Reading - 2018-19

Persuasion and Nonfiction

Communication:Speaking Listening, Media Literacy

The student will participate in, collaborate in, and report on small-group learning activities.

a)  Assume responsibility for specific group tasks.

b)  Collaborate in the preparation or summary of the group activity.

c)  Include all group members in oral presentation.

d)  Choose vocabulary, language, and tone appropriate to the topic, audience, and purpose.

e)  Demonstrate the ability to work effectively with diverse teams to accomplish a common goal.

f)  Collaborate with others to exchange ideas, develop new understandings, make decisions, and solve problems.

g)  Access, critically evaluate, and use information accurately to solve problems.

h)  Evaluate one’s own role in preparation and delivery of oral reports.

i)  Use a variety of strategies to listen actively.

j)  Analyze and interpret other’s presentations.

k)  Evaluate effectiveness of group process in preparation and delivery of oral reports.


The student will make planned multimodal, interactive presentations collaboratively and individually.

a) Make strategic use of multimodal tools.

b) Credit information sources.

c) Demonstrate the ability to work effectively with diverse teams, including setting rules and goals for group work, such as coming to informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, and presenting alternate views.

d) Assume responsibility for specific group tasks.

e) Include all group members and value individual contributions made by each group member.

f) Use a variety of strategies to listen actively and speak, using appropriate discussion rules with awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues.

g) Respond thoughtfully and tactfully to diverse perspectives, summarizing points of agreement and disagreement.

h) Choose vocabulary, language, and tone appropriate to the topic, audience, and purpose.

i) Access, critically evaluate, and use information accurately to solve problems.

j) Use reflection to evaluate one’s own role and the group process in small-group activities.

k) Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, use of evidence, rhetoric, and identify any faulty reasoning.


Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • Respectful disagreement focuses on facts, doesn't get personal, recognizes positives, and uses "I" statements. (10.1e, f and 10.1c, e, and g)
  • Nonverbal communication can either reiterate the spoken message, contradict it, or complement its meaning. (10.1e and 10.1c, g)
  • Formulating questions allows individuals to gather more information, work more effectively with teams, address challenges more proactively, and reflect more deeply. (10.1f and 10.1e, g)
  • Being a good listener is a way to show respect and understanding of another person's perspective. (10.1i and 10.1f)
  • Active listening involves not only paying attention to the words someone is saying but also trying to understand the complete message. (10.1i and 10.1f)
  • Working as a team increases efficiency. (10.1a, b, c, e, f and 10.1c, d, e, g)
  • Brainstorming as a group often leads to more creative, innovative ideas than working alone. (10.1a, b, c, e, f and 10.1c, d, e, g)
  • Being part of an effective team creates a support network built on reliance and trust. (10.1 a, b, c, e, f and 10.1c, d, e, g)
  • Most careers require that workers form teams in order to meet deadlines. (10.1a, b, c, e, f and 10.1c, d, e, g)
  • It is important to use verbal and nonverbal feedback to evaluate one's own contributions. (10.1h and 10.1j)
  • Word choices impact the meaning and emotional impact of a presentation. (10.1d and 10.1h)
  • Selecting precise vocabulary and information helps increase the impact of a presentation on the audience. (10.1d and 10.1h)
  • Information to include in a presentation should include reasons, descriptions, statistics, facts, examples, explanations, supported opinions, and comparisons to help the audience learn more about the topic or proposition. (10.1d and 10.1h)
  • Knowing the audience determines the content to be presented and the language and visuals to include. (10.1d and 10.1h)
  • Constructive critiques allow a writer or presenter to take an objective look at what was written or presented and evaluate content, format, details, and presentation. (10.1h, k and 10.1j)
  • Determining the accuracy of factual information can help someone judge the credibility of the author or presenter and provide clues to possible bias. (10.1g, j and 10.1i, k)
  • Information on the Internet is not regulated for accuracy so it is important for users to evaluate the resources and the information. (10.1g and 10.1i)
  • Media and presentations carry subtle messages about who and what are deemed important. (10.1g, j and 10.1g, k)
  • Choices made in the creation of media messages and presentations reflect the values, attitude, and perspectives of those creating the messages. (10.1g, j and 10.1i, k)
  • Citing sources allows one to acknowledge the contributions of other writers. (10.1b)
  • Citations provide a way for others to locate sources used for an essay or presentation. (10.1b)
  • Citations provide evidence of research. (10.1b)
  • Using a mixture of sound, images, text, and other resources allow for effective communication to myriad audiences. (10.1a)

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • Individual students will actively contribute to group activities and participate in small-group oral presentations.
  • Students will evaluate their strengths and weaknesses when participating in small-group oral presentations.
  • Students will examine their preparation, interaction, and performances as group members. In addition, students will evaluate the overall effectiveness of their group’s preparation and presentation.
  • Constructive critiques allow a writer or presenter to take an objective look at what was written or presented and evaluate content, format, details, and presentation. 

