Reading - 2018-19

Unit 1: Persuasion and Nonfiction
Unit 2: Begin Research Essay

Unit 3: Fiction and Creative Writing

Communication:Speaking Listening, Media Literacy

The student will participate in, collaborate in, and report on small-group learning activities.

a)  Assume responsibility for specific group tasks.

b)  Collaborate in the preparation or summary of the group activity.

c)  Include all group members in oral presentation.

d)  Choose vocabulary, language, and tone appropriate to the topic, audience, and purpose.

e)  Demonstrate the ability to work effectively with diverse teams to accomplish a common goal.

f)  Collaborate with others to exchange ideas, develop new understandings, make decisions, and solve problems.

h)  Evaluate one’s own role in preparation and delivery of oral reports.

i)  Use a variety of strategies to listen actively.

k)  Evaluate effectiveness of group process in preparation and delivery of oral reports.


The student will make planned multimodal, interactive presentations collaboratively and individually.

a) Make strategic use of multimodal tools.

b) Credit information sources.

c) Demonstrate the ability to work effectively with diverse teams, including setting rules and goals for group work, such as coming to informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, and presenting alternate views.

d) Assume responsibility for specific group tasks.

e) Include all group members and value individual contributions made by each group member.

f) Use a variety of strategies to listen actively and speak, using appropriate discussion rules with awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues.

g) Respond thoughtfully and tactfully to diverse perspectives, summarizing points of agreement and disagreement.

h) Choose vocabulary, language, and tone appropriate to the topic, audience, and purpose.

j) Use reflection to evaluate one’s own role and the group process in small-group activities.


Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • Respectful disagreement focuses on facts, doesn't get personal, recognizes positives, and uses "I" statements. (10.1e, f and 10.1c, e, and g)
  • Nonverbal communication can either reiterate the spoken message, contradict it, or complement its meaning. (10.1e and 10.1c, g)
  • Formulating questions allows individuals to gather more information, work more effectively with teams, address challenges more proactively, and reflect more deeply. (10.1f and 10.1e, g)
  • Being a good listener is a way to show respect and understanding of another person's perspective. (10.1i and 10.1f)
  • Active listening involves not only paying attention to the words someone is saying but also trying to understand the complete message. (10.1i and 10.1f)
  • Working as a team increases efficiency. (10.1a, b, c, e, f and 10.1c, d, e, g)
  • Brainstorming as a group often leads to more creative, innovative ideas than working alone. (10.1a, b, c, e, f and 10.1c, d, e, g)
  • Being part of an effective team creates a support network built on reliance and trust. (10.1 a, b, c, e, f and 10.1c, d, e, g)
  • Most careers require that workers form teams in order to meet deadlines. (10.1a, b, c, e, f and 10.1c, d, e, g)
  • It is important to use verbal and nonverbal feedback to evaluate one's own contributions. (10.1h and 10.1j)
  • Word choices impact the meaning and emotional impact of a presentation. (10.1d and 10.1h)
  • Selecting precise vocabulary and information helps increase the impact of a presentation on the audience. (10.1d and 10.1h)
  • Information to include in a presentation should include reasons, descriptions, statistics, facts, examples, explanations, supported opinions, and comparisons to help the audience learn more about the topic or proposition. (10.1d and 10.1h)
  • Knowing the audience determines the content to be presented and the language and visuals to include. (10.1d and 10.1h)
  • Constructive critiques allow a writer or presenter to take an objective look at what was written or presented and evaluate content, format, details, and presentation. (10.1h, k and 10.1j)
  • Media and presentations carry subtle messages about who and what are deemed important. (10.1g)
  • Citing sources allows one to acknowledge the contributions of other writers. (10.1b)
  • Citations provide a way for others to locate sources used for an essay or presentation. (10.1b)
  • Citations provide evidence of research. (10.1b)
  • Using a mixture of sound, images, text, and other resources allow for effective communication to myriad audiences. (10.1a)

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • Individual students will actively contribute to group activities and participate in small-group oral presentations.
  • Students will evaluate their strengths and weaknesses when participating in small-group oral presentations.
  • Students will examine their preparation, interaction, and performances as group members. In addition, students will evaluate the overall effectiveness of their group’s preparation and presentation.
  • Constructive critiques allow a writer or presenter to take an objective look at what was written or presented and evaluate content, format, details, and presentation. 

All students should:

  • understand that small-group collaboration exists beyond the classroom and the ability to effectively participate is an essential skill
  • understand that verbal and nonverbal  techniques are important for effective communication
  • understand working effectively with diverse groups includes
    • exercising flexibility in making necessary compromises to accomplish a common goal
    •  defining a team goal and working toward it
    • treating all ideas respectfully
    • demonstrating respect for others’ ideas by acknowledging differing  points of view
    • coming to agreement by seeking consensus
  • understand the importance of self-reflection in small-group activities.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand that small group collaboration exists beyond the classroom and their ability to effectively participate is an essential skill.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • assume shared responsibility for collaborative work.
  • collaborate with peers to set rules for group presentations and discussions, set clear goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
  • respond thoughtfully by summarizing points of agreement and disagreement, qualifying views and understanding.
  • demonstrate active listening through use of appropriate facial expressions, posture, and gestures.
  • engage others in a conversation by posing and responding to questions in a group situation.
  • exercise flexibility and willingness in making compromises to accomplish a common goal.
  • use grammatically correct language.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • assume shared responsibility for collaborative work
  • collaborate with peers to set guidelines for group presentations and discussions, set clear goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed
  • demonstrate active listening through the use of appropriate facial expressions and posture
  • engage others in a conversation by posing and responding to questions in a group situation
  • examine and evaluate strengths and weaknesses when participating in small-group presentations
  • evaluate the overall effectiveness of a group’s preparation and presentation
  • make compromises to accomplish a common goal(s) and reach consensus
  • evaluate the content of presentation(s), including introduction, organization, strengths/weaknesses in evidence and reasoning, and conclusion.

