Reading - 2018-19

Unit 3

Communication:Speaking Listening, Media Literacy

The student will make planned oral presentations independently and in small groups.

a) Include definitions to increase clarity.

b) Use relevant details to support main ideas.

c) Illustrate main ideas through anecdotes and examples.

d) Use grammatically correct language, including vocabulary appropriate to the topic, audience, and purpose.

e) Use verbal and nonverbal techniques for presentation. 

f) Evaluate impact and purpose of presentation. 

g) Credit information sources.

h) Give impromptu responses to questions about presentation.

i) Give and follow spoken directions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, or solve problems.

j) Use a variety of strategies to listen actively.

k) Summarize and evaluate information presented orally by others.

l) Assume shared responsibility for collaborative work.


The student will participate in, collaborate in, and make multimodal presentations both independently and in small groups.

a) Make strategic use of multimodal tools.

b) Credit information sources.

c) Use vocabulary appropriate to the topic, audience, and purpose.

d) Assist with setting rules for group work, including informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, presentation of alternative views, and goal-setting.

e) Assume responsibility for specific group tasks.

f) Share responsibility for collaborative work.

g) Use a variety of strategies to listen actively and speak, using appropriate discussion rules with awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues.

h) Include all group members, acknowledge new information expressed by others, and value individual contributions made by each group member.

i) Respond thoughtfully and tactfully to diverse perspectives, summarizing points of agreement and disagreement.

j) Evaluate impact, purpose, point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric of presentation(s).

k) Use self-reflection to evaluate one’s own role in preparation and participation in small-group activities.


Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • Definitions allow people to have a common understanding of a word or subject. (9.1a)
  • Definitions allow people to have more meaningful conversations. (9.1a)
  • Definitions can change over time. (9.1a)
  • Convincing presentations include facts, statistics, examples, well-explained opinions, and logical reasoning. (9.1b and 9.1g)
  • Respectful disagreements focus on facts, don't get personal, recognize positives, and use "I" statements. (9.1h)
  • Responding effectively to questions involves listening carefully, ensuring the question is understood, and respectfully responding to the question-asker and the group as a whole. (9.1h)
  • Nonverbal communication is made up of pitch, volume and inflection of voice, eye contact, gestures, facial expressions, and proximity. (9.1e)
  • Nonverbal communication can either reiterate the spoken message, contradict it, or complement its meaning. (9.1e)
  • Knowing the audience determines the content to be presented and the language and visuals to include. (9.1d, f and 9.1c, j)
  • Purpose and intended audience can impact the format of a presentation. (9.1d ,f and 9.1c, j)
  • Information presented should include reasons, statistics, facts, examples, explanations, anecdotes, and comparisons to help the audience learn more about the topic or thesis statement. (9.1b, d and 9.1c)
  • Selecting precise words helps increase the impact of a presentation on the audience. (9.1d and 9.1c)
  • The degree to which a reader will comprehend and/or support a main idea or proposition will depend on the details that are used to support the main idea or proposition. (9.1b and 9.1g)
  • Most careers require that workers form teams in order to meet deadlines.  (9.1l and 9.1f)
  • Working as an effective team increases efficiency. (9.1l and 9.1f)
  • Brainstorming as a group often produces more creative and effective ideas than brainstorming alone. (9.1l and 9.1f)
  • Being part of an effective team creates a support network built on reliance and trust. (9.1l and 9.1f)
  • Being able to summarize allows one to discern the most important ideas and ignore irrelevant information.  (9.1k and 9.1i)
  • Citing sources allows one to acknowledge the contributions of other writers. (9.1g and 9.1b)
  • Citations provide a way for others to locate sources used for an essay or presentation. (9.1g and 9.1b)
  • Citations provide evidence of research. (9.1g and 9.1b)
  • Anecdotes and examples often give insights into the human condition that can't be shown as clearly in another way. (9.1c)
  • Anecdotes can be used to elicit an emotional or sympathetic response. (9.1c)
  • Being a good listener is a way to show respect and understanding of another person's perspective. (9.1j and 9.1g)
  • Active listening involves not only paying attention to the words someone is saying but also trying to understand a person's complete message. (9.1j and 9.1g)
  • Directions tell someone how to do something or in what order to do something. (9.1i)
  • Directions help tasks e performed efficiently and safely. (9.1i)
  • Some directions include visual elements to illustrate and clarify tests. (9.1i)
  • Settings rules for group behavior will help discourage behaviors that will interfere with a group's effectiveness. (9.1d)
  • Using a mixture of sound, images, text, and other resources allow for effective communication to myriad audiences. (9.1a)
  • For groups to function effectively, it is important for group members to assume responsibility for their individual roles and tasks. (9.1e)
  • Teams function most effectively when the ideas and contributions of each member are valued and considered. (9.1h)

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • Students will make planned oral presentations.
  • Students should cite sources according to proper MLA or APA format.


All students should

  • understand that verbal techniques are important for effective communication.
  • understand working effectively with diverse groups includes
    • exercising flexibility in making necessary compromises to accomplish a common goal
    • defining a team goal and working toward it
    • treating all ideas respectfully
    • demonstrating respect for others’ ideas by acknowledging differing  points of view
    • coming to agreement by seeking consensus
  • understand the importance of self-reflection in small-group activities.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand  that technical and specialized language helps the audience comprehend the content of oral presentations.
  • understand that verbal techniques are important for effective communication.
  • understand that crediting sources is important to prevent plagiarism and establish credibility.
  • demonstrate the ability to work effectively with diverse groups, including:
    • exercising flexibility in making necessary compromises to accomplish a common goal.
    • defining a team goal and working toward its mastery.
    • maintaining collaboration by ensuring that all ideas are treated respectfully and acknowledged.
    • demonstrating respect for others’ ideas by acknowledging differing  points of view.
    • coming to agreement by seeking consensus.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • define technical and specialized language to increase clarity of their oral presentations.
  • incorporate details, such as facts, statistics, quotations, information from interviews and surveys, and pertinent information discovered during research, to support the main ideas of their oral presentations.
  • organize presentation in a structure appropriate to the audience, topic, and purpose  (problem-solution, comparison-contrast, cause-effect, etc.).
  • use examples from their knowledge and experience to support the main ideas of their oral presentation.
  • use grammar and vocabulary appropriate for situation, audience, topic, and purpose.
  • demonstrate nonverbal techniques including, but not limited, to eye contact, facial expressions, gestures, and stance.
  • use verbal techniques including, but not limited to, appropriate tone, diction, articulation, clarity, type, and rate.
  • keep eye contact with audience, adjust volume, tone, and rate, be aware of postures and gestures, use natural tone.
  • analyze and critique the relationship among purpose, audience, and content of presentations.
  • assess the impact of presentations, including the effectiveness of verbal and nonverbal techniques using a rubric or checklist.
  • give credit in their oral presentations to authors, researchers, and interviewers by citing titles of articles, magazines, newspapers, books, documents, and other reference materials used in the presentations.
  • respond to questions about their oral presentations.
  • collaborate with peers to set rules for group presentations and discussions, set clear goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
  • engage others in a conversation by posing and responding to questions in a group situation.
  • demonstrate active listening skills by looking at the speaker, using body language to indicate attentiveness, and  give appropriate feedback.
  • summarize or paraphrase what others have said to show attentiveness:  “It sounds like you were saying. . .” and provide an evaluation of others’ information.
  • analyze and critique the effectiveness of a speaker’s or group’s demeanor, voice, language, gestures, clarity of thought, organization of evidence, relevance of information, and delivery.
  • analyze and critique the relationship among purpose, audience, and content of presentations.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • define technical and specialized language to increase clarity in multimodal presentations
  • incorporate pertinent information discovered during research to support main ideas in multimodal presentations
  • organize presentation in a structure appropriate to the audience, topic, and purpose 
  • use word choice and vocabulary appropriate for situation, audience, topic, and purpose
  • keep eye contact with audience; adjust volume, tone, and rate; be aware of posture and gestures; use natural tone
  • analyze and critique the relationship among purpose, audience, and content of presentations
  • collaborate with peers to set guidelines for group presentations and discussions, set clear goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed
  • engage others in a conversation by posing and responding to questions in a group situation
  • demonstrate active listening skills by looking at the speaker, using body language to indicate attentiveness, and giving appropriate feedback
  • analyze and critique the effectiveness of a speaker’s or group’s voice, language, clarity, organization, relevance, and delivery.