All students should

  • understand that small-group collaboration exists beyond the classroom and the ability to effectively participate is an essential skill
  • understand that verbal and nonverbal  techniques are important for effective communication
  • understand working effectively with diverse groups includes
    • exercising flexibility in making necessary compromises to accomplish a common goal
    • defining a team goal and working toward it
    • treating all ideas respectfully
    • demonstrating respect for others’ ideas by acknowledging differing  points of view
    • coming to agreement by seeking consensus
  • understand the importance of self-reflection in small-group activities.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand that small group collaboration exists beyond the classroom and their ability to effectively participate is an essential skill.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • assume shared responsibility for collaborative work.
  • collaborate with peers to set rules for group presentations and discussions, set clear goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
  • respond thoughtfully by summarizing points of agreement and disagreement, qualifying views and understanding.
  • demonstrate active listening through use of appropriate facial expressions, posture, and gestures.
  • engage others in a conversation by posing and responding to questions in a group situation.
  • exercise flexibility and willingness in making compromises to accomplish a common goal.
  • use grammatically correct  language.


To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • assume shared responsibility for collaborative work
  • collaborate with peers to set guidelines for group presentations and discussions, set clear goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed
  • demonstrate active listening through the use of appropriate facial expressions and posture
  • engage others in a conversation by posing and responding to questions in a group situation
  • examine and evaluate strengths and weaknesses when participating in small-group presentations
  • evaluate the overall effectiveness of a group’s preparation and presentation
  • make compromises to accomplish a common goal(s) and reach consensus
  • evaluate the content of presentation(s), including introduction, organization,  strengths/weaknesses in evidence and reasoning, and conclusion.

Updated: May 29, 2018

The student will examine, analyze, and produce media messages.

b) Credit information sources.

g) Describe possible cause-and-effect relationships between mass media coverage and public opinion trends.

i) Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet when evaluating or producing creative or informational media messages.




Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • Well crafted media messages help shape public opinion and play an important role in stimulating civic action, exposing problems to be addressed, and highlighting important issues. (10.2g)
  • Media are designed to accomplish one or more purposes including expressing an opinion or point of view, persuading, entertaining, and educating. (10.2g)
  • Media focus the public's attention on certain people and issues, causing the public to form opinions about those people and issues. (10.2g)
  • Mass media largely dictate what is newsworthy and how it will be portrayed. (10.2g)
  • Based on media presentation, a particular opinion sometimes gets repeated through various media until a false vision is created in which perceived truth is not in line with actual truth. (10.2b)
  • Technology can enhance the ability to research, collect, organize, evaluate, and communicate information. (10.2i)
  • Using the Internet ethically involves avoiding stealing (plagiarism), avoiding untruthfulness, and avoiding cruelty. (10.2i)
  • It is important to properly cite the words and ideas of others. (10.2b)
  • Citing sources allows one to acknowledge the contributions of others. (10.2b)
  • Citations provide a way for others to locate the sources a writer used. (10.2b)
  • Citations provide evidence of research. (10.2b)

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

All students should

  • recognize that media messages express a viewpoint and contain values
  • understand that there is a relationship between the author’s intent, the factual content, and opinion expressed in media messages
  • comprehend how the purposeful use of persuasive language and word connotations convey viewpoint and bias
  • understand the difference between objectivity (fact) and subjectivity (bias) in media messages
  • understand how special effects are employed in media messages to persuade viewers


ESSENTIALS

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • determine the author’s purpose, factual content, opinion, and/or possible bias as presented in media messages.
  • recognize that persuasive techniques are used to convince viewers to make decisions, change their minds, take a stand on an issue, or predict a certain outcome, including, but not limited to,
    • ad hominem
    • red herring
    • straw man 
    • begging the question
    • testimonial
    • ethical appeal
    • emotional appeal and logical appeal
  • avoid plagiarism by giving credit whenever using another person’s media, facts, statistics, graphics, images, music and sounds, quotations, or paraphrases of another person’s words
  • analyze media to determine the cause-and-effect relationship(s) between media coverage and public opinion trends. 

Updated: Jun 29, 2018

Reading

The student will apply knowledge of word origins, derivations, and figurative language to extend vocabulary development in authentic texts.

  a)  Use structural analysis of roots, affixes, synonyms, antonyms, and cognates to understand complex words.

  b)  Use context, structure, and connotations to determine meanings of words and phrases.

  c)  Discriminate between connotative and denotative meanings and interpret the connotation.

  f)  Extend general and specialized vocabulary through speaking, reading, and writing.


The student will apply knowledge of word origins, derivations, and figurative language to extend vocabulary development in authentic texts.

a) Use structural analysis of roots, affixes, synonyms, and antonyms to understand complex words.

b) Use context, structure, and connotations to determine meanings of words and phrases.

c) Discriminate between connotative and denotative meanings and interpret the connotation.

f) Extend general and cross-curricular vocabulary through speaking, listening, reading, and writing.


Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • Understanding word structures and origins and derivations helps to show relationships among words. (10.3a, b and 10.3a, b)
  • Many words are like Legos; they can be pulled apart and reassembled with other parts to make new words. (10.3a and 10.3a)
  • Many words have multiple meanings, and understanding the context can help determine which meaning is appropriate. (10.3b and 10.3b)
  • Understanding words parts helps readers decode and understand the meanings of words more quickly and accurately. (10.3a, b and 10.3a, b)
  • Synonyms and antonyms can make meaning more precise when words are chosen not only for their denotative meanings but for their connotative meanings as well. (10.3c and 10.3c)
  • Most professions and areas of study have specialized vocabularies that are specific to them. (10.3f and 10.3f)
  • Connotations are the suggested meanings of words, including associations and emotional implications. (10.3c and 10.3c)
  • Connotations can influence mood or tone through the positive, negative, or neutral emotions they evoke. (10.3c and 10.3c)
  • Words that have the same denotative meaning can have drastically different connotative meanings. (10.3c and 10.3c)
  • Idioms can be used to communicate a meaning for which there is no exact word. (10.3d and 10.3d)
  • Idioms can be used as a short way of expressing a complex idea. (10.3d and 10.3d)
  • Allusions are based on the assumption that there is a shared body of knowledge that allows a reader to connect the significance of an allusion to the author's message. (10.3e and 10.3e)
  • An allusion stimulates ideas, associations, and extra information in a reader's mind with only a word or two. (10.3e and 10.3e)
  • Definitions of words can change over time both denotatively and connotatively. (10.3c and 10.3c)

  • UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    ·  The intent of this standard is that students will increase their independence as learners of vocabulary.

    ·  Students will use prefixes, suffixes, roots, derivations, and inflections of polysyllabic words to determine meaning and relationships among related words.

    ·  Teachers should use a study of cognates, words from the same linguistic family, to enhance vocabulary instruction. Cognates can occur within the same language or across languages  night (English), nuit (French), Nacht (German), nacht (Dutch), nicht (Scots), natt (Swedish, Norwegian), nat (Danish), raat (Urdu), nátt (Faroese), nótt (Icelandic), noc (Czech, Slovak, Polish).

    ·  Students will use context and connotations to help determine the meaning of synonymous words and appreciate an author’s choices of words and images.

    ·  Connotation is subjective cultural and emotional. A stubborn person may be described as being either strong-willed or pig-headed. They have the same literal meaning (i.e., stubborn). Strong-willed connotes admiration for the level of someone's will, while pig-headed connotes frustration in dealing with someone.

    ·  Denotation is a dictionary definition of a word.


    All students should

    • recognize that words have nuances of meaning and that understanding the connotations may be necessary to determine the appropriate meaning
    • understand that word structure aids comprehension of unfamiliar and complex words
    • understand that affixes and Greek and Latin roots are clues to determine meanings of words
    • understand that context and connotations help determine the meaning of text
    • understand that allusions are used to assist readers in providing connections to other works or historical events.

    ESSENTIALS

    All students should

    · use word structure to analyze and relate words.

    · recognize that words have nuances of meaning and that understanding the connotations may be necessary to determine the appropriate meaning.


    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    ·  use roots or affixes to determine or clarify the meaning of words.

    ·  analyze connotations of words with similar denotations.

    ·  use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

    ·  identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., conceive, conception, conceivable).

    ·  consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses, both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, its etymology, or its standard usage.

    ·  demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and connotations in word meanings.


    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • use roots or affixes to determine or clarify the meaning of words
    • demonstrate understanding of figurative language and connotations in word meanings.


    Updated: May 31, 2018

    The student will read, comprehend, and analyze literary texts of different cultures and eras.

    h)  Evaluate how an author’s specific word choices, syntax, tone, and voice shape the intended meaning of the text, achieve specific effects and support the author’s purpose.

    m)  Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.


    The student will read, comprehend, and analyze literary texts of different cultures and eras.

    i) Evaluate how an author’s specific word choices, syntax, tone, and voice shape the intended meaning of the text.

    j) Compare/contrast details in literary and informational nonfiction texts.

    m) Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.


    Adopted: 2017

    BIG IDEAS

    • An author's style includes elements such as syntax, diction, voice, and tone.  The elements can help readers make inferences and conclusions about a passage. (10.4h and 10.4i)
    • Word choice impacts meaning and emotional effect. (10.4h and 10.4i)
    • Selecting precise words creates an author's tone, enhances the purpose, and increases the impact of a text on the audience. (10.4h and 10.4i)
    • Viewpoint and purpose affect how an author shapes and develops ideas.  It drives the information they include and word choice.  Try to view the topic through their eyes. (10.4h and 10.4i)
    • Reading strategies are deliberate mental actions that allow readers to better comprehend and remember textual information. (10.4m and 10.4m)
    • Details included in literary nonficition and informational nonfiction may be the same factually but are presented in different formats and styles. (10.4j)

    UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    · Students will know the ways that literature is defined by a variety of literary works, themes, and universal themes. They will read a wide range of literary genres from different cultures and time periods in order to gain an appreciation of various cultural histories and recognize similarities in images and themes that connect all peoples.

