    BIG IDEAS

      • Active voice allows a writer to emphasize the person or thing that performs an action, and passive voice allows the writer to emphasize the recipient of the action. (10.7a and 10.7c)
      • Active voice is more frequently used in nonscientific writing, and passive voice is often used in scientific writing. (10.7a and 10.7c)
      • Lack of parallel structure can disrupt the flow of a sentence, causing it to be grammatically unbalanced. (10.7a)
      • Aligning related ideas through parallel structure supports readability and clarity. (10.7a)
      • Parallelism shows two or more ideas have the same level of importance. (10.7a)
      • Editing is proofreading text to correct errors in grammar and mechanics. (10.7h)
      • Revision is the opportunity to step back and re-envision a text.  An author thinks about the goals of an essay and whether or not those goals were successfully accomplished. (10.7,g, h)
      • Varying the types of sentences used in a text not only makes the writing less boring but can also be used effectively to emphasize ideas. (10.7b)
      • In-text citations provide brief information that allows a reader to identify the full citation in the bibliography. (10.7d)
      • Constructive critiques allow a writer to take an objective look at what was written and evaluate its content, format, details, and impact. (10.7e, f, g and 10.7e)
      • Use of a style guide such as MLA or APA allows for uniformity in style and formatting within a document and across multiple documents. (10.7c)
      • A colon can be used to join two independent clauses and show that the second clause will expand on the first clause.  (10.7b and 10.7d)

      UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

      • Students will continue to build knowledge of grammar through the application of rules for parts of a sentence and text.
      • Students will use a style manual, such as MLA or APA, to punctuate and format sentences and text.
      • Students will analyze writings critically, using knowledge of composition, written expression, sentence formation, and usage/mechanics. They will also suggest ways that writings can be improved.
      • Students will describe how writers accomplish their intended purpose.

      ESSENTIALS

      All students should

      • understand that active voice means that the subject of a verb performs the action and passive voice means that the subject of a verb receives the action.
      • use colons according to rules governing their use.
      • understand how writers use organization and details to communicate their purposes.


      To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

      • distinguish between active voice and passive voice to convey a desired effect.
      • know and apply the rules for the use of a colon:
        • before a list of items;
        • before a long, formal statement or quotation; and
        • after the salutation of a business letter.
      • use direct quotations in their writing, applying MLA or APA style for punctuation and formatting.
      • use peer- and self-evaluation to edit writing.
      • proofread and prepare final product for intended audience and purpose.
      • correct grammatical or usage errors. 

      KEY VOCABULARY

      Direct quotation; style manual (MLA; APA); colon usage


      Updated: May 07, 2018