Updated: May 29, 2018

The student will produce, analyze, and evaluate auditory, visual, and written media messages. 

a) Analyze and interpret special effects used in media messages including television, film, and Internet.

b) Determine the purpose of the media message and its effect on the audience.

c) Describe possible cause and effect relationships between mass media coverage and public opinion trends.

d) Evaluate sources including advertisements, editorial, and feature stories for relationships between intent and factual content.

e) Monitor, analyze, and use multiple streams of simultaneous information.


The student will produce, analyze, and evaluate auditory, visual, and written media messages.

a) Analyze and interpret special effects used in media messages.

b) Determine the purpose of the media message and its effect on the audience.

c) Analyze the purpose of information and persuasive techniques used in diverse media formats.

d) Evaluate the motives (e.g., social, commercial, political) behind media presentation(s).

e) Examine how values and viewpoints are included or excluded and how the media can influence beliefs, behaviors, and interpretations.

f) Describe possible cause-and-effect relationships between mass media coverage and public opinion trends.

g) Evaluate sources, including advertisements, editorials, political cartoons, and feature stories for relationships between intent and factual content.

h) Monitor, analyze, and use multiple streams of simultaneous information.

i) Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet when evaluating or producing creative or informational media messages.


Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • People learn abstract and new concepts more easily when they are presented in both textual and visual formats. (9.2a and 9.2a)
  • Visual and auditory effects in media make ideas more accessible and easier to recall than text media alone. (9.2a and 9.2a)
  • The special effects used in media help producers convey complex ideas in a short period of time. (9.2a and 9.2a)
  • Media messages include ones used for propaganda and persuasion. (9.2b and 9.2b)
  • The type of media chosen to convey a message is determined by factors such as cost, size of audience, type of audience, purpose, and longevity. (9.2b and 9.2b)
  • The same message can have different effects on an intended audience depending on its method and format of delivery. (9.2b and 9.2b)
  • Well -rafted media messages help shape public opinion and play an important role in stimulating civic action, exposing problems to be addressed, and highlighting important issues. (9.2b, c and 9.2b, f)
  • Media are designed to accomplish one or more purposes including expressing an opinion or point of view, persuading, entertaining, and educating. (9.2b and 9.2b)
  • Media focus the public's attention on certain people and issues, causing the public to form opinions about those people and issues. (9.2c and 9.2f)
  • The effect of media is particularly pronounced in areas in which audiences do not possess direct knowledge or experience (9.2c and 9.2f)
  • Mass media largely dictate what is newsworthy and how it will be portrayed. (9.2b, c and 9.2b, f)
  •  Based on media presentation, a particular opinion sometimes gets repeated through various media until a false vision is created in which perceived truth is not in line with actual truth. (9.2c, d and 9.2f, g)
  • Evidence is based on fact and inferences are based on personal interpretations of fact. (9.2d and 9.2g)
  • Information on the Internet is not regulated for accuracy, so it is important for users to evaluate the sources and the information. (9.2d, e, and 9.2g, h)
  • Choices made in the creation of media reflect the values, attitudes, and perspectives of those creating the messages. (9.2d, e and 9.2g, h)
  • Comparing information found in multiple sources allows one to identify conflicting and consistent information and thus evaluate sources. (9.2e and 9.2h)
  • Comparing and contrasting viewpoints gives one a more comprehensive view of a topic. (9.2e and 9.2h)
  • An author's motives behind media presentations help indicate information included or excluded as well as vocabulary choices. (9.2d, e)
  • Using the Internet ethically involves avoiding stealing (plagiarism), avoiding untruthfulness, and avoiding cruelty. (9.2i)

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

·  Students will develop media literacy by studying various media components and messages.

·  Students will also recognize that all media messages are constructed and that to understand the whole meaning of the message they can deconstruct it, looking at the following attributes:

°  Authorship (Who constructed the message?)

°  Format (This is not just the medium being used but also how the creators used specific elements for effect, i.e., color, sound, emphasis on certain words, amateur video, kids’ voices.)

°  Audience (Who is the person or persons meant to see the message? How will different people see the message?)

°  Content (This is not just the visible content but the embedded content as well which includes underlying assumptions of values or points of view; facts and opinions may be intermixed.)

°  Purpose (Why is the message being sent—is it meant to persuade, inform, entertain, sell, or a combination of these?)


All students should

  • understand how special effects are employed in a multimedia message to persuade the viewer
  • comprehend persuasive language and word connotations to convey viewpoint and bias
  • understand that media messages are constructed based on varying opinions, values, and viewpoints
  • recognize that all media messages are constructed and that, to understand the whole meaning of the message, they should be deconstructed.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • evaluate how special effects are employed in a multimedia message to persuade the viewer.
  • comprehend persuasive language and word connotations to convey viewpoint and bias.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • create and publish media messages, such as public service announcements aimed at a variety of audiences and with different purposes.
  • recognize that persuasive techniques are used to convince viewers to make decisions, change their minds, take a stand on an issue, or predict a certain outcome, such as:
    • ad hominem means “to the man” does not argue the issue, instead it argues the person;
    • red herring is a deliberate attempt to divert attention;
    • straw man creates the illusion of having refuted a proposition by substituting a similar yet weaker proposition (the "straw man");
    • begging the question assumes the conclusion is true without proving it; circular argument;
    • testimonial uses famous people to endorse the product or idea;
    • ethical appeal establishes the writer as knowledgeable;
    • emotional appeal appeals strictly to emotions often used with strong visuals; and
    • logical appeal is the strategic use of logic, claims, and evidence.
  • identify and evaluate word choice in the media.
  • investigate the use of bias and viewpoints in media.
  • describe the effect of persuasive messages in the media on the audience.
  • identify public opinion trends and possible causes.
  • identify and analyze choice of information in the media and distinguish between fact and opinion.
  • identify and analyze sources and viewpoints in the media.
  • analyze information from many different print and electronic sources.
  • identify basic principles of media literacy:
    • media messages are constructed;
    • messages are representations of reality with values and viewpoints;
    • each form of media uses a unique set of rules to construct messages;
    • individuals interpret based on personal experience; and
    • media are driven to gain profit or power.
  • identify key questions of media literacy:
    • Who created the message?
    • What techniques are used to attract attention?
    • How might different people react differently to this message?
    • What values, lifestyles and points of view are represented in, or omitted from, this message?
    • What is the purpose of this message?

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • create and publish media messages, such as public service announcements, aimed at a variety of audiences and with different purposes
  • identify and deconstruct elements of media literacy including authorship, format, audience, content, purpose
  • analyze the author’s intended audience and purpose when evaluating media messages
  • recognize that persuasive techniques are used to convince viewers to make decisions, change their minds, take a stand on an issue, or predict a certain outcome, including, but not limited to,
    • ad hominem
    • red herring
    • straw man
    • begging the question
    • testimonial
    • ethical appeal
    • emotional appeal
    • logical appeal
  • identify and evaluate word choice, bias, viewpoints, and the effectiveness of persuasive messages in the media
  • identify public opinion trends and possible causes
  • identify and analyze sources in the media
  • analyze information from many sources
  • identify basic principles of media literacy
    • media messages are constructed
    • messages are representations with values and viewpoints
    • each form of media uses a unique set of rules to construct messages
    • individuals interpret based on personal experience
    • media are driven to gain profit or power
  • identify key questions of media literacy
    • Who created the message?
    • What techniques are used to attract attention?
    • How might different people react differently to this message?
    • What values, lifestyles and points of view are represented in, or omitted from, this message?
    • What is the purpose of this message?
  • avoid plagiarism by giving credit whenever using another person’s media, facts, statistics, graphics, images, music and sounds, quotations, or paraphrases of another person’s words.

Updated: May 30, 2018

Reading

The student will apply knowledge of word origins, derivations, and figurative language to extend vocabulary development in authentic texts.

a)  Use structural analysis of roots, affixes, synonyms, antonyms, and cognates to understand complex words.

b)  Use context, structure, and connotations to determine meanings of words and phrases.

c)  Discriminate between connotative and denotative meanings and interpret the connotation.

d)  Identify the meaning of common idioms.

e)  Identify literary and classical allusions and figurative language in text.

f)  Extend general and specialized vocabulary through speaking, reading, and writing.

g)  Use knowledge of the evolution, diversity, and effects of language to comprehend and

  elaborate the meaning of texts.