    · Students will compare and contrast poetic elements that poets use to evoke an emotional response.

    · Students will interpret and paraphrase the meanings of poems to demonstrate understanding of the poems.

    · Students should understand the difference between a critique and a summary:

    ° A summary restates what one just read in one’s own words, and presents only main details, and maintains an objective voice.

    ° A critique analyzes what was read, offers interpretations, judgments, and evidence for support. 

    · Students will explain ways that characterization in drama differs from that in other literary forms.

    ·Close reading entails close observation of the text, including annotating, determining all word meanings including connotations, syntax, and structure. It also involves paying close attention to figures of speech, and other features that contribute to a writer’s style. Close reading also involves reflecting on deeper meanings of text including considering relationships to other texts or social or cultural history.

    ·Students will compare and contrast poetic elements that poets use to evoke an emotional response.

    · Students will interpret and paraphrase the meanings of poems to demonstrate understanding of the poems..



    All students should

    • understand that literature is universal and influenced by different cultures and eras
    • understand that analysis of a text should be based on textual evidence rather than personal opinion
    • understand how dramatic conventions can provide the audience with a deeper understanding of the play
    • understand rhyme, rhythm, and sound elements
    • understand that writers use techniques and literary devices to evoke emotion in the reader.

    ESSENTIALS

    All students should

    · understand that poets use techniques to evoke emotion in the reader.

    · understand that literature is universal and influenced by different cultures and eras.

    · analyze how an author achieves specific effects and purposes using literary devices and figurative language (e.g., understatement, mood, allusion, allegory, paradox, irony, tone).

    · analyze a case in which a point of view requires distinguishing what is directly stated in a text from what is really meant  (e.g., satire, irony, sarcasm, understatement).

    · evaluate how asides, monologues, and soliloquies focus on single characters, giving insight into their thinking and providing the audience with a deeper understanding of the play.

    · understand rhyme, rhythm, and sound elements.

    · understand techniques poets use to evoke emotion in the reader.

    demonstrate understanding of selected poems.


    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    ·  construct meaning from text by making connections between what they already know and the new information they read.

    ·  use reading strategies to improve comprehension and to achieve the purposes for reading:  predicting and adjusting predictions; questioning the text; restating main ideas and summarizing supporting details; and close reading. 

    ·  compare and contrast a variety of literary works from different cultures and eras, including:

    °  short stories;

    °  poems;

    °  plays;

    °  novels;

    °  essays; and

    °  narrative nonfiction.

    ·  explain similarities and differences among literary genres from different cultures, such as:

    °  haikus;

    °  sonnets;

    °  fables;

    °  myths;

    °  novels;

    °  graphic novels; and

    °  short stories.

    ·  analyze the different functions that characters play in a literary text (e.g., antagonist, protagonist, foil, tragic hero).

    ·  analyze how relationships among a character’s actions, dialogue, physical attributes, thoughts, feelings, and other characters reveal nuances of character (e.g., beliefs, values, social class, and gender roles) and advance the plot.

    ·  identify universal themes, such as:

    °  struggle with nature;

    °  survival of the fittest;

    °  coming of age;

    °  power of love;

    °  loss of innocence;

    °  struggle with self;

    °  disillusionment with life;

    °  the effects of progress;

    °  power of nature;

    °  alienation and isolation;

    °  honoring the historical past;

    °  good overcoming evil;

    °  tolerance of the atypical;

    °  the great journey;

    °  noble sacrifice;

    °  the great battle;

    °  love and friendship; and

    °  revenge.

    ·  analyze works of literature for historical information about the period in which they were written.

    ·  describe common archetypes that pervade literature, such as the:

    °  hero/heroine;

    °  trickster;

    °  faithful companion;

    °  outsider/outcast;

    °  rugged individualist;

    °  shrew;

    °  innocent;

    °  villain;

    °  caretaker;

    °  Earth mother;

    °  rebel;

    °  misfit;

    °  mother/father figure;

    °  monster/villain;

    °  scapegoat; and

    °  lonely orphan.

    ·  examine a literary selection from several different critical perspectives.

    ·  analyze a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a literary work.

    ·  analyze the representation of a subject or a key scene in two different media.

    ·  compare and contrast literary devices in order to convey a poem’s message and elicit a reader’s emotions.

    ·  interpret and paraphrase the meanings of selected poems.

    ·  analyze the use of dialogue, special effects, music, and set to interpret characters.

    ·  identify and describe dramatic conventions.


    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • analyze how an author achieves specific effects and purposes using literary devices and figurative language (e.g., understatement, allusion, allegory, paradox)
    • compare and contrast two or more texts on the same topic or with similar themes
    • demonstrate comprehension and apply strategies to write about what is read.