Updated: May 29, 2018

The student will analyze, produce, and examine similarities and differences between visual and verbal media messages.

b)  Evaluate sources including advertisements, editorials, blogs, Web sites, and other media for relationships between intent, factual content, and opinion.


The student will examine, analyze, and produce media messages.

b) Evaluate sources for relationships between intent, factual content, and opinion.

c) Analyze the impact of selected media formats on meaning.

i) Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet when evaluating or producing creative or informational messages.



Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • Determining the accuracy of factual information can help someone judge the credibility of the author or presenter and provide clues to possible bias. (10.2b and 10.2c)
  • Information on the Internet is not regulated for accuracy so it is important for users to evaluate the resources and the information. (10.2b and 10.2c)
  • Media messages include ones used for propaganda and persuasion. (10.2b and 10.2c)
  • Comparing information found in multiple sources allows one to identify conflicting and consistent information and thus evaluate sources. (10.2b and 10.2c, h)
  • Comparing and contrasting viewpoints gives one a more comprehensive view of a topic. (10.2b and 10.2c)
  • Technology can enhance the ability to research, collect, organize, evaluate, and communicate information. (10.2i)
  • Persuasive techniques can be divided into the three general categories of ethos, pathos, and logos.  The technique chosen for a media message will vary with respect to the content and audience. (10.2b and 10.2c)
  • Using the Internet ethically involves avoiding stealing (plagiarism), avoiding untruthfulness, and avoiding cruelty. (10.2i)
  • It is important to properly cite the words and ideas of others. (10.2b)
  • Citing sources allows one to acknowledge the contributions of others. (10.2b)
  • Citations provide a way for others to locate the sources a writer used. (10.2b)
  • Citations provide evidence of research. (10.2b)

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • Students will continue to develop media literacy by comparing and contrasting visual and verbal media messages.
  • Students will continue to create products that reflect their expanding knowledge of media and visual literacy.


All students should

  • recognize that media messages express a viewpoint and contain values
  • understand that there is a relationship between the author’s intent, the factual content, and opinion expressed in media messages
  • comprehend how the purposeful use of persuasive language and word connotations convey viewpoint and bias
  • understand the difference between objectivity (fact) and subjectivity (bias) in media messages


ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • recognize that media messages express a viewpoint and contain values.
  • understand that there is a relationship between the author’s intent, the factual content, and opinion expressed in media messages.
  • understand the purposeful use of persuasive language and word connotations convey viewpoint and bias.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • identify and analyze the sources and viewpoint of publications.
  • analyze, compare, and contrast visual and verbal media messages for content (word choice and choice of information), intent (persuasive techniques), impact (public opinion trends), and effectiveness (effect on the audience).
  • determine author’s purpose, factual content, opinion, and/or possible bias as presented in media messages.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • identify and analyze the sources and viewpoint of publications including advertisements, editorials, blogs, and websites.
  • analyze, compare, and contrast visual and verbal media messages for content (word choice and choice of information), intent (persuasive techniques), impact (public opinion trends), and effectiveness (effect on the audience).
  • determine the author’s purpose, factual content, opinion, and/or possible bias as presented in media messages.
  • recognize that persuasive techniques are used to convince viewers to make decisions, change their minds, take a stand on an issue, or predict a certain outcome, including, but not limited to,
    • ad hominem
    • red herring
    • straw man 
    • begging the question
    • testimonial
    • ethical appeal
    • emotional appeal and logical appeal
  • avoid plagiarism by giving credit whenever using another person’s media, facts, statistics, graphics, images, music and sounds, quotations, or paraphrases of another person’s words


KEY VOCABULARY

content (word choice and choice of information); intent (persuasive techniques); impact (public opinion trends); effectiveness (effect on the audience); author’s purpose; factual content; opinion/bias 

Ad hominem
Updated: May 30, 2018

Reading

The student will apply knowledge of word origins, derivations, and figurative language to extend vocabulary development in authentic texts.

  a)  Use structural analysis of roots, affixes, synonyms, antonyms, and cognates to understand complex words.

  b)  Use context, structure, and connotations to determine meanings of words and phrases.

  c)  Discriminate between connotative and denotative meanings and interpret the connotation.

  f)  Extend general and specialized vocabulary through speaking, reading, and writing.


The student will apply knowledge of word origins, derivations, and figurative language to extend vocabulary development in authentic texts.

a) Use structural analysis of roots, affixes, synonyms, and antonyms to understand complex words.

b) Use context, structure, and connotations to determine meanings of words and phrases.

c) Discriminate between connotative and denotative meanings and interpret the connotation.

f) Extend general and cross-curricular vocabulary through speaking, listening, reading, and writing.


Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • Understanding word structures and origins and derivations helps to show relationships among words. (10.3a, b and 10.3a, b)
  • Many words are like Legos; they can be pulled apart and reassembled with other parts to make new words. (10.3a and 10.3a)
  • Many words have multiple meanings, and understanding the context can help determine which meaning is appropriate. (10.3b and 10.3b)
  • Understanding words parts helps readers decode and understand the meanings of words more quickly and accurately. (10.3a, b and 10.3a, b)
  • Synonyms and antonyms can make meaning more precise when words are chosen not only for their denotative meanings but for their connotative meanings as well. (10.3c and 10.3c)
  • Most professions and areas of study have specialized vocabularies that are specific to them. (10.3f and 10.3f)
  • Connotations are the suggested meanings of words, including associations and emotional implications. (10.3c and 10.3c)
  • Connotations can influence mood or tone through the positive, negative, or neutral emotions they evoke. (10.3c and 10.3c)
  • Words that have the same denotative meaning can have drastically different connotative meanings. (10.3c and 10.3c)
  • Idioms can be used to communicate a meaning for which there is no exact word. (10.3d and 10.3d)
  • Idioms can be used as a short way of expressing a complex idea. (10.3d and 10.3d)
  • Allusions are based on the assumption that there is a shared body of knowledge that allows a reader to connect the significance of an allusion to the author's message. (10.3e and 10.3e)
  • An allusion stimulates ideas, associations, and extra information in a reader's mind with only a word or two. (10.3e and 10.3e)
  • Definitions of words can change over time both denotatively and connotatively. (10.3c and 10.3c)

  • UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    ·  The intent of this standard is that students will increase their independence as learners of vocabulary.