The student will apply knowledge of word origins, derivations, and figurative language to extend vocabulary development in authentic texts.

a) Use structural analysis of roots, affixes, synonyms, and antonyms to understand complex words.

b) Use context, structure, and connotations to determine meanings of words and phrases.

c) Discriminate between connotative and denotative meanings and interpret connotation.

d) Identify the meaning of common idioms.

e) Explain the meaning of literary and classical allusions and figurative language in text.

f) Extend general and cross-curricular vocabulary through speaking, listening, reading, and writing.


Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • Understanding word structures and origins and derivations helps to show relationships among words. (9.3a, g and 9.3a)
  • Many words are like Legos; they can be pulled apart and reassembled with other parts to make new words. (9.3b and 9.3b)
  • Many words have multiple meanings, and understanding the context can help determine which meaning is appropriate. (9.3b and 9.3b)
  • Understanding words parts helps readers decode and understand the meanings of words more quickly and accurately. (9.3a, b and 9.3a, b)
  • Synonyms and antonyms can make meaning more precise when words are chosen not only for their denotative meanings but for their connotative meanings as well. (9.3a, c and 9.3a, c)
  • Figurative language is used by authors in part to make unfamiliar objects, settings, and situations more relatable to readers. (9.3e and 9.3e)
  • Most professions and areas of study have specialized vocabularies that are specific to them. (9.3f and 9.3f)
  • Connotations are the suggested meanings of words, including associations and emotional implications. (9.3c and 9.3c)
  • Connotations can influence mood or tone through the positive, negative, or neutral emotions they evoke. (9.3c and 9.3c)
  • Words that have the same denotative meaning can have drastically different connotative meanings. (9.3c and 9.3c)
  • Idioms can be used to communicate a meaning for which there is no exact word. (9.3d and 9.3d)
  • Idioms can be used as a short way of expressing a complex idea. (9.3d and 9.3d)
  • Allusions are based on the assumption that there is a shared body of knowledge that allows a reader to connect the significance of an allusion to the author's message. (9.3e and 9.3e)
  • An allusion stimulates ideas, associations, and extra information in a reader's mind with only a word or two. (9.3e and 9.3e)
  • Definitions of words can change over time both denotatively and connotatively. (9.3c, g and 9.3c)

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will increase their independence as learners of vocabulary.
  • Students will use prefixes, suffixes, roots, derivations, and inflections of polysyllabic words to determine meaning and relationships among related words.
  • Teachers should use a study of cognates (words from the same linguistic family)  to enhance vocabulary instruction. Cognates can occur within the same language or across languages, e.g.,  night (English), nuit (French), Nacht (German), nacht (Dutch), nicht (Scots), natt (Swedish, Norwegian), nat (Danish), raat (Urdu), nátt (Faroese), nótt (Icelandic), noc (Czech, Slovak, Polish).
  • Students will evaluate the use of figurative language in text.
  • Students will use context and connotations to help determine the meaning of synonymous words and appreciate an author’s choices of words and images.
  • Connotation is subjective, cultural and emotional. A stubborn person may be described as being either strong-willed or pig-headed. They have the same literal meaning (i.e., stubborn), strong-willed connotes admiration for the level of someone's will, while pig-headed connotes frustration in dealing with someone.
  • Denotation is a dictionary definition of a word.
  • Idiom is an expression peculiar to a particular language or group of people that means something different from the dictionary definition (e.g., blessing in disguise, chip on your shoulder).
  • An allusion is an indirect reference to a person, place, event or thing--real or fictional. J.D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye is an allusion to a poem by Robert Burns. Stephen Vincent Benet's story By the Waters of Babylon alludes to Psalm 137 in the Bible.

All students should

  • understand that figurative language enriches text.
  • understand that word structure aids comprehension of unfamiliar and complex words.
  • recognize that words have nuances of meaning  including figurative, connotative, and technical that help to determine the appropriate meaning
  • understand that affixes and Greek and Latin roots are clues to determine meanings of words
  • understand that context and connotations help determine the meaning of text
  • understand that allusions are used to assist readers in providing connections to other works or historical events.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • recognize that figurative language enriches text.
  • understand that word structure aids comprehension of unfamiliar and complex words.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • use word structure to analyze and relate words.
  • use roots or affixes to determine or clarify the meaning of words.
  • recognize that words have nuances of meaning and that understanding the connotations may be necessary to determine the appropriate meaning.
  • demonstrate an understanding of idioms.
  • use prior reading knowledge and other study to identify the meaning of literary and classical allusions.
  • interpret figures of speech (e.g., euphemism, oxymoron) in context and analyze their role in the text.
  • analyze connotations of words with similar denotations.
  • use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., conceive, conception, conceivable).
  • consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, thesaurus).
  • demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and connotations in word meanings.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • use word structure to analyze and relate words
  • use roots or affixes to determine or clarify the meaning of new or unfamiliar words
  • analyze the author’s use of idioms
  • use prior reading knowledge and other sources to identify the meaning of literary and classical allusions
  • interpret figures of speech (e.g., euphemism, oxymoron) in context and analyze their role in the text
  • analyze connotations of words with similar denotations
  • analyze figurative language
  • demonstrate understanding of connotations in word meanings.

Updated: May 31, 2018

The student will read, comprehend, and analyze a variety of literary texts including narratives, narrative nonfiction, poetry, and drama.

c)  Identify the characteristics that distinguish literary forms.

d)  Use literary terms in describing and analyzing selections.

e)  Explain the relationships between and among elements of literature: characters, plot, setting, tone, point of view, and theme.

f)  Compare and contrast the use of rhyme, rhythm, sound, imager, and other literary devices to convey a message and elicit the reader's emotions.

h)  Explain the relationship between the author’s style and literary effect.

i)  Explain the influence of historical context on the form, style, and point of view of a written work.

j)  Compare and contrast author's use of literary elements within a variety of genres.

k)  Analyze how an author's specific word choices and syntax achieve special effects and support the author's purpose.

l)  Make predictions, inferences, draw conclusions, and connect prior knowledge to support reading comprehension.

m)  Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.


The student will read, comprehend, and analyze a variety of fictional texts, including narratives, literary nonfiction, poetry, and drama.

a) Identify the characteristics that distinguish literary forms.

b) Explain the relationships between and among elements of literature: characters, plot, setting, tone, point of view, and theme.

c) Interpret how themes are connected across texts.

d) Compare and contrast the use of rhyme, rhythm, sound, imagery, and other literary devices to convey a message and elicit the reader’s emotion.

f) Explain the relationship between the author’s style and literary effect.

g) Explain the influence of historical context on the form, style, and point of view of a written work.

h) Compare and contrast author's use of literary elements within a variety of genres.

i) Analyze how the author’s specific word choices and syntax impact the author’s purpose.

j) Make inferences and draw conclusions using references from the text(s) for support.

k) Compare/contrast details in literary and informational nonfiction texts.

l) Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.