    KEY VOCABULARY

    Critique vs. summary; short stories; poems; plays; novels; essays; narrative nonfiction; functions of characters (antagonist; protagonist; foil; tragic hero);  haikus; sonnets; fables; myths; novels; graphic novels; short stories; characterization in drama vs. characterization in other literary forms; close reading; asides;  monologues; soliloquies;  universal themes (struggle with nature; survival of the fittest; coming of age; power of love; loss of innocence; struggle with self; disillusionment with life; the effects of progress; power of nature; alienation and isolation; honoring the historical past; good overcoming evil; tolerance of the atypical; the great journey; noble sacrifice;  the great battle; love and friendship; revenge); figurative language/ literary devices (simile; metaphor; personification; analogy; symbolism; apostrophe; allusion; imagery; paradox; oxymoron); rhyme, rhy­thm, sound; common archetypes (hero/heroine; trickster; faithful companion; outsider/outcast; rugged individualist; shrew; innocent; villain; caretaker; Earth mother; rebel; misfit; mother/father figure; monster/villain; scapegoat; lonely orphan)

    Allegory

    Allusion

    Analyze

    Compare and contrast

    Dramatic conventions

    Evaluate

    Informational nonfiction

    Literary nonfiction

    Paradox

    Rhyme

    Rhythm

    Short story

    Syntax

    Textual evidence

    Theme

    Understatement


    Updated: Jun 05, 2018

    The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate nonfiction texts.

    b)  Recognize an author’s intended audience and purpose for writing.

    c)  Skim manuals or informational sources to locate information.

    g)  Analyze and synthesize information in order to solve problems, answer questions, and generate new knowledge.

    h)  Use reading strategies throughout the reading process to monitor comprehension.


    The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate nonfiction texts.

    b) Recognize an author’s intended audience and purpose for writing.

    c) Skim materials to develop an overview and locate information.

    g) Analyze and synthesize information in order to solve problems, answer questions, and generate new knowledge.

    h) Analyze ideas within and between selections, providing textual evidence.

    j) Use reading strategies throughout the reading process to monitor comprehension.


    Adopted: 2017

    BIG IDEAS

    • The audience and purpose determine the content and format of a passage. (10.5b and 10.5b)
    • To effectively engage an audience, it is critical to write using the appropriate language and tone. (10.5b and 10.5b)
    • The purpose of a text impacts the text structure used in writing. (10.5b and 10.5b)
    • Skimming allows a reader to quickly take the most important information from a passage without reading all of the words. (10.5c and 10.5c)
    • Synthesis allows a writer to gather information from various sources and reorganize and present that information to support a specific topic or thesis statement. (10.5g and 10.5g)
    • Comparing and contrasting ideas found in multiple sources allows one to identify conflicting and consistent information and thus evaluate sources. (10.5g and 10.5g)
    • Comparing viewpoints gives one a more comprehensive view of a topic. (10.5g and 10.5g)
    • Determining the accuracy of factual information can help a reader judge the credibility of the author and provide clues of possible bias. (10.5g and 10.5g)
    • Reading strategies are deliberate mental actions that allow readers to better comprehend and remember textual information. (10.5h and 10.5j)
    • Strong arguments often rely on being able to successfully synthesize information from multiple sources in a way that is new and unique. (10.5i)
    • Determining the veracity and significance of information often involves analyzing information within and between texts. (10.5h)

    UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    ·  Students need to be skilled readers of nonfictional texts and technical manuals and have the ability to apply different reading strategies when engaging with a variety of such materials.

    Students will use a variety of reading strategies such as text annotation, QAR (Question-Answer Relationship), thinking aloud, etc.


    All students should

    • understand that skilled readers of nonfiction texts and technical documents apply different reading strategies
    • understand that informational and technical writing is often non-linear, fragmented, and supported with graphics.


    ESSENTIALS

    All students should

    · understand that background knowledge may be necessary to understand handbooks and manuals.

    · know that informational and technical writing is often non-linear, fragmented, and graphic-supported.

    · understand how format and style in informational text differ from those in narrative and expository texts.

    · understand reading strategies and in particular, how they are used to locate specific information in informational text.


    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    ·  identify the different formats and purposes of informational and technical texts.

    ·  analyze how authors use rhetoric to advance their point of view.

    ·  identify the main idea(s) in informational  text.

    ·  identify essential details in complex informational passages.

    ·  locate specific information in manuals or other informational sources by using strategies such as skimming, summarizing, and highlighting.

    ·  interpret and understand information presented in maps, charts, timelines, tables, and diagrams,

    ·  make inferences and draw conclusions from informational text.


    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • analyze and synthesize information from multiple texts, while maintaining the intended purpose of each original text
    • analyze the vocabulary (i.e., content-specific jargon, technical terminology) and ideas of informational texts from various academic disciplines to clarify understandings of concepts
    • recognize the non-linear, fragmented, and graphic elements found in informational and technical writing
    • analyze two or more texts with conflicting information on the same topic and identify how the texts disagree
    • analyze how authors use rhetoric
    • identify essential details in complex informational texts
    • demonstrate comprehension and apply strategies to write about what is read.

