# K.11 - Graphing and Data

The student will

a)  collect, organize, and represent data; and

b)  read and interpret data in object graphs, picture graphs, and tables.

### BIG IDEAS

• So I can see the big picture of choices our class makes by learning about how data can be shown in many ways:  charts, pictures and graphs
• So I can understand the ideas shown in graphs such as how my class votes

### UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

 Data are pieces of information collected about people or things. The primary purpose of collecting data is to answer questions.  The primary purpose of interpreting data is to inform decisions (e.g., which type of clothing to pack for a vacation based on a weather graph or which type of lunch to serve based upon class favorites).Methods for organizing data could include five or ten frames, surveys, checklists, or various methods of grouping concrete materials.At this level, data gathered and displayed by students should be limited to 16 or fewer data points for no more than four categories.Students should have opportunities to interpret graphs, created with the assistance of the teacher, that contain data points where  their entire class is represented (e.g., tables that show who brought their lunch and who will buy their lunch for any given day, a picture graph showing how students traveled to school – bus, car, walk).When data are presented in an organized manner, students can interpret and discuss the results and implications of their investigation (e.g., identifying parts of the data that have special characteristics, including categories with the greatest, the least, or the same number of responses).In the process of collecting data, students make decisions about what is relevant to their investigation (e.g., when collecting data on their classmates’ favorite pets, deciding to limit the categories to common pets).When students begin to collect data, they recognize the need to categorize, which helps develop the understanding of “things that go together.” Categorical data are used when constructing picturegraphs and bar graphs.Different types of representations emphasize different things about the same data.Object graphs are graphs that use concrete materials to represent the categorical data that are collected (e.g., cubes stacked by the month, with one cube representing the birthday month of each student).Picture graphs