Adopted: 2017

BIG IDEAS

  • Authors sometimes use characters to symbolize qualities such as courage, malice, or love, so it is important to analyze characters to fully understand a story and its theme. (9.4e and 9.4b)
  • A reader's feelings about a story's characters influence how the plot in a story impacts the reader. (9.4e and 9.4b)
  • Because plots are interconnected series of events, every event has a specific purpose.  When all events are put together they establish connections, suggests causes, and show relationships. (9.4e and 9.4b)
  • Settings provide the underlying foundation of a story that gives a deeper meaning to the story as a whole. (9.4e and 9.4b)
  • Themes make revelations that are often stated as generalizations. (9.4e and 9.4b)
  • Beyond the surface level of events, authors write stories to convey a larger meaning or theme.  If a reader can't identify the theme, they are missing the overall point of the story. (9.4e and 9.4b)
  • An author's style is a reflection of his or her personality and beliefs. (9.4h and 9.4f)
  • Style includes elements such as syntax, diction, voice, and tone.  These elements can help readers make inferences and conclusions about a passage. (9.4h, k and 9.4f, i)
  • Style is a not a matter of right and wrong. (9.4h and 9.4f)
  • Genres in literature have defined forms, values, conventions and expectations.  Authors can create a variety of effects by sticking to or breaking away from these forms, values, conventions, or expectations. (9.4c and 9.4a)
  • Genres give authors structure on which to build text. (9.4c and 9.4a)
  • Predictions allow readers to connect prior knowledge to a text. (9.4l and 9.4j)
  • Making inferences is like being a detective.  Readers must use their prior knowledge to find the meanings behind what is written in a passage. (9.4l and 9.4j)
  • Rather than being explicit, writers sometimes imply a main idea or theme, and it is up to the reader to figure out the main idea or theme by inferencing and drawing conclusions. (9.4l and 9.4j)
  • The point of view of a story allows readers to participate in situations through the lens of the narrative or particular characters. (9.4e and 9.4b)
  • Point of view allows an author to determine the level of intimacy readers will have characters or the author. (9.4e and 9.4b)
  • Because the world is experienced using our five senses, the use of imagery allows readers to more realistically experience a text. (9.4f and 9.4d)
  • Word choice impact the meaning and emotional impact of text. (9.4f and 9.4d)
  • Rhyme, rhythm, and sound elements can bring attention to individual words and phrases as well as create an overall "feeling" or experience. (9.4f and 9.4d)
  • Sound effects in text can create either pleasant, melodic effects or jarring, discordant effects. (9.4f and 9.4d)
  • Repetitive sounds can help set an atmosphere for the reader. (9.4f and 9.4d)
  • Word choice, including attention to connotation as well as the use of figurative language, impacts the tone, imagery, voice, and mood of text. (9.4h, f, k and 9.4d, f,i)
  • Reading strategies are deliberate mental actions that allow readers to better comprehend and remember textual information. (9.4m and 9.4l)
  • Details included in literary nonficition and informational nonfiction may be the same factually but are presented in different formats and styles. (9.4k)
  • Works of literature are influenced by the political context in which they were written, the authors' personal perspectives, and the societies that framed the works. (9.4i and 9.4g)
  • Some ideas can't be clearly comprehended without considering the time in which the text was written. (9.4i and 9.4g)
  • Literature gives insight to the political, and philosophical ideas of particular cultures in particular historical contexts. (9.4i and 9.4g)
  • Themes often explore timeless and universal ideas, and these themes are often connected across different writing styles and genres. (9.4c)
  • When writing, authors make specific choices on elements to include.  There are specific terms tied to these choices that facilitate literary discussions and analysis. (9.4d)
  • Genres in literature have defined forms and conventions. (9.4j and 9.4h)
  • Genres come with codes, values, and expectations.  Authors can create a variety of effects by sticking to or breaking away from these generic expectations. (9.4j and 9.4h)
  • Understanding the elements associated with specific genres allows one to navigate more efficiently within a text. (9.4j and 9.4h)
  • When one learns to recognize and use genres, on builds the capacity to cope with new and unfamiliar texts. (9.4j and 9.4h)
  • UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    ·  Strategies for reading should be used to develop reading comprehension skills. Students will apply a process for reading as they analyze a variety of literature. They will study classical and contemporary selections that represent literary forms.

    ·  Students will enhance their understanding of the characteristics of various literary forms through the reading and analysis of a variety of genres, such as poetry, prose, essays, short stories, historical fiction, and narrative nonfiction.

    ·  Students will understand that literary texts can fulfill a social or cultural function depending on the time, location, and purpose of the author. For example, The Grapes of Wrath, which focuses on the plight of migrant farmers, affected the conscience of a nation and helped laws to change.

    ·  Students will understand that parallel plots are plots in which each main character has a separate but related story line that merges together (e.g., A Tale of Two Cities).

    ·  Students will read and analyze one-act and full-length plays.

    Students will use a variety of reading strategies such as text annotation, QAR (Question-, Answer Relationships), thinking aloud, etc.


    All students should

    • understand the relationship between an author’s style and literary effect
    • understand that analysis of a text should be based on text references, not personal opinion
    • understand an author’s use of figurative language creates images, sounds, and effects
    • understand how dramatic conventions impact a reader’s comprehension of a play and are often revealed through staging as well as through narration and dialogue
    • understand a character’s development throughout a text
    • understand how authors are often influenced by culture, society, or current events.

    ESSENTIALS

    All students should

    · understand an author’s use of figurative language to create images, sounds, and effects.

    · understand an author’s use of structuring techniques to present literary content.

    · understand the techniques an author uses to convey information about a character.

    · understand character types.

    · understand a character’s development throughout a text.

    · understand how authors are often influenced either consciously or unconsciously by the ideas, values, and location in which they live.

    · understand that an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work (e.g. how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare).

    understand that in dramatic works, setting, mood, characters, plot, and theme are often revealed through staging as well as through narration and dialogue.

    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    ·  identify main idea, purpose, and supporting details.

    ·  provide a summary of the text.

    ·  identify the differing characteristics that distinguish literary forms, including:
    °  narrative – short story, anecdote, character sketch, fable, legend, myth, tall tale, allegory, novel;
    poetry – epic, ballad, sonnet, lyric, elegy, ode;
    °  drama – comedy, tragedy;
    °  essay – editorial, journal/diary entry, informative/explanatory essay, analytical essay, speech; and
    °  narrative nonfiction – biographies, autobiographies, personal essays.

    ·  identify and analyze elements of dramatic literature:
    °  dramatic structure: exposition/initiating event, rising action, complication/conflict, climax, falling action, resolution/denouement (conclusion/resolution);
    °  monologue;
    °  soliloquy;
    °  dialogue;
    °  aside;
    °  dialect; and
    °  stage directions.

    ·  describe how stage directions help the reader understand a play’s setting, mood, characters, plot, and theme.

    ·  compare and contrast the representation of a subject or a key scene in two different media and analyze what is emphasized in each.

    ·  explain the relationships among the elements of literature, such as:
    °  protagonist and other characters;
    °  plot;
    °  setting;
    °  tone;
    °  point of view – first person, third person limited, third person omniscient;
    °  theme;
    °  speaker; and
    °  narrator.

    ·  analyze the techniques used by an author to convey information about a character.

    ·  analyze character types, including:
    °  dynamic/round character;
    °  static/flat character; and
    °  stereotype and caricature.

    ·  analyze how authors create multilayered characters through the use of literary devices:  indirect and direct methods of characterization, character’s actions, interactions with other characters, dialogue, physical appearance, and thoughts.

    ·  analyze how characters with multiple or conflicting motivations develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop theme.

    ·  analyze how the plot structures (conflict, resolution, climax, and subplots) advance the action in literature,

    ·  determine a theme of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text.

    ·  compare and contrast types of figurative language and other literary devices such as:
    °  simile;
    °  metaphor;
    °  personification;
    °  analogy;
    °  symbolism;
    °  apostrophe;
    °  allusion;
    °  imagery;
    °  paradox; and
    °  oxymoron.

    ·  identify sound devices, including:
    °  rhyme (approximate, end, slant)
    °  rhythm;
    °  repetition;
    °  alliteration;
    °  assonance;
    °  consonance;
    °  onomatopoeia; and
    °  parallelism.

    ·  identify and analyze an author’s presentation of literary content by the use of structuring techniques, such as:
    °  dialogue;
    °  foreshadowing;
    °  parallel plots;
    °  subplots and multiple story lines;
    °  flashback;
    °  soliloquy;
    °  verse;
    °  refrain; and
    °  stanza forms

    -  couplet
    -  quatrain
    -  sestet
    -  octet (octave).

    ·  identify and analyze an author’s use of diction (word choice) and syntax to convey ideas and content, including:
    °  rhetorical question;
    °  cliché;
    °  connotation;
    °  denotation;
    °  hyperbole;
    °  understatement;
    °  irony;

    -  dramatic
    -  situational
    -  verbal

    °  dialect; and
    °  pun.