    KEY VOCABULARY

    nonfiction text; technical manual; text features; text structures/organizational patterns; skimming; summarizing; highlighting

    Analyze

    Clarify

    Graphics

    Interpret

    Jargon

    Nonfictional text

    Nonlinear elements

    Skim

    Synthesize
    Updated: Jun 12, 2018

    Writing

     The student will develop a variety of writing to persuade, interpret, analyze, and evaluate with an emphasis on exposition and analysis.

    a)  Generate, gather, plan, and organize ideas for writing to address a specific audience and purpose.

    b)  Synthesize information to support the thesis. 

    c)  Elaborate ideas clearly through word choice and vivid description.

    d)  Write clear and varied sentences, clarifying ideas with precise and relevant evidence.

    e)  Organize ideas into a logical sequence using transitions

    f)  Revise writing for clarity of content, accuracy, and depth of information. 

    g)  Use computer technology to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish writing.


    The student will write in a variety of forms to include persuasive, reflective, interpretive, and analytic, with an emphasis on persuasion and analysis.

    a) Engage in writing as a recursive process.

    b) Plan and organize writing to address a specific audience and purpose.

    c) Adjust writing content, techniques, and voice for a variety of audiences and purposes.

    d) Communicate clearly the purpose of the writing using a thesis statement.

    e) Objectively introduce and develop topics, incorporating evidence and maintaining an organized structure and a formal style.

    f) Compose a thesis statement for persuasive writing that advocates a position.

    g) Clearly state and defend a position usings reasons and sufficient evidence from credible sources as support.

    h) Identify counterclaims and provide counterarguments.

    i) Show relationships among claims, reasons, and evidence and include a conclusion that follows logically from the informational presented.

    j) Blend multiple forms of writing, including embedding a narrative to produce effective essays.

    k) Elaborate ideas clearly through word choice.

    l) Use textual evidence to compare and contrast multiple tests.

    m) Revise writing for clarity of content, accuracy, and depth of information.

    n) Write and revise to a standard acceptable both in the workplace and in postsecondary education.


    Adopted: 2017

    BIG IDEAS

    • Knowing the purpose and audience for a piece of text not only helps writers know what to say but also how to say it. (10.6a and 10.6b)
    • The purpose and intended audience for a piece of text can impact the choice of text structure. (10.6a and 10.6b)
    • To effectively engage an intended audience, it is critical to use appropriate language and tone. (10.6c and 10.6c, k)
    • Prewriting makes the writing process more efficient. (10.6a and 10.6b)
    • Prewriting involves choosing a topic, considering purpose, identifying the audience, gathering information, and organizing ideas. (10.6a and 10.6b)
    • Prewriting provides a path for a writer to follow. (10.6a and 10.6b)
    • Writing should focus on a central idea around which details will be added. The central idea is the glue that holds the organization of the text together. (10.6b, d and 10.6g)
    • Knowing text structures, transition words, and text features allows writers to organize their thinking to match the structure needed for effective communication and comprehension. (10.6a, e and 10.6b)
    • Editing is proofreading text to correct errors in grammar and mechanics, whereas revising involves improvements in logic, clarity, flow, organization, and quality of evidence. (10.6f and 10.6m)
    • Rewriting allows one to learn how to write better as well as improving reading and analytical skills. (10.6f and 10.6m)
    • Revision is the opportunity to step back and re-envision text.  An author thinks about the goal of an essay and whether or not that goal was successfully accomplished. (10.6f and 10.6m)
    • Dividing an essay into multiple paragraphs creates an organization that helps readers understand a writer's intent and information.  This is particularly true when the paragraphs follow an established text structure. (10.6a, e and 10.6b)
    • A thesis statement controls the subject matter of an essay and states something significant. (10.6b and 10.6d, f)
    • Like the foundation of a building, a thesis statement or topic sentence provides a base on which all of an essay's ideas will be constructed. (10.6b and 10.6d, f)
    • Viewpoint and purpose affect how an author shapes and develops ideas.  It drives the information they include and word choices.  Try to view the topic through their eyes. (10.6b and 10.6g)
    • Synthesis allows a writer to gather information from various sources and reorganize and present that information to support a specific thesis statement or proposition. (10.6b and 10.6e, g)
    • Comparing and contrasting ideas found in multiple sources allows one to identify conflicting and consistent information and thus evaluate sources. (10.6b and 10.6e, g)
    • Comparing and contrasting viewpoints gives one a more comprehensive view of a topic. (10.6b and 10.6g)
    • Determining the accuracy of factual information can help a reader judge the credibility of the author and provides clues to possible bias. (10.6b and 10.6g)
    • Specific vocabulary helps create a writer's tone and enhances the purpose. (10.6c and 10.6c, k)
    • Selecting precise words and information helps increase the impact of a text on the audience. (10.6c, d and 10.6c, g, k)
    • Information to include in an essay should be reasons, descriptions, statistics, facts, examples, explanations, and comparisons to help readers learn more about the thesis statement or topic sentence. (10.6d and 10.6g)
    • Writing that is infused with a variety of sentence structure, including phrases and clauses, is more engaging that writing that lacks variety. (10.6d)
    • Using different types of sentence structure can help a writer emphasize specific words and ideas. (10.6d)
    • The degree to which a reader will comprehend and/or support the main idea or proposition of a passage will depend on the details that are used to support the main idea or proposition. (10.6b, d and 10.6g)
    • Transitions provide logical connections between ideas in sentences and paragraphs. (10.6e)
    • Transition words can be used to show the relationship between ideas. (10.6e)
    • Word choice impacts tone, imagery, voice, and mood. (10.6c and 10.6c, k)
    • Word choice contributes to both meaning and emotional effect. (10.6c and 10.6c, k)
    • Rather than being linear, the process of writing is recursive where writers may jump between steps in the process and revisit previous steps as needed. (10.6a)
    • The use of anecdotal narrative evidence to illustrate points is a powerful persuasive and argumentative tool. (10.6j)
    • Addressing counterclaims allows writers to find common ground with more readers by acknowledging and refuting the position of the opposing side. (10.6h)
    • Formal language is used in situations that are serious or involve people that one does not know well.  Informal language is used in situations that are more relaxes and with people one know's well. (10.6n)
    • Grammar and vocabulary differ between formal and informal English. (10.6n)
    • Technology can enhance the ability to research, collect, organize, evaluate, and communicate information. (10.6g)
    • A well-crafted conclusion synthesizes key points from an essay and helps readers understand why what they read should matter to them. (10.6i)
    • Arguments are claims that are backed by reasons that are supported with evidence. (10.6i)

    UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    • Students will know how to move through the stages of a writing process, from planning to drafting, revising, editing, and proofreading.
    • Students will understand that expository writing is prose that explains ideas through the use of a clear general statement of the writer’s point (thesis) and through the development of ideas, using specific evidence and illustrations for support.
    • Analytical writing uses precise language and often divides the subject into parts and provides evidence on each part.
    • Students should have practice writing for shorter time frames as well as extended time frames.

    All students should

    • understand that writing requires a recursive process that includes planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing
    • understand that writing should be purposefully crafted with attention to deliberate word choice and precise information
    • understand the features of the domains of writing, including composing, written expression, and usage/mechanics, are essential to quality writing
    • understand that voice and tone must be developed with awareness of audience and purpose.

    ESSENTIALS

    All students should

    • understand that writing is a process.
    • understand expository and analytical texts and develop products that reflect that understanding.
    • understand effective organizational patterns

    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • write expository texts that:
      • explain a process;
      • compare and contrast ideas;
      • show cause and effect;
      • enumerate details; or
      • define ideas and concepts.
    • develop written products that demonstrate their understanding of composing, written expression, and usage/mechanics.
    • write persuasively and analytically on a variety of literary and nonliterary subjects.
    • develop writing that analyzes complex issues.
    • plan and organize their ideas for writing.
    • state a thesis and support it.
    • elaborate ideas in order to provide support for the thesis.
    • use visual and sensory language as needed for effect.
    • vary sentence structures for effect.
    • identify and apply features of the writing domains, including
      • effective organization;
      • clear structure;
      • sentence variety;
      • unity and coherence;
      • tone and voice;
      • effective word choice;
      • clear purpose;
      • appropriate mechanics and usage; and
      • accurate and valuable information.
    • develop ideas deductively and inductively and organize ideas into a logical sequence, applying effective organizational patterns/techniques, such as:
      • comparison/contrast;
      • chronological order;
      • spatial layout;
      • cause and effect;
      • definition;
      • order of importance;
      • explanation;
      • generalization;
      • classification;
      • enumeration; and
      • problem/solution.
    • evaluate analytical writing by examining and understanding how individual parts of the text relate to the whole, including the writing’s purpose and structure.
    • revise writing for clarity of content and presentation.
    • use peer- and self-evaluation to review and revise writing.
    • use computer technology to assist in the writing process.

    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • demonstrate the purpose of writing as narrative, persuasive, expository, reflective, or analytical
    • develop and apply embedded narrative techniques, such as dialogue, description, and pacing to develop experiences or characters and enhance writing
    • create a thesis statement that focuses the essay, expresses the writer’s position in an argument, or explains the purpose of the essay
    • use effective rhetorical appeals, to establish credibility and persuade intended audience
    • use embedded clauses for sentence variety
    • write persuasively, organizing reasons logically and effectively
    • analyze sources and determine the best information to support a position/argument
    • use credible, current research and expert opinions to support a position/argument
    • identify counterclaims and use counterarguments that address those claims
    • compare/contrast and select evidence from multiple texts to strengthen a position/argument
    • use specific revision strategies and adapt content, vocabulary, voice, and tone to audience, purpose, and situation
    • revise writing for clarity and quality of information to effectively match the intended audience and purpose of a workplace and/or postsecondary education
    • develop ideas deductively and inductively and organize ideas into a logical sequence, applying effective organizational patterns/techniques.