    ·  Students will use prefixes, suffixes, roots, derivations, and inflections of polysyllabic words to determine meaning and relationships among related words.

    ·  Teachers should use a study of cognates, words from the same linguistic family, to enhance vocabulary instruction. Cognates can occur within the same language or across languages  night (English), nuit (French), Nacht (German), nacht (Dutch), nicht (Scots), natt (Swedish, Norwegian), nat (Danish), raat (Urdu), nátt (Faroese), nótt (Icelandic), noc (Czech, Slovak, Polish).

    ·  Students will use context and connotations to help determine the meaning of synonymous words and appreciate an author’s choices of words and images.

    ·  Connotation is subjective cultural and emotional. A stubborn person may be described as being either strong-willed or pig-headed. They have the same literal meaning (i.e., stubborn). Strong-willed connotes admiration for the level of someone's will, while pig-headed connotes frustration in dealing with someone.

    ·  Denotation is a dictionary definition of a word.


    All students should

    • recognize that words have nuances of meaning and that understanding the connotations may be necessary to determine the appropriate meaning
    • understand that word structure aids comprehension of unfamiliar and complex words
    • understand that affixes and Greek and Latin roots are clues to determine meanings of words
    • understand that context and connotations help determine the meaning of text
    • understand that allusions are used to assist readers in providing connections to other works or historical events.

    ESSENTIALS

    All students should

    · use word structure to analyze and relate words.

    · recognize that words have nuances of meaning and that understanding the connotations may be necessary to determine the appropriate meaning.


    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    ·  use roots or affixes to determine or clarify the meaning of words.

    ·  analyze connotations of words with similar denotations.

    ·  use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

    ·  identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., conceive, conception, conceivable).

    ·  consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses, both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, its etymology, or its standard usage.

    ·  demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and connotations in word meanings.


    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • use roots or affixes to determine or clarify the meaning of words
    • demonstrate understanding of figurative language and connotations in word meanings.


    Updated: May 31, 2018

    The student will read, comprehend, and analyze literary texts of different cultures and eras.

    b)  Make predictions, draw inferences, and connect prior knowledge to support reading comprehension.

    d)  Analyze the cultural or social function of literature.

    g)  Explain the influence of historical context on the form, style, and point of view of a literary text.

    h)  Evaluate how an author’s specific word choices, syntax, tone, and voice shape the intended meaning of the text, achieve specific effects and support the author’s purpose.

    i)  Compare and contrast literature from different cultures and eras.

    k)  Compare and contrast how rhyme, rhythm, sound, imagery, style, form, and other literary devices convey a message and elicit a reader’s emotions.

    m)  Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.


    The student will read, comprehend, and analyze literary texts of different cultures and eras.

    a) Make inferences and draw conclusions, using references from the text(s) for support.

    c) Interpret the cultural or social function of world and ethnic literature.

    f) Critique how authors use key literary elements to contribute to meaning, including character development, theme, conflict, and archetypes.

    g) Interpret how themes are connected within and across texts.

    h) Explain the influence of historical context on the form, style, and point of view of a literary text(s).

    i) Evaluate how an author’s specific word choices, syntax, tone, and voice shape the intended meaning of the text.

    j) Compare/contrast details in literary and informational nonfiction texts.

    k) Compare and contrast how literary devices convey a message and elicit a reader’s emotions.

    m) Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.


    Adopted: 2017

    BIG IDEAS

    • Predictions allow readers to connect prior knowledge to a text. (10.4b)
    • Making inferences is like being a detective.  Readers must use their prior knowledge to find the meanings behind what is written in a passage. (10.4b and 10.4a)
    • Rather than being explicit, writers sometimes imply a main idea or theme, and it is up to the reader to figure out the main idea or theme by inferencing and drawing conclusions. (10.4b and 10.4a)
    • An author's style includes elements such as syntax, diction, voice, and tone.  The elements can help readers make inferences and conclusions about a passage. (10.4h and 10.4i)
    • Word choice impacts meaning and emotional effect. (10.4h and 10.4i)
    • Selecting precise words creates an author's tone, enhances the purpose, and increases the impact of a text on the audience. (10.4h and 10.4i)
    • Viewpoint and purpose affect how an author shapes and develops ideas.  It drives the information they include and word choice.  Try to view the topic through their eyes. (10.4h and 10.4i)
    • Works of literature are influenced by the political context in which they are written, the authors' personal perspectives, and the societies that frame the works. (10.4g and 10.4h)
    • Some ideas can't be clearly comprehended without considering the time in which the text was written. (10.4g and 10.4h)
    • Literature gives insight to the political, cultural, and philosophical ideas of particular cultures in specific historical periods. (10.4g and 10.4h)
    • By using sensory details, imagery creates a vivid experience for the reader. (10.4k and 10.4k)
    • Because the world is experienced using our five senses, the use of imagery allows readers to more realistically experience a text. (10.4k and 10.4k)
    • Word choice impact the meaning and emotional impact of text. (10.4k and 10.4k)
    • Rhyme, rhythm, and sound elements can bring attention to individual words and phrases as well as create an overall "feeling" or experience. (10.4k and 10.4k)
    • Sound effects in text can create either pleasant, melodic effects or jarring, discordant effects. (10.4k and 10.4k)
    • Repetitive sounds can help set an atmosphere for the reader. (10.4k and 10.4k)
    • "Because of a number of factors -- the traditions of thought in the culture, the representational role of literature, the insights into human experience, the use of cultural codes -- literature re-presents and explores the way in which the world is viewed and experienced by people in that society or social group: that is, it tells us a great deal about how the world is actually understood by the society to which the artist belongs, understood not only intellectually but symbolically and emotionally. Because of its imaginative and technical richness and its expressive power, literature is a very effective way of understanding a culture of a particular time, or of a particular class, or social or ethnic group. Thus literature can let us understand how diverse times, cultures and classes are different, and how they are the same." This quote is from Brock University's page "John Lye's Course and Source page: https://brocku.ca/english/jlye/uses.php (10.4d, i and 10.4c)
    • Reading strategies are deliberate mental actions that allow readers to better comprehend and remember textual information. (10.4m and 10.4m)
    • Details included in literary nonficition and informational nonfiction may be the same factually but are presented in different formats and styles. (10.4j)
    • Themes often explore timeless and universal ideas, and these themes are often connected across different writing styles and genres. (10.4g)
    • Authors sometimes use characters to symbolize qualities such as courage, malice, or love, so it is important to analyze characters to fully understand a story and its theme. (10.4f)
    • Because plots are interconnected series of events, every event has a specific purpose.  When all events are put together they establish connections, suggests causes, and show relationships. (10.4f)
    • Settings provide the underlying foundation of a story that gives a deeper meaning to the story as a whole. (10.4f)
    • Themes make revelations that are often stated as generalizations. (10.4f)
    • An author's style is a reflection of his or her personality and beliefs. (10.4f)

    UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    • · Students will know the ways that literature is defined by a variety of literary works, themes, and universal themes. They will read a wide range of literary genres from different cultures and time periods in order to gain an appreciation of various cultural histories and recognize similarities in images and themes that connect all peoples.

      · Students will compare and contrast poetic elements that poets use to evoke an emotional response.

      · Students will interpret and paraphrase the meanings of poems to demonstrate understanding of the poems.

      · Students should understand the difference between a critique and a summary:

      ° A summary restates what one just read in one’s own words, and presents only main details, and maintains an objective voice.

      ° A critique analyzes what was read, offers interpretations, judgments, and evidence for support. 

      · Students will explain ways that characterization in drama differs from that in other literary forms.

      ·Close reading entails close observation of the text, including annotating, determining all word meanings including connotations, syntax, and structure. It also involves paying close attention to figures of speech, and other features that contribute to a writer’s style. Close reading also involves reflecting on deeper meanings of text including considering relationships to other texts or social or cultural history.

      ·Students will compare and contrast poetic elements that poets use to evoke an emotional response.

      · Students will interpret and paraphrase the meanings of poems to demonstrate understanding of the poems..


    All students should

    • understand that literature is universal and influenced by different cultures and eras
    • understand that analysis of a text should be based on textual evidence rather than personal opinion
    • understand how dramatic conventions can provide the audience with a deeper understanding of the play
    • understand rhyme, rhythm, and sound elements
    • understand that writers use techniques and literary devices to evoke emotion in the reader.

    ESSENTIALS

    All students should

    · understand that poets use techniques to evoke emotion in the reader.

    · understand that literature is universal and influenced by different cultures and eras.

    · analyze how an author achieves specific effects and purposes using literary devices and figurative language (e.g., understatement, mood, allusion, allegory, paradox, irony, tone).

    · analyze a case in which a point of view requires distinguishing what is directly stated in a text from what is really meant  (e.g., satire, irony, sarcasm, understatement).

    · evaluate how asides, monologues, and soliloquies focus on single characters, giving insight into their thinking and providing the audience with a deeper understanding of the play.

    · understand rhyme, rhythm, and sound elements.

    · understand techniques poets use to evoke emotion in the reader.

    demonstrate understanding of selected poems.


    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    ·  construct meaning from text by making connections between what they already know and the new information they read.

    ·  use reading strategies to improve comprehension and to achieve the purposes for reading:  predicting and adjusting predictions; questioning the text; restating main ideas and summarizing supporting details; and close reading. 

    ·  compare and contrast a variety of literary works from different cultures and eras, including:

    °  short stories;

    °  poems;

    °  plays;

    °  novels;

    °  essays; and

    °  narrative nonfiction.

    ·  explain similarities and differences among literary genres from different cultures, such as:

    °  haikus;

    °  sonnets;

    °  fables;

    °  myths;

    °  novels;

    °  graphic novels; and

    °  short stories.

    ·  analyze the different functions that characters play in a literary text (e.g., antagonist, protagonist, foil, tragic hero).

    ·  analyze how relationships among a character’s actions, dialogue, physical attributes, thoughts, feelings, and other characters reveal nuances of character (e.g., beliefs, values, social class, and gender roles) and advance the plot.

    ·  identify universal themes, such as:

    °  struggle with nature;

    °  survival of the fittest;

    °  coming of age;

    °  power of love;

    °  loss of innocence;

    °  struggle with self;

    °  disillusionment with life;

    °  the effects of progress;

    °  power of nature;

    °  alienation and isolation;

    °  honoring the historical past;

    °  good overcoming evil;

    °  tolerance of the atypical;

    °  the great journey;

    °  noble sacrifice;

    °  the great battle;

    °  love and friendship; and

    °  revenge.

    ·  analyze works of literature for historical information about the period in which they were written.

    ·  describe common archetypes that pervade literature, such as the:

    °  hero/heroine;

    °  trickster;

    °  faithful companion;

    °  outsider/outcast;

    °  rugged individualist;

    °  shrew;

    °  innocent;

    °  villain;

    °  caretaker;

    °  Earth mother;

    °  rebel;

    °  misfit;

    °  mother/father figure;

    °  monster/villain;

    °  scapegoat; and

    °  lonely orphan.

    ·  examine a literary selection from several different critical perspectives.

    ·  analyze a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a literary work.

    ·  analyze the representation of a subject or a key scene in two different media.

    ·  compare and contrast literary devices in order to convey a poem’s message and elicit a reader’s emotions.

    ·  interpret and paraphrase the meanings of selected poems.

    ·  analyze the use of dialogue, special effects, music, and set to interpret characters.

    ·  identify and describe dramatic conventions.