    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • read paired passages/read across texts to examine author’s word choice, theme development, point of view, etc.
    • identify the differing characteristics that distinguish literary forms, including, but not limited to,
      • narrative allegory
      • epic poetry
      • drama
      • analytical essay,
      • literary nonfiction
      • personal essays
    • identify and analyze elements of dramatic literature
      • dramatic structure (i.e., exposition/initiating event, rising action, complication/conflict, climax, falling action, resolution/denouement [conclusion/resolution])
      • monologue
      • soliloquy
      • dialogue
      • aside
      • dialect
      • stage directions
    • describe how stage directions help the reader understand a play’s setting, mood, characters, plot, and theme
    • explain the relationships among the elements of literature, including, but not limited to,
      • protagonist/antagonist and other characters
      • plot
      • setting
      • tone
      • point of view (e.g., first person, third-person limited, third-person omniscient)
      • theme
      • speaker and narrator
    • analyze the techniques used by an author to convey information about a character
    • analyze character types, including dynamic/round character, static/flat character, and stereotype
    • analyze how authors create multilayered characters through the use of literary devices
      • indirect and direct methods of characterization
      • character’s actions
      • interactions with other characters
      • dialogue
      • physical appearance
      • thoughts
    • analyze how characters with multiple or conflicting motivations develop over the course of a text and advance the plot or develop theme
    • analyze how the plot structures advance the action in literature
    • determine a theme of a text and analyze its development
    • compare and contrast types of figurative language and other literary devices, including, but not limited to,
      • simile
      • metaphor
      • personification
      • analogy
      • symbolism
      • apostrophe
      • allusion
      • imagery
      • paradox
      • oxymoron
    • identify and analyze sound devices, including, but not limited to,
      • rhyme (approximate, end, slant)
      • rhythm
      • repetition
      • alliteration
      • assonance
      • consonance
      • onomatopoeia
      • parallelism
    • identify and analyze an author’s presentation of literary content by the use of structuring techniques, such as parallel plots, subplots and multiple story lines
    • analyze an author’s use of diction and syntax to convey ideas and content, including, but not limited to,
      • rhetorical question
      • cliché
      • connotation
      • denotation
      • hyperbole
      • understatement
      • overstatement
      • irony (dramatic, situational, verbal)
      • dialect
      • pun
    • compare  and contrast two or more texts on the same topic or with similar themes
    • use evidence from the text(s) for support when drawing conclusions, making inferences
    • analyze how an individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, and elaborated in a text (e.g., through examples or anecdotes
    • demonstrate comprehension and apply strategies to write about what is read.

    KEY VOCABULARY

    literary forms (narrative; poetry; drama; essay; narrative nonfiction)

    narrative (short story; anecdote; character sketch; fable; legend; myth; tall tale; allegory; novel)

    poetry (epic; ballad; sonnet; lyric; elegy; ode)

    drama (comedy; tragedy)

    essay (editorial; journal/diary entry; informative/explanatory essay; analytical essay; speech)

    narrative nonfiction (biographies; autobiographies; personal essays)

    dramatic structure (exposition/initiating event; rising action; complication/conflict; climax; falling action; resolution/denouement/conclusion/resolution); monologue; soliloquy; dialogue; aside; dialect; stage directions

    figurative language/literary devices (simile; metaphor; personification; analogy; symbolism; apostrophe; allusion; imagery; paradox; oxymoron)

    character types (dynamic/round character; static/flat character; stereotype and caricature)

    structuring techniques (dialogue; foreshadowing; parallel plots; subplots and multiple story lines; flashback; soliloquy; verse; refrain; stanza forms; couplet; quatrain; sestet; octet (octave))

    sound devices (rhyme approximate ( end, slant); rhythm; repetition; alliteration; assonance; consonance; onomatopoeia; parallelism)

     rhetorical question; cliché; connotation; denotation; hyperbole; understatement; irony(dramatic; situational; verbal); dialect; pun

    Allegory

    Alliteration

    Allusion

    Analogy

    Analytic essay

    Analyze

    Anecdote

    Antagonist

    Apostrophe

    Approximate rhyme

    Aside

    Assonance

    Cliche

    Climax

    Compare and contrast

    Complication/conflict

    Conclusion

    Connotation

    Consonance
    Updated: Jun 08, 2018

    The student will read and analyze a variety of nonfiction texts.

    a) Recognize an author’s intended purpose for writing and identify the main idea.

    b) Summarize text relating supporting details.

    c) Understand the purpose of text structures and use those features to locate information and gain meaning from texts.

    d)  Identify characteristics of expository, technical, and persuasive texts.

    e)  Identify a position/argument to be confirmed, disproved, or modified.

    f)  Evaluate clarity and accuracy of information.

    g) Analyze and synthesize information in order to solve problems, answer questions, or complete a task.

    h)  Draw conclusions and make inferences on explicit and implied information using textual support as evidence.

    i)  Differentiate between fact and opinion.

    j)  Organize and synthesize information from sources for use in written and oral presentations.

    k) Use the reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.


    The student will read and analyze a variety of nonfiction texts.

    a) Apply knowledge of text features and organizational patterns to understand, analyze, and gain meaning from texts.

    b) Make inferences and draw conclusions based on explicit and implied information using evidence from text as support.

    c) Analyze author’s qualifications, viewpoint, and impact.

    d) Recognize an author’s intended purpose for writing and identify the main idea.

    e) Summarize, paraphrase, and synthesize ideas, while maintaining meaning and logical sequence of events within and between texts.

    f) Identify characteristics of expository, technical, and persuasive texts.

    g) Identify a position/argument to be confirmed, disproved, or modified.

    h) Evaluate clarity and accuracy of information

    i) Analyze, organize, and synthesize information to solve problems, answer questions, complete a task, or create a product.

    j) Differentiate between fact and opinion and evaluate impact of each.

    k) Analyze ideas within and between selections, providing textual evidence.

    l) Use the reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.



    Adopted: 2017

    BIG IDEAS

    • Comparing ideas found in multiple sources allows a writer to identify conflicting and consistent information and thus evaluate sources. (9.5f, g, j and 9.5h, i)
    • Determining the accuracy of factual information can help a reader judge the credibility of the author and provide clues to possible bias. (9.5f, g and 9.5h, i,)
    • Information found on the Internet is not regulated for accuracy, so it is important for users to evaluate the sources and the information. (9.5f,g and 9.5h, i)
    • The three broad categories of nonfiction text are persuasive, expository, and technical.  They are distinguished by the author's intent as well as how the author approaches the text. (9.5d and 9.5f)
    • The degree to which a reader will comprehend and/or support the main idea or proposition of a passage will depend on the details that are used to support the main idea or proposition. (9.5j)
    • Knowing the different between fact and opinion helps readers evaluate the reliability and usefulness of text. (9.5i and 9.5j)
    • Differentiating between facts and opinions helps readers determine what is to be believed and what is just someone's perspective.(9.5i and 9.5j)
    • Making inferences is like being a detective.  Readers must use their prior knowledge to find the meanings behind what is written in a passage. (9.5h and 9.5b)
    • Rather than being explicit, writers sometimes imply a main idea or theme, and it is up to the reader to figure out the main idea or theme by inferencing and drawing conclusions. (9.5h and 9.5b)
    • Understanding the qualifications of a writer, helps a reader evaluate the validity and usefulness of a text. (9.5j)
    • Collecting information from multiple sources allows a reader to identify conflicting and consistent information and thus evaluate the authenticity and validity of sources. (9.5j)
    • Synthesis allows a writer to gather information from various texts and reorganize and present that information to support a specific topic or thesis statement. (9.5j)
    • The position or argument of a writer affects how the writer shapes and develops ideas.  It drives the information included and word choices.  Try to view the topic through their eyes. (9.5e and 9.5g)
    • To identify and assess an argument one must identify the conclusion the writer wants the reader to draw as well as the premises used to support that conclusion. (9.5e and 9.5g)
    • Knowing the purpose for a piece of text helps a reader evaluate the text. (9.5a and 9.5d)
    • Purpose and intended audience can impact text structure and word choice. (9.5a and 9.5d)
    • To be able to summarize one must be able to identify the main idea of a passage. (9.5a and 9.5d)
    • The main idea is what a writer means or intends to imply.  It is the glue that holds all of the details together. (9.5a and 9.5d)
    • The degree to which a reader will comprehend and/or support the main idea or proposition of a passage will depend on the details that are used to support the main idea or proposition. (9.5b and 9.5e)
    • Being able to summarize allows one to discern the most important ideas and ignore irrelevant information. (9.5b and 9.5e)
    • Text structure is the overall organizational pattern of text; it provides a path to aid comprehension because authors use these structures to arrange and connect ideas. (9.5c and 9.5a)
    • Recognizing text structure aids reading comprehension by providing a scaffold for the text. (9.5c and 9.5a)
    • Viewpoint and purpose affect how authors shape and develop ideas.  It drives the information they include, the structure for writing they choose, and their word choices. (9.5c and 9.5a)
    • Knowing the purpose of different text features allows readers to decide where to look when they want to understand a text better. (9.5c and 9.5a)
    • Text features make a passage like a grocery store.  Readers can choose the "aisle" to go to for what they need. (9.5c and 9.5a)
    • Synthesis allows a writer to gather information from various texts and reorganize and present that information to support a specific topic or thesis statement. (9.5g and 9.5i)
    • Reading strategies are deliberate mential actions that allow readers to better comprehend and remember textual information. (9.5k and 9.5l)
    • The validity of information as well as what information is presented or omitted often reflects an author's qualifications and viewpoint as well as the intended impact of the writing.  (9.5c)
    • Strong arguments often rely on being able to successfully synthesize information from multiple sources in a way that is new and unique. (9.5e)
    • Determining the veracity and significance of information often involves analyzing information within and between texts. (9.5k)

    UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    ·  The intent of this standard is that students will read and analyze a variety of nonfiction, i.e., informational/factual prose materials.

