# 1.12 - Tables & Graphs

The student will

a)  collect, organize, and represent various forms of data using tables, picture graphs, and object graphs; and

b)  read and interpret data displayed in tables, picture graphs, and object graphs, using the vocabulary more, less, fewer, greater than, less than, and equal to.

### BIG IDEAS

• So that I can understand how data can be collected and presented in an organized manner.
• So that I realize that data gathered and analyzed from observations and surveys can have an impact on our everyday lives.
• So that I can  observe and display data about collections and patterns around me.

### UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

 Data are pieces of information collected about people or things. The primary purpose of collecting data is to answer questions. The primary purpose of interpreting data is to inform decisions (e.g., which type of clothing to pack for a vacation based on a weather graph or which type of lunch to serve based upon class favorites).After generating questions, students decide what information is needed and how it can be collected.The collection of the data often leads to new questions to be investigated.Data collection could involve voting, informal surveys, tallying, and charts (e.g., recording daily temperature, lunch count, attendance, favorite ice cream).Surveys, which are data-collecting tools that list choices, should have a limited number of questions at the primary grades.Tallying is a method for gathering information. Tally marks are used to show how often something happens or occurs. Each tally mark represents one occurrence. Tally marks are clustered into groups of five, with four vertical marks representing the first four occurrences and the fifth mark crossing the first four on a diagonal to represent the fifth occurrence.Picture graphs are graphs that use pictures to represent and compare information. At this level, each picture should represent one data point.Object graphs are graphs that use concrete materials to represent and compare the categorical data that are collected (e.g., cubes stacked by the month, with one cube representing the birthday month of each student).Tables are an orderly arrangement of data in columns and rows in an essentially rectangular format. Tables may be used to display some type of numerical relationship or organized lists.At this level, data gathered and displayed by students should be limited to 16 or fewer data points for no more than 4 categories.Students should have opportunities to interpret graphs, created with the assistance of the teacher, that contain data points where  their entire class is represented (e.g., tables that show who brought their lunch and who will buy their lunch for any given day, picture graph showing how students traveled to school – bus, car, walk).

### ESSENTIALS

The student will use problem solving, mathematical communication, mathematical reasoning, connections, and representations to

• Collect and organize data using various forms of data collection (e.g., counting and tallying, informal surveys, observations, voting).  Data points, collected by students, should be limited to 16 or fewer for no more than four categories. (a)
• Represent data in tables, picture graphs, and object graphs. (a)
• Analyze information displayed in tables, picture graphs, and object graphs (horizontally or vertically represented):
• Read the graph to determine the categories of data and the data as a whole (e.g., the total number of responses) and its parts (e.g., 15 people are wearing sneakers); and
• Interpret the data that represents numerical relationships, to include using the words more, less, fewer, greater than, less than, and equal to. (b)

### KEY VOCABULARY

Updated: Aug 22, 2018