    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • construct meaning from text by making connections between what they already know and the new information they read
    • analyze and critique themes across texts and within various social, cultural, and historical contexts
    • compare and contrast a variety of literary works from different cultures and eras, including, but not limited to,
      • short stories
      • poems
      • plays
      • novels
      • essays
      • literary nonfiction
    • explain similarities and differences among literary genres from different cultures, including, but not limited to,
      • sonnets
      • myths
      • novels
      • graphic novels
      • short stories
    • analyze universal themes, including, but not limited to,
      • struggle with nature
      • survival of the fittest
      • coming of age
      • power of love
      • loss of innocence
      • struggle with self
      • disillusionment with life
      • the effects of progress
      • power of nature
      • alienation and isolation
      • honoring the historical past
      • good overcoming evil
      • tolerance of the atypical
      • the great journey
      • noble sacrifice
      • the great battle
      • love and friendship
      • revenge
    • analyze works of literature for historical information about the period in which they were written
    • describe common archetypes that pervade literature including, but not limited to,
      • hero/heroine
      • trickster
      • outsider/outcast
      • rugged individualist
      • shrew
      • vampiric male
      • innocent
      • caretaker
      • rebel
      • misfit
      • scapegoat
      • lonely orphan
    • analyze how an author achieves specific effects and purposes using literary devices and figurative language (e.g., understatement, allusion, allegory, paradox)
    • analyze a case in which a point of view requires distinguishing what is directly stated in a text from what is really meant  (e.g., satire, irony, understatement)
    • analyze a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a literary work
    • compare and contrast literary devices that convey a poem’s message and elicit a reader’s emotions
    • interpret and paraphrase the meanings of selected poems
    • identify and describe dramatic conventions
    • compare and contrast two or more texts on the same topic or with similar themes
    • use evidence from the text(s) for support when drawing conclusions or making inferences
    • demonstrate comprehension and apply strategies to write about what is read.

    KEY VOCABULARY

    Critique vs. summary; short stories; poems; plays; novels; essays; narrative nonfiction; functions of characters (antagonist; protagonist; foil; tragic hero);  haikus; sonnets; fables; myths; novels; graphic novels; short stories; characterization in drama vs. characterization in other literary forms; close reading; asides;  monologues; soliloquies;  universal themes (struggle with nature; survival of the fittest; coming of age; power of love; loss of innocence; struggle with self; disillusionment with life; the effects of progress; power of nature; alienation and isolation; honoring the historical past; good overcoming evil; tolerance of the atypical; the great journey; noble sacrifice;  the great battle; love and friendship; revenge); figurative language/ literary devices (simile; metaphor; personification; analogy; symbolism; apostrophe; allusion; imagery; paradox; oxymoron); rhyme, rhy­thm, sound; common archetypes (hero/heroine; trickster; faithful companion; outsider/outcast; rugged individualist; shrew; innocent; villain; caretaker; Earth mother; rebel; misfit; mother/father figure; monster/villain; scapegoat; lonely orphan)

    Alienation

    Allegory

    Allusion

    Analyze

    Archetype

    Atypical

    Compare and contrast

    Conclusion

    Critique

    Disillusionment

    Distinguish

    Dramatic conventions

    Elicit

    Ethnic literature

    Evaluate

    Evoke

    Figurative language

    Foil

    Genre

    Graphic novel

    Heroine

    Inference
    Updated: Jun 05, 2018

    The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate nonfiction texts.

    b)  Recognize an author’s intended audience and purpose for writing.

    c)  Skim manuals or informational sources to locate information.

    d)  Compare and contrast informational texts.

    g)  Analyze and synthesize information in order to solve problems, answer questions, and generate new knowledge.

    h)  Use reading strategies throughout the reading process to monitor comprehension.


    The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate nonfiction texts.

    b) Recognize an author’s intended audience and purpose for writing.

    c) Skim materials to develop an overview and locate information.

    d) Compare and contrast informational texts for intent and content.

    g) Analyze and synthesize information in order to solve problems, answer questions, and generate new knowledge.

    h) Analyze ideas within and between selections, providing textual evidence.

    i) Summarize, paraphrase, and synthesize ideas, while maintaining a meaning and a logical sequence of events within and between texts.

    j) Use reading strategies throughout the reading process to monitor comprehension.


    Adopted: 2017

    BIG IDEAS

    • The audience and purpose determine the content and format of a passage. (10.5b and 10.5b)
    • To effectively engage an audience, it is critical to write using the appropriate language and tone. (10.5b and 10.5b)
    • The purpose of a text impacts the text structure used in writing. (10.5b and 10.5b)
    • Skimming allows a reader to quickly take the most important information from a passage without reading all of the words. (10.5c and 10.5c)
    • Comparing and contrasting the ideas found in multiple sources allows one to identify conflicting and consistent information and thus evaluate sources. (10.5d and 10.5d)
    • Synthesis allows a writer to gather information from various sources and reorganize and present that information to support a specific topic or thesis statement. (10.5g and 10.5g)
    • Comparing and contrasting ideas found in multiple sources allows one to identify conflicting and consistent information and thus evaluate sources. (10.5g and 10.5g)
    • Comparing viewpoints gives one a more comprehensive view of a topic. (10.5g and 10.5g)
    • Determining the accuracy of factual information can help a reader judge the credibility of the author and provide clues of possible bias. (10.5g and 10.5g)
    • Reading strategies are deliberate mental actions that allow readers to better comprehend and remember textual information. (10.5h and 10.5j)
    • Strong arguments often rely on being able to successfully synthesize information from multiple sources in a way that is new and unique. (10.5i)
    • Determining the veracity and significance of information often involves analyzing information within and between texts. (10.5h)

    UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    ·  Students need to be skilled readers of nonfictional texts and technical manuals and have the ability to apply different reading strategies when engaging with a variety of such materials.

    Students will use a variety of reading strategies such as text annotation, QAR (Question-Answer Relationship), thinking aloud, etc.


    All students should

    • understand that skilled readers of nonfiction texts and technical documents apply different reading strategies
    • understand that informational and technical writing is often non-linear, fragmented, and supported with graphics.

    ESSENTIALS

    All students should

    · understand that background knowledge may be necessary to understand handbooks and manuals.