    ·  Students will understand the purpose of text structures and use those features to locate information, such as: problem-solution, cause and effect, ordered sequence, definition or description with a list.

    ·  Students will understand before-, during-, and after-reading strategies.

    Students will use a variety of reading strategies such as text annotation, QAR (Question-Answer Relationship), thinking aloud, etc.


    All students should

    • understand that specialized vocabulary is vocabulary that is unique to a specific content, topic, or discipline
    • understand that text features are created purposefully, are an aid to comprehension, and should be used to locate information
    • understand that an author’s credentials and experiences contribute to his/her viewpoint
    • understand an author’s viewpoint refers to a bias or subjectivity toward the subject; a viewpoint can be positive or negative
    • understand that skilled readers of nonfiction texts and technical documents apply different reading strategies.

    ESSENTIALS

    All students should

    understand that specialized vocabulary is vocabulary that is unique to a specific content, topic, or discipline


    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    ·  identify and infer the main idea from a variety of complex informational text.

    ·  identify and summarize essential details that support the main idea of informational text.

    ·  analyze two or more texts with conflicting information on the same topic and identify how the texts disagree

    ·  identify an author’s position/argument within informational text.

    ·  evaluate the clarity and accuracy of information found in informational texts, such as manuals, textbooks, business letters, newspapers, etc.

    ·  make inferences and draw conclusions from complex informational text.

    ·  examine text structures to aid comprehension and analysis of complex, informational texts.


    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • identify and infer the main idea from a variety of complex informational text
    • organize and synthesize information from two texts, while maintaining the intended purpose of each original text
    • analyze two or more texts with conflicting information on the same topic and identify how the texts disagree
    • demonstrate the use of text features to locate information, including, but not limited to,
      • title page
      • bolded or highlighted words
      • index
      • graphics
      • charts
      • headings
    • analyze organizational patterns to aid comprehension, including, but not limited to,
      • cause and effect
      • comparison/contrast,
      • enumeration or listing
      • sequential or chronological
      • concept/definition
      • generalization
      • process
      • problem/solution
    • identify an author’s position/argument within informational text
    • evaluate the clarity and accuracy of information found in informational texts
    • make inferences and draw conclusions from complex informational text
    • demonstrate comprehension and apply strategies to write about what is read.

    Updated: Jun 12, 2018

    Writing

    The student will develop narrative, expository, and persuasive writings for a variety of audiences and purposes.

    a)  Generate, gather, and organize ideas for writing.

    b)  Plan and organize writing to address a specific audience and purpose.

    c)  Communicate clearly the purpose of the writing using a thesis statement where appropriate.

    d)  Write clear, varied sentences using specific vocabulary and information.

    e)  Elaborate ideas clearly through word choice and vivid description.

    f)  Arrange paragraphs into a logical progression.

    g)  Use transitions between paragraphs and ideas.

    h)  Revise writing for clarity of content, accuracy and depth of information. 

    i) Use computer technology to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish writing. 


    The student will write in a variety of forms to include expository, persuasive, reflective, and analytic, with an emphasis on persuasion and analysis.

    a) Engage in writing as a recursive process.

    b) Plan, organize, and write for a variety of audiences and purposes.

    c) Objectively introduce and develop topics, incorporating evidence and maintaining an organized structure and a formal style.

    d) Blend multiple forms of writing, including embedding a narrative to produce effective essays.

    e) Communicate clearly the purpose of the writing using a thesis statement.

    f) Compose a thesis for persuasive writing that advocates a position.

    g) Clearly state and defend a position, using reasons and evidence from credible sources as support.

    h) Identify counterclaims and provide counterarguments.

    i) Determine the best kind of evidence to use for a claim, and effectively use fact and opinion to support a position.

    j) Use textual evidence to compare and contrast multiple texts.

    k) Arrange paragraphs in a logical progression, using transitions between paragraphs and ideas.

    l) Revise writing for clarity of content, accuracy, and depth of information.


    Adopted: 2017

    BIG IDEAS

    • Knowing the purpose and audience for a piece of text not only helps writers know what to say but also how to say it. (9.6b and 9.6b)
    • The purpose and intended audience for a piece of text can impact the choice of text structure. (9.6b and 9.6b)
    • To effectively engage an intended audience, it is critical to use appropriate language and tone. (9.6b, e and 9.6b and c)
    • Prewriting makes the writing process more efficient. (9.6a, b and 9.6b)
    • Prewriting involves choosing a topic, considering purpose, identifying the audience, gathering information, and organizing ideas. (9.6a, b and 9.6b)
    • Prewriting provides a path for a writer to follow. (9.6a, b and 9.6b)
    • Writing should focus on a central idea around which details will be added. The central idea is the glue that holds the organization of the text together. (9.6c, d and 9.6e)
    • Knowing text structures, transition words, and text features allows writers to organize their thinking to match the structure needed for effective communication and comprehension. (9.6b, f and 9.6b, k)
    • Editing is proofreading text to correct errors in grammar and mechanics, whereas revising involves improvements in logic, clarity, flow, organization, and quality of evidence. (9.6h and 9.6l)
    • Rewriting allows one to learn how to write better as well as improving reading and analytical skills. (9.6h and 9.6l)
    • Revision is the opportunity to step back and re-envision text.  An author thinks about the goal of an essay and whether or not that goal was successfully accomplished. (9.6h and 9.6l)
    • Dividing an essay into multiple paragraphs creates an organization that helps readers understand a writer's intent and information.  This is particularly true when the paragraphs follow an established text structure. (9.6f and 9.6k)
    • A thesis statement controls the subject matter of an essay and states something significant. (9.6c and 9.6e)
    • Like the foundation of a building, a thesis statement or topic sentence provides a base on which all of an essay's ideas will be constructed. (9.6c and 9.6e)
    • Specific vocabulary helps create a writer's tone and enhances the purpose. (9.6d)
    • Selecting precise words and information helps increase the impact of a text on the audience. (9.6d)
    • It is important to select precise words and information for an intended audience. (9.6d)
    • Information to include in an essay should be reasons, descriptions, statistics, facts, examples, explanations, and comparisons to help readers learn more about the thesis statement or topic sentence. (9.6d)
    • Writing that is infused with a variety of sentence structure, including phrases and clauses, is more engaging that writing that lacks variety. (9.6d)
    • Using different types of sentence structure can help a writer emphasize specific words and ideas. (9.6d)
    • The degree to which a reader will comprehend and/or support the main idea or proposition of a passage will depend on the details that are used to support the main idea or proposition. (9.6d)
    • Technology can enhance the ability to research, collect, organize, evaluate, and communicate information. (9.6i)
    • Transitions provide logical connections between ideas in sentences and paragraphs. (9.6g and 9.6k)
    • Transition words can be used to show the relationship between ideas. (9.6g and 9.6k)
    • Word choice impacts tone, imagery, voice, and mood. (9.6e)
    • Word choice contributes to both meaning and emotional effect. (9.6e)
    • Rather than being linear, the process of writing is recursive where writers may jump between steps in the process and revisit previous steps as needed. (9.6a)
    • Objective writing focuses on evidence and facts and avoids being vague, prejudiced, or exaggerated.  Successful arguments are often written objectively. (9.6c, g, i)
    • The use of anecdotal narrative evidence to illustrate points is a powerful persuasive and argumentative tool. (9.6d)
    • Effective thesis statements not only introduce the topic of an essay but also indicate the writer's position related to the topic.  It thus provides focus for the reader. (9.6f)
    • Readers will question the quality of information that comes from unreliable sources, and will thus be less likely to seriously consider the writer's argument or position. (9.6g, i)
    • Addressing counterclaims allows writers to find common ground with more readers by acknowledging and refuting the position of the opposing side. (9.6h)
    • Opinions can be used effectively to support a position if factual evidence is also used to reinforce those opinions. (9.6i)
    • Evidence included in multiple texts about the same topic may vary based on the writers' purposes, points of view, or sources of information. (9.6j)

    UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    • Students will plan, compose, revise, and edit writing in a variety of forms and for a variety of audiences and purposes.
    • Writing will encompass narrative, expository, persuasive, and analytical forms.
    • Students develop as writers by participating in a process for writing — prewriting, organizing, composing, revising, editing, and publishing.
    • Students should have practice writing for shorter time frames as well as extended time frames.

