Science - 2018-19

ES.6 a, d - Resources & Costs

The student will investigate and understand the differences between renewable and nonrenewable resources. Key concepts include
a) fossil fuels, minerals, rocks, water, and vegetation; and
d) environmental costs and benefits.

Bloom's Levels:  Analyze; Understand

Adopted: 2010


  • Minerals are essential materials for human life.

  • I can choose a method of heating my home based on cost and environmental impact.


  • Resources are limited and are either renewable or nonrenewable.
  • Modern living standards are supported by extensive use of both renewable and nonrenewable resources.
  • Extraction and use of any resource carries an environmental cost that must be weighed against economic benefit.
  • Renewable resources can be replaced by nature at a rate close to the rate at which they are used. Renewable resources include vegetation, sunlight, and surface water. 
  • Nonrenewable resources are replenished very slowly or not at all. Nonrenewable resources include coal, oil, and minerals. 
  • Fossil fuels are nonrenewable and may cause pollution, but they are relatively cheap and easy to use once they are extracted. 
  • Clean water resources, while renewable, are directly impacted by human activity through extraction and pollution.


In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students will

a)  analyze the formation of fossil fuels in terms of the rock cycle and Plate Tectonics Theory, and relate the formation of fossil fuels to ancient biologic and atmospheric conditions and changes and locations within Virginia.

     determine the sources of clean water in their community and analyze consumption and supply data.

d)  assess the role of fossil fuels and renewable energy sources in the future and compare and contrast the environmental benefits and costs among the various options.


carbonates, cleavage, definite chemical composition, double refractions, evaporites, fracture, gems, hardness, inorganic, luster, mineral, naturally occurring, ore, properties, silicates, solid, specific gravity, streak

Updated: May 30, 2018