    · know that informational and technical writing is often non-linear, fragmented, and graphic-supported.

    · understand how format and style in informational text differ from those in narrative and expository texts.

    · understand reading strategies and in particular, how they are used to locate specific information in informational text.


    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    ·  identify the different formats and purposes of informational and technical texts.

    ·  analyze how authors use rhetoric to advance their point of view.

    ·  identify the main idea(s) in informational  text.

    ·  identify essential details in complex informational passages.

    ·  locate specific information in manuals or other informational sources by using strategies such as skimming, summarizing, and highlighting.

    ·  interpret and understand information presented in maps, charts, timelines, tables, and diagrams,

    ·  make inferences and draw conclusions from informational text.


    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • analyze and synthesize information from multiple texts, while maintaining the intended purpose of each original text
    • analyze the vocabulary (i.e., content-specific jargon, technical terminology) and ideas of informational texts from various academic disciplines to clarify understandings of concepts
    • recognize the non-linear, fragmented, and graphic elements found in informational and technical writing
    • analyze two or more texts with conflicting information on the same topic and identify how the texts disagree
    • analyze how authors use rhetoric
    • identify essential details in complex informational texts
    • demonstrate comprehension and apply strategies to write about what is read.

    KEY VOCABULARY

    nonfiction text; technical manual; text features; text structures/organizational patterns; skimming; summarizing; highlighting


    Analyze

    Clarify

    Compare and contrast

    Graphics

    Informational text

    Interpret

    Jargon

    Nonfictional text

    Nonlinear elements

    Paraphrase

    Skim

    Synthesize

    Technical writing

    Textual evidence

    Updated: Jun 12, 2018

    Writing

    The student will develop a variety of writing to persuade, interpret, analyze, and evaluate with an emphasis on exposition and analysis.

    a)  Generate, gather, plan, and organize ideas for writing to address a specific audience and purpose.

    b)  Synthesize information to support the thesis. 

    c)  Elaborate ideas clearly through word choice and vivid description.

    f)  Revise writing for clarity of content, accuracy, and depth of information. 


    The student will write in a variety of forms to include persuasive, reflective, interpretive, and analytic, with an emphasis on persuasion and analysis.

    a) Engage in writing as a recursive process.

    b) Plan and organize writing to address a specific audience and purpose.

    c) Adjust writing content, techniques, and voice for a variety of audiences and purposes.

    j) Blend multiple forms of writing, including embedding a narrative to produce effective essays.

    k) Elaborate ideas clearly through word choice.

    l) Use textual evidence to compare and contrast multiple tests.

    m) Revise writing for clarity of content, accuracy, and depth of information.

    n) Write and revise to a standard acceptable both in the workplace and in postsecondary education.


    Adopted: 2017

    BIG IDEAS

    • Knowing the purpose and audience for a piece of text not only helps writers know what to say but also how to say it. (10.6a and 10.6b)
    • The purpose and intended audience for a piece of text can impact the choice of text structure. (10.6a and 10.6b)
    • To effectively engage an intended audience, it is critical to use appropriate language and tone. (10.6c and 10.6c, k)
    • Prewriting makes the writing process more efficient. (10.6a and 10.6b)
    • Prewriting involves choosing a topic, considering purpose, identifying the audience, gathering information, and organizing ideas. (10.6a and 10.6b)
    • Prewriting provides a path for a writer to follow. (10.6a and 10.6b)
    • Knowing text structures, transition words, and text features allows writers to organize their thinking to match the structure needed for effective communication and comprehension. (10.6a and 10.6b)
    • Editing is proofreading text to correct errors in grammar and mechanics, whereas revising involves improvements in logic, clarity, flow, organization, and quality of evidence. (10.6f and 10.6m)
    • Rewriting allows one to learn how to write better as well as improving reading and analytical skills. (10.6f and 10.6m)
    • Revision is the opportunity to step back and re-envision text.  An author thinks about the goal of an essay and whether or not that goal was successfully accomplished. (10.6f and 10.6m)
    • Dividing an essay into multiple paragraphs creates an organization that helps readers understand a writer's intent and information.  This is particularly true when the paragraphs follow an established text structure. (10.6a and 10.6b)
    • Specific vocabulary helps create a writer's tone and enhances the purpose. (10.6c and 10.6c, k)
    • Selecting precise words and information helps increase the impact of a text on the audience. (10.6c and 10.6c, k)
    • Word choice impacts tone, imagery, voice, and mood. (10.6c and 10.6c, k)
    • Word choice contributes to both meaning and emotional effect. (10.6c and 10.6c, k)
    • Rather than being linear, the process of writing is recursive where writers may jump between steps in the process and revisit previous steps as needed. (10.6a)
    • The use of anecdotal narrative evidence to illustrate points is a powerful persuasive and argumentative tool. (10.6j)
    • Formal language is used in situations that are serious or involve people that one does not know well.  Informal language is used in situations that are more relaxes and with people one know's well. (10.6n)
    • Grammar and vocabulary differ between formal and informal English. (10.6n)

    UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    • Students will know how to move through the stages of a writing process, from planning to drafting, revising, editing, and proofreading.
    • Students will understand that expository writing is prose that explains ideas through the use of a clear general statement of the writer’s point (thesis) and through the development of ideas, using specific evidence and illustrations for support.
    • Analytical writing uses precise language and often divides the subject into parts and provides evidence on each part.
    • Students should have practice writing for shorter time frames as well as extended time frames.

    All students should

    • understand that writing requires a recursive process that includes planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing
    • understand that writing should be purposefully crafted with attention to deliberate word choice and precise information
    • understand the features of the domains of writing, including composing, written expression, and usage/mechanics, are essential to quality writing
    • understand that voice and tone must be developed with awareness of audience and purpose.