    All students should

    • understand that writing requires a recursive process that includes planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing
    • understand that writing should be purposefully crafted, with attention to deliberate word choice, precise information, and vocabulary
    • understand that voice and tone must be developed with awareness of audience and purpose
    • recognize the importance of maintaining a formal style and objective tone in academic writing.

    ESSENTIALS

    All students should

    • understand that writing is a process.
    • understand the importance of audience, purpose and point of view when writing.
    • recognize the importance of maintaining a formal style and objective tone in academic writing.
    • understand that the function of a thesis statement is to focus on the purpose of writing.

    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • use prewriting strategies and organize writing.
    • plan and develop organized and focused written products that demonstrate their understanding of composing, written expression, and usage/mechanics and that reflect an appropriate audience and purpose.
    • demonstrate the purpose of writing as narrative, persuasive, expository, or analytical.
    • apply narrative techniques, such as dialogue, description, and pacing to develop experiences or characters.
    • write using a clear, focused thesis that addresses the purpose for writing.
    • provide an engaging introduction and a clear thesis statement that introduces the information presented.
    • write clear, varied sentences, and increase the use of embedded clauses.
    • use specific vocabulary and information.
    • use precise language to convey a vivid picture.
    • develop the topic with appropriate information, details, and examples.
    • arrange paragraphs into a logical progression using appropriate words or phrases to signal organizational pattern and transitions between ideas.
    revise writing for clarity, content, depth of information, and intended audience and purpose.
    • use computer technology to assist in the writing process.

    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • use prewriting strategies and organize writing
    • demonstrate the purpose of writing as narrative, persuasive, expository, reflective or analytical
    • write reflectively to explain and analyze a text, a presentation, an experience, a skill, or an event
    • recognize that three examples of reflective writing include:
      • technical— – which includes what worked or did not work and reasons why, problem-solving techniques, and theories that were used or tested
      • collaborative— – which is centered on team dynamics, how everyone worked together and why, and  worked or did not work and reasons why
      • individual—Focuses on questions such as, “What did I learn?” “How did I learn it?” and “What could I have done better?”
    • develop and apply embedded narrative techniques to enhance writing
    • create a thesis statement that focuses the essay, expresses the writer’s position in an argument, or explains the purpose of the essay
    • use embedded clauses for sentence variety
    • write persuasively, organizing reasons logically and effectively
    • analyze sources and determine the best information to support a position/argument
    • use credible, current research and expert opinions to support a position/argument
    • identify counterclaims and identify counterarguments that address those claims
    • compare/contrast and select evidence from multiple texts to strengthen a position/argument
    • select and use the organizational pattern(s) to effectively match the intended audience and purpose
    • revise writing for clarity, content, quality of information, and intended audience and purpose.

    Updated: Jun 12, 2018

    The student will self- and peer-edit writing for correct grammar, capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, and paragraphing.

    a)  Use and apply rules for the parts of a sentence, including subject/verb, direct/indirect object, and predicate nominative/predicate adjective, and coordinating conjunctions.

    b)  Use parallel structures across sentences and paragraphs.

    c)  Use appositives, main clauses, and subordinate clauses.

    d)  Use commas and semicolons to distinguish and divide main and subordinate clauses.

    e)  Distinguish between active and passive voice.

    f)  Proofread and edit writing for intended audience and purpose.


    The student will self- and peer-edit writing for capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, paragraphing, and Standard English.

    a) Use parallel structure across sentences and paragraphs.

    b) Use appositives, main clauses, and subordinate clauses.

    c) Use commas and semicolons to distinguish and divide main and subordinate clauses.

    d) Distinguish between active and passive voice.

    e) Use a variety of sentence structures to infuse sentence variety in writing.


    Adopted: 2017

    BIG IDEAS

    • Active voice allows a writer to emphasize the person or thing that performs an action, and passive voice allows the writer to emphasize the recipient of the action. (9.7e and 9.7d)
    • Active voice is more frequently used in nonscientific writing, and passive voice is often used in scientific writing. (9.7e and 9.7d)
    • Choosing the proper voice sets the tone for an author's writing. (9.7e and 9.7d)
    • Commas and semicolons both indicate audible pauses, but semicolons are slightly longer pauses than commas.  (9.7d and 9.7c)
    • Semicolons are stronger than commas but not as strong as periods. (9.7d and 9.7c)
    • Lack of parallel structure can disrupt the flow of a sentence, causing it to be grammatically unbalanced. (9.7b and 9.7a)
    • Aligning related ideas through parallel structure supports readability and clarity. (9.7b and 9.7a)
    • Parallelism shows two or more ideas have the same level of importance. (9.7b and 9.7a)
    • Use of appositives helps create variety within sentences. (9.7c and 9.7b)
    • Appositives give more information about nouns. (9.7c and 9.7b)
    • Different types of clauses serve different grammatical functions and can thus be used to make sentences more meaningful and effective. (9.7c and 9.7b)
    • The parts of speech are important because they show how words in sentences relate to each other. (9.7a)
    • The parts of speech are the building blocks of sentences.  Just like each part of a house has a different function in creating a sturdy building, each part of speech has a different function in creating an effective sentence. (9.7a)
    • Coordinating conjunctions allow ideas of equal value to be joined. (9.7a)
    • The subject-verb pair unifies a sentence.  It can be surrounded by modifiers, phrases, and clauses, but it will still be the basic unit. (9.7a)
    • Subjects and verbs need to agree in number since they are units that hold the overall meaning in sentences. (9.7a)
    • Mixing up direct and indirect objects can affect the structure of a sentence and cause confusion. (9.7a)
    • Adjectives allow writers to indicate the positives and negatives about people, places, things, and concepts. (9.7a)
    • Adjective need to be correctly within sentences so that it is clear what they are modifying. (9.7a)
    • Editing is proofreading text to correct errors in grammar and mechanics. (9.7f)
    • Revision is the opportunity to step back and re-envision a text.  An author thinks about the goals of an essay and whether or not those goals were successfully accomplished. (9.7f)
    • Varying the types of sentences used in a text not only makes the writing less boring but can also be used effectively to emphasize ideas. (9.7e)

    UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    • Students will focus on editing and the application of grammatical conventions in writing.
    • Students will understand that parallel structure means using the same grammatical form to express equal or parallel ideas.
    • Students will understand that a main clause is an independent clause that expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence.
    • Students will understand that a subordinate clause is a dependent clause and does not express a complete thought.
    • Students will understand rules for commas and semicolons when dividing main and subordinate clauses.
    • Students will differentiate between active and passive voice, knowing when it is appropriate to use each in their writing.
    • Students will use verbs in the conditional and subjunctive form to achieve particular effects.
    All students should understand that grammatical and syntactical choices convey a writer’s message.

    ESSENTIALS

    All students should

    • understand that grammatical and syntactical choices convey a writer’s message.
    • recognize that active voice means that the subject of a verb performs the action and passive voice means that the subject of a verb receives the action.
    • write using various types of phrases (noun, verb, adjectival, adverbial, participial, prepositional, absolute) and clauses (independent, dependent; noun, relative, adverbial) to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations.
    • demonstrate an understanding of dependent clauses, independent clauses, and a variety of phrases to show sentence variety.