    KEY VOCABULARY

    expository writing; analytical writing; persuasive writing; thesis statement; writing domain features (effective organization; clear structure; sentence variety; unity and coherence; tone and voice; effective word choice; clear purpose; appropriate mechanics and usage; accurate and valuable information); organizational patterns/techniques (comparison/contrast; chronological order; spatial layout; cause and effect; definition; order of importance; explanation; generalization; classification; enumeration; problem/solution); clarity; synthesize; relevant

    Accuracy 

    Advocate

    Analytic writing

    Analyze

    Clarity

    Clause

    Compare and contrast

    Counterargument

    Counterclaim

    Credible

    Deductive reasoning

    Dialogue

    Editing

    Elaborate

    Embedded

    Enhance

    Inductive reasoning

    Interpretive

    Narrative

    Objective
    Updated: Jun 13, 2018

    The student will self- and peer-edit writing for correct grammar, capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, and paragraphing.

    a)  Distinguish between active and passive voice. 

    b)  Apply rules governing use of the colon.

    c)  Use a style manual, such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA), to apply rules for punctuation and formatting of direct quotations.

    d)  Differentiate between in-text citations and works cited on the bibliography page.

    e)  Analyze the writing of others.

    f)  Describe how the author accomplishes the intended purpose of a piece of writing.

    g)  Suggest how writing might be improved.

    h)  Proofread and edit final product for intended audience and purpose.


    The student will self- and peer-edit writing for capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, paragraphing, and Standard English.

    a) Use parallel structure across sentences and paragraphs.

    b) Use complex sentence structure to infuse sentence variety in writing.

    c) Distinguish between active and passive voice.

    d) Use colons correctly.

    e) Analyze the writing of others and suggest how writing might be improved.


    Adopted: 2017

    BIG IDEAS

      • Active voice allows a writer to emphasize the person or thing that performs an action, and passive voice allows the writer to emphasize the recipient of the action. (10.7a and 10.7c)
      • Active voice is more frequently used in nonscientific writing, and passive voice is often used in scientific writing. (10.7a and 10.7c)
      • Lack of parallel structure can disrupt the flow of a sentence, causing it to be grammatically unbalanced. (10.7a)
      • Aligning related ideas through parallel structure supports readability and clarity. (10.7a)
      • Parallelism shows two or more ideas have the same level of importance. (10.7a)
      • Editing is proofreading text to correct errors in grammar and mechanics. (10.7h)
      • Revision is the opportunity to step back and re-envision a text.  An author thinks about the goals of an essay and whether or not those goals were successfully accomplished. (10.7,g, h)
      • Varying the types of sentences used in a text not only makes the writing less boring but can also be used effectively to emphasize ideas. (10.7b)
      • In-text citations provide brief information that allows a reader to identify the full citation in the bibliography. (10.7d)
      • Constructive critiques allow a writer to take an objective look at what was written and evaluate its content, format, details, and impact. (10.7e, f, g and 10.7e)
      • Use of a style guide such as MLA or APA allows for uniformity in style and formatting within a document and across multiple documents. (10.7c)
      • A colon can be used to join two independent clauses and show that the second clause will expand on the first clause.  (10.7b and 10.7d)

      UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

      • Students will continue to build knowledge of grammar through the application of rules for parts of a sentence and text.
      • Students will use a style manual, such as MLA or APA, to punctuate and format sentences and text.
      • Students will analyze writings critically, using knowledge of composition, written expression, sentence formation, and usage/mechanics. They will also suggest ways that writings can be improved.
      • Students will describe how writers accomplish their intended purpose.

      All students should

      • understand that grammatical and syntactical choices convey a writer’s message
      • understand that active voice means that the subject of a verb performs the action
      • passive voice means that the subject of a verb receives the action
      • understand how writers use organization and details to communicate their purposes.

      ESSENTIALS

      All students should

      • understand that active voice means that the subject of a verb performs the action and passive voice means that the subject of a verb receives the action.
      • use colons according to rules governing their use.
      • understand how writers use organization and details to communicate their purposes.


      To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

      • distinguish between active voice and passive voice to convey a desired effect.
      • know and apply the rules for the use of a colon:
        • before a list of items;
        • before a long, formal statement or quotation; and
        • after the salutation of a business letter.
      • use direct quotations in their writing, applying MLA or APA style for punctuation and formatting.
      • use peer- and self-evaluation to edit writing.
      • proofread and prepare final product for intended audience and purpose.
      • correct grammatical or usage errors. 

      To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

      • distinguish between active voice and passive voice to convey a desired effect
      • know and apply the rules for the use of a colon
      • edit and revise for parallel structure and complex sentences
      • use peer- and self-evaluation to edit writing
      • proofread and prepare writing for intended audience and purpose
      • correct grammatical and usage errors.

      Updated: Jun 14, 2018