    ESSENTIALS

    All students should

    • understand that writing is a process.
    • understand expository and analytical texts and develop products that reflect that understanding.
    • understand effective organizational patterns

    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • write expository texts that:
      • explain a process;
      • compare and contrast ideas;
      • show cause and effect;
      • enumerate details; or
      • define ideas and concepts.
    • develop written products that demonstrate their understanding of composing, written expression, and usage/mechanics.
    • write persuasively and analytically on a variety of literary and nonliterary subjects.
    • develop writing that analyzes complex issues.
    • plan and organize their ideas for writing.
    • state a thesis and support it.
    • elaborate ideas in order to provide support for the thesis.
    • use visual and sensory language as needed for effect.
    • vary sentence structures for effect.
    • identify and apply features of the writing domains, including
      • effective organization;
      • clear structure;
      • sentence variety;
      • unity and coherence;
      • tone and voice;
      • effective word choice;
      • clear purpose;
      • appropriate mechanics and usage; and
      • accurate and valuable information.
    • develop ideas deductively and inductively and organize ideas into a logical sequence, applying effective organizational patterns/techniques, such as:
      • comparison/contrast;
      • chronological order;
      • spatial layout;
      • cause and effect;
      • definition;
      • order of importance;
      • explanation;
      • generalization;
      • classification;
      • enumeration; and
      • problem/solution.
    • evaluate analytical writing by examining and understanding how individual parts of the text relate to the whole, including the writing’s purpose and structure.
    • revise writing for clarity of content and presentation.
    • use peer- and self-evaluation to review and revise writing.
    • use computer technology to assist in the writing process.

    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • demonstrate the purpose of writing as narrative, persuasive, expository, reflective, or analytical
    • develop and apply embedded narrative techniques, such as dialogue, description, and pacing to develop experiences or characters and enhance writing
    •  use effective rhetorical appeals, to establish credibility and persuade intended audience
    • use embedded clauses for sentence variety
    • write persuasively, organizing reasons logically and effectively
    • analyze sources and determine the best information to support a position/argument
    • use credible, current research and expert opinions to support a position/argument
    • compare/contrast and select evidence from multiple texts to strengthen a position/argument
    • use specific revision strategies and adapt content, vocabulary, voice, and tone to audience, purpose, and situation
    • revise writing for clarity and quality of information to effectively match the intended audience and purpose of a workplace and/or postsecondary education
    • develop ideas deductively and inductively and organize ideas into a logical sequence, applying effective organizational patterns/techniques.

    KEY VOCABULARY

    expository writing; analytical writing; persuasive writing; thesis statement; writing domain features (effective organization; clear structure; sentence variety; unity and coherence; tone and voice; effective word choice; clear purpose; appropriate mechanics and usage; accurate and valuable information); organizational patterns/techniques (comparison/contrast; chronological order; spatial layout; cause and effect; definition; order of importance; explanation; generalization; classification; enumeration; problem/solution); clarity; synthesize; relevant

    Accuracy

    Analytical writing

    Analyze

    Clarity

    Clause

    Compare and contrast

    Credible

    Deductive reasoning

    Dialogue

    Editing

    Elaborate

    Embedded

    Enhance

    Inductive reasoning

    Interpretive

    Narrative

    Organizational pattern

    Persuasive

    Precise

    Publish

    Recursive

    Reflective writing

    Revision

    Rhetorical appeals

    Textual evidence

    Tone

    Voice


    Updated: Jun 13, 2018

    The student will self- and peer-edit writing for correct grammar, capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, and paragraphing.

    e)  Analyze the writing of others.


    The student will self- and peer-edit writing for capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, paragraphing, and Standard English.

    a) Use parallel structure across sentences and paragraphs.

    b) Use complex sentence structure to infuse sentence variety in writing.

    e) Analyze the writing of others and suggest how writing might be improved.


    Adopted: 2017

    BIG IDEAS

      • Lack of parallel structure can disrupt the flow of a sentence, causing it to be grammatically unbalanced. (10.7a)
      • Aligning related ideas through parallel structure supports readability and clarity. (10.7a)
      • Parallelism shows two or more ideas have the same level of importance. (10.7a)
      • Varying the types of sentences used in a text not only makes the writing less boring but can also be used effectively to emphasize ideas. (10.7b)
      • Constructive critiques allow a writer to take an objective look at what was written and evaluate its content, format, details, and impact. (10.7e and 10.7e)

      UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

      • Students will continue to build knowledge of grammar through the application of rules for parts of a sentence and text.
      • Students will use a style manual, such as MLA or APA, to punctuate and format sentences and text.
      • Students will analyze writings critically, using knowledge of composition, written expression, sentence formation, and usage/mechanics. They will also suggest ways that writings can be improved.
      • Students will describe how writers accomplish their intended purpose.

      All students should

      • understand that grammatical and syntactical choices convey a writer’s message
      • understand how writers use organization and details to communicate their purposes.

      ESSENTIALS

      All students should

      • understand that active voice means that the subject of a verb performs the action and passive voice means that the subject of a verb receives the action.
      • use colons according to rules governing their use.
      • understand how writers use organization and details to communicate their purposes.


      To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

      • distinguish between active voice and passive voice to convey a desired effect.
      • know and apply the rules for the use of a colon:
        • before a list of items;
        • before a long, formal statement or quotation; and
        • after the salutation of a business letter.
      • use direct quotations in their writing, applying MLA or APA style for punctuation and formatting.
      • use peer- and self-evaluation to edit writing.
      • proofread and prepare final product for intended audience and purpose.
      • correct grammatical or usage errors. 

      To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

      • distinguish between active voice and passive voice to convey a desired effect
      • know and apply the rules for the use of a colon
      • edit and revise for parallel structure and complex sentences
      • use peer- and self-evaluation to edit writing
      • proofread and prepare writing for intended audience and purpose
      • correct grammatical and usage errors.

      Updated: Jun 14, 2018

      Research

      The student will collect, evaluate, organize, and present information to create a research product.

      a)  Use technology as a tool to research, organize, evaluate, synthesize, and communicate information.

      b)  Develop the central idea or focus.

      c)  Verify the accuracy, validity, and usefulness of information.

      d)  Make sense of information gathered from diverse sources by identifying misconceptions, main and supporting ideas, conflicting information, point of view or bias. 

      e)  Cite sources for both quoted and paraphrased ideas using a standard method of documentation, such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA).

      f)  Define the meaning and consequences of plagiarism and follow ethical and legal guidelines for gathering and using information.