    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • apply rules for sentence development, including:
      • subject/verb;
      • direct object;
      • indirect object;
      • predicate nominative; and
      • predicate adjective.
    • identify and appropriately use coordinating conjunctions: for, and,
    • nor, but, or, yet, and so (FANBOYS).
    • use parallel structure when:
      • linking coordinate ideas;
      • comparing or contrasting ideas; and
      • linking ideas with correlative conjunctions:
        • both…and
        • either…or
        • neither…nor
        • not only…but also.
    • use appositives.
    • distinguish and divide main and subordinate clauses, using commas and semicolons.
    • use a semicolon, or a conjunctive adverb to link two or more
    • closely related independent clauses.
    • differentiate between active and passive voice to create a desired effect.
    • proofread and edit writing.

    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • differentiate between active and passive voice
    • use parallel structure to link coordinate ideas, compare/contrast ideas, and link ideas with correlative conjunctions
    • use appositives
    • distinguish and divide main and subordinate clauses, using commas and semicolons
    • use a semicolon or a conjunctive adverb to link two or more closely-related independent clauses.

    KEY VOCABULARY

    main clause/independent clause; subordinate clause/dependent clause; parallel structure; coordinating conjunctions; appositives; sentence development (subject/verb; direct object; indirect object; predicate nominative; predicate adjective)

    Active voice

    Appositive

    Compare and contrast

    Coordinate ideas

    Correlative conjuction

    Differentiate

    Distinguish

    Editing

    Independent clause

    Infuse

    Main clause

    Parallel structure

    Passive voice

    Standard English

    Syntactical


    Updated: Jun 14, 2018

    Research

    The student will use print, electronic databases, online resources, and other media to access information to create a research product.

    a)  Use technology as a tool for research to organize, evaluate, and communicate information.

    b)  Narrow the focus of a search. 

    c)  Find, evaluate, and select appropriate sources to access information and answer questions.

    d)  Verify the validity and accuracy of all information.

    e)  Make sense of information gathered from diverse sources by identifying misconceptions, main and supporting ideas, conflicting information, point of view or bias.

    f)  Credit the sources of quoted, paraphrased, and summarized ideas.

    g) Cite sources of information using a standard method of documentation such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA).

    h)  Define the meaning and consequences of plagiarism and follow ethical and legal guidelines for gathering and using information.


    The student will find, evaluate, and select credible resources to create a research product.

    a) Verify the validity and accuracy of all information.

    b) Analyze information gathered from diverse sources by identifying misconceptions, main and supporting ideas, conflicting information, point of view, or bias.

    c) Evaluate and select evidence from a variety of sources to support claims and introduce counterclaims.

    d) Cite sources for both quoted and paraphrased information using a standard method of documentation such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA).

    e) Avoid plagiarism by using own words and follow ethical and legal guidelines for gathering and using information.

    f) Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet.


    Adopted: 2017

    BIG IDEAS

    • Plagiarism deprives the original author of due credit for his or her work; it is a form of intellectual theft. (9.8f, g, h and 9.8d, e)
    • It is important to properly cite the words and ideas of others. (9.8f, g, h and 9.8d, e)
    • Citing sources allows one to acknowledge the contributions of others. (9.8f, g, h and 9.8d,e)
    • Citations provide a way for others to locate the sources a writer used. (9.8f, g, h and 9.8d, e)
    • Citations provide evidence of research. (9.8f, g, h and 9.8d,e)
    • The consistency of the MLA and APA formats for writing citations makes it clear to readers what sources were used for an essay and how those sources can be located. (9.8g and 9.8d)
    • Knowing the purpose for a text helps readers evaluate the validity of the text. (9.8c, d, e and 9.8a, b, c)
    • Understanding the qualifications of a writer, helps a reader evaluate the validity and usefulness of a text. (9.8c, d, e and 9.8a, b, c)
    • Viewpoint and purpose affect how an author shapes and develops ideas.  It drives the information that is included and word choices.  Viewing the topic through the author's eyes aids the reader in evaluating a text. (9.8c, d, e and 9.8a, b, c)
    • Collecting information from multiple sources allows a reader to identify conflicting and consistent information and thus evaluate the authenticity and validity of sources. (9.8c, d, e and 9.8a, b, c)
    • Comparing and contrasting viewpoints on a topic gives a reader a more comprehensive view of a topic. (9.8c, d, e and 9.8a, b, c)
    • Technology can enhance the ability to research, collect, organize, synthesize, evaluate, share, and present information. (9.8a and 9.8f)
    • Synthesis allows a writer to gather information from various texts and reorganize and present that information to support a specific topic or thesis statement. (9.8a, c and 9.8c)
    • Determining the accuracy of factual information can help a reader judge the credibility of the author and provides clues to possible bias. (9.8c, d, e and 9.8a, b, c)
    • To make it feasible to fully support a position, it is important for a writer to ensure that a topic is not too broad. (9.8b)
    • When a topic is too broad, the information found in conducting research is often too general to provide a clear framework and support. (9.8b)
    • Using the Internet ethically involves avoiding stealing (plagiarism), avoiding untruthfulness, and avoiding cruelty. (9.8f)
    • An audience is more likely to accept a presenter's proposition or argument if the presenter has identified and addressed opposing perspectives. (9.8c)
    • Use of a style guide such as MLA or APA allows for uniformity in style and formatting within a document and across multiple documents. (9.8g and 9.8d)
    • Addressing counterclaims allows writers to find common ground with more readers by acknowledging and refuting the position of the opposing side. (9.8c)

    UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

    ·  Students will acquire skills in evaluating both print and electronic resources.

    ·  Students will become adept at embedding information accessed electronically in a research document.

    ·  Students will differentiate their original thoughts and ideas from the thoughts and ideas of others.

    ·  Students will distinguish common knowledge from information that is unique to a source or author.

    ·  Students will use a standard style method, such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA), to cite sources. 


    All students should

    • understand the format for citing sources of information
    • understand that using a standard form of documentation legally protects the intellectual property of writers
    • understand that using multiple sources of information produces a more complete understanding of a topic
    • understand that plagiarism is the act of presenting someone else’s work as one’s own
    • understand to avoid plagiarism, credit must be given when using another person’s ideas, opinions, facts, statistics, or graphics
    • understand the purposeful and responsible use of the Internet
    • understand the importance of evaluating the intent of the author, which may include misinformation, bias, and unsupported assertions.
    • understand that there are consequences of plagiarism according to the guidelines established by local school divisions and the law.
    • understand the ethical issues and responsibility of documentation in research.

    ESSENTIALS

    All students should

    · understand the format for citing sources of information.

    understand that using a standard form of documentation legally protects the intellectual property of writers.


    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    ·  use Internet resources, electronic databases, and other technology to access, organize, and present information.

    ·  focus the topic by :

    °  identifying audience;

    °  identifying purpose;

    °  identifying useful search terms; and

    °  combining search terms effectively.

    ·  scan research information and select resources based upon reliability, accuracy, and relevance to the purpose of the research.

    ·  differentiate between reliable and unreliable resources.

    ·  question the validity and accuracy of information:

    °  Who is the author or sponsor of the page?

    °  Are there obvious reasons for bias?

    °  Is contact information provided?

    °  Is there a copyright symbol on the page?

    °  What is the purpose of the page?

    °  Is the information on the page primary or secondary?

    °  Is the information current?

    °  Can the information on the Web page be verified?

    ·  avoid plagiarism by:

    °  understanding that plagiarism is the act of presenting someone else’s ideas as one’s own;

    °  recognizing that one must correctly cite sources to give credit to the author of an original work;

    °  recognizing that sources of information must be cited even when the information has been paraphrased; and

    °  using quotation marks when someone else’s exact words are quoted.

    ·  distinguish one’s own ideas from information created or discovered by others.

    ·  use a style sheet, such as MLA or APA, to cite sources.


    To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

    • use resources to access, organize, and present information
    • focus the topic by
      • identifying audience
      • identifying purpose
      • combining search terms effectively
    • review research information and select resources based upon reliability, accuracy, and relevance to the purpose of the research
    • differentiate between reliable and unreliable resources
    • question the validity and credibility of information
      • Is the source free from bias?  Does the writer have something to gain from his opinion?
      • What is the purpose of the page?
      • Is the information current?
      • Can the information on the web page be verified?
      • Does the information contain facts for support?
    • avoid plagiarism by
      • recognizing that one must correctly cite sources to give credit to the author, illustrator, or creator of an original work
      • recognizing that sources of information must be cited even when the information has been paraphrased
      • using quotation marks when someone else’s exact words are quoted
    • use a current style sheet, such as MLA or APA, to cite sources.
    Updated: Jun 25, 2018