      The student will find, evaluate, and select credible resources to create a research product.

      a) Verify the accuracy, validity, and usefulness of information.

      b) Analyze information gathered from diverse sources by identifying misconceptions, main and supporting ideas, conflicting information, and point of view or bias.

      c) Evaluate and select evidence from a variety of sources to introduce counterclaims and to support claims.

      d) Cite sources for both quoted and paraphrased ideas using a standard method of documentation, such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA).

      e) Define the meaning and consequences of plagiarism and follow ethical and legal guidelines for gathering and using information.

      f) Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet.


      Adopted: 2017

      BIG IDEAS

    • Plagiarism deprives the original author of due credit for his or her work; it is a form of intellectual theft. (10.8e, f and 10.8d, e)
    • It is important to properly cite the words and ideas of others. (10.8e, f and 10.8d, e)
    • Citations provide a way for others to locate the sources a writer used. (10.8e, f and 10.8d, e)
    • Citations provide evidence of research. (10.8e, f and 10.8d, e)
    • The consistency of the MLA and APA formats for writing citations makes it clear to readers what sources were used for an essay and how those sources can be located. (10.8e and 10.8f)
    • Knowing the purpose for a text helps readers evaluate the validity of the text. (10.8c, d and 10.8a, b)
    • Understanding the qualifications of a writer, helps a reader evaluate the validity and usefulness of a text. (10.8c, d and 10.8a, b)
    • Viewpoint and purpose affect how an author shapes and develops ideas.  It drives the information that is included and word choices.  Viewing the topic through the author's eyes aids the reader in evaluating a text. (10.8c, d and 10.8a, b)
    • Collecting information from multiple sources allows a reader to identify conflicting and consistent information and thus evaluate the authenticity and validity of sources. (10.8c, d and 10.8a, b)
    • Comparing and contrasting viewpoints on a topic gives a reader a more comprehensive view of a topic. (10.8c, d and 10.8a, b)
    • Technology can enhance the ability to research, collect, organize, synthesize, evaluate, share, and present information. (10.8a)
    • Synthesis allows a writer to gather information from various texts and reorganize and present that information to support a specific topic or thesis statement. (10.8a, c, d and 10.8a, b)
    • Determining the accuracy of factual information can help a reader judge the credibility of the author and provides clues to possible bias. (10.8c, d and 10.8a, b)
    • To make it feasible to fully support a position, it is important for a writer to ensure that a topic is not too broad. (10.8b)
    • A thesis statement controls the subject matter of an essay.  It is like the foundation of a building upon which all of the ideas will be built. (10.8b)
    • Collecting information from multiple sources allows a reader to identify conflicting and consistent information and thus evaluate the authenticity and validity of sources. (10.8c)
    • UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

      ·  Students will utilize a variety of sources to access ideas, evaluate the information for accuracy and relevance, and organize the facts into an oral presentation, a written report, or a visual product.

      ·  Students will provide documentation to support their research product.

      ·  Students will understand that plagiarism is the theft of intellectual property.

      ·  Students will understand that there are consequences of plagiarism according to the guidelines established by local school divisions and the law.


      All students should

      • understand that using a standard form of documentation legally protects the intellectual property of writers
      • understand to avoid plagiarism, credit must be given when using another person’s ideas, opinions, facts, statistics, or graphics
      • understand the purposeful and  responsible use of the Internet
      • understand the importance of evaluating the intent of the author, which may include misinformation, bias, and unsupported assertions
      • understand that there are consequences of plagiarism, according to the guidelines established by local school divisions and the law
      • understand the ethical issues and responsibility of documentation in research.

      ESSENTIALS

      All students should

      · understand the steps involved in organizing information gathered from research.

      · verify the accuracy and usefulness of information.

      · understand the appropriate format for citing sources of information.

      · understand that using standard methods of documentation is one way to protect the intellectual property of writers.


      To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

      ·  use technology, along with other resources, to gather information from various sources by summarizing, paraphrasing, and supporting a thesis.

      ·  organize information and maintain coherence throughout the writing based on the topic, purpose, and audience.

      ·  use organizational patterns/techniques, such as:
      °  comparison/contrast;
      °  chronological order;
      °  spatial layout;
      °  cause and effect;
      °  definition;
      °  order of importance;
      °  explanation;
      °  enumeration; and
      °  problem/solution.

      ·  evaluate sources for their credibility, reliability, strengths, and limitations.

      ·  demonstrate ability to distinguish between reliable and unreliable sources.

      ·  distinguish one’s own ideas from information created or discovered by others.

      ·  cite primary and secondary sources of information, using the MLA or APA method of documentation for in-text citations and works-cited pages.

      ·  avoid plagiarism by:

      °  understanding that plagiarism is an act of presenting someone else’s ideas as one’s own;

      °  citing correctly sources to give credit to the author of an original work;

      °  recognizing that sources of information must be cited even when the information has been paraphrased; and

      using quotation marks when someone else’s exact words are quoted


      To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

      • use resources to gather information from various sources by summarizing, paraphrasing, and supporting a thesis, claim, or counterclaim
      • organize information and maintain coherence throughout the writing based on the topic, purpose, and audience
      • evaluate sources for their credibility, reliability, accuracy, and limitations
      • cite primary and secondary sources of information, using the MLA or APA method of documentation for in-text citations and works-cited pages.


      KEY VOCABULARY

      validity and accuracy of texts; plagiarism; organizational patterns/techniques (comparison/contrast; chronological order; spatial layout; cause and effect; definition; order of importance; explanation; enumeration; problem/solution); citation; synthesize

      Accuracy

      Analyze

      Assertion

      Bias

      Cite

      Coherence

      Counterclaim

      Credibility

      Diverse

      Documentation

      Ethical

      Evaluate

      Fact

      Graphic

      Intellectual property
      Updated: Jun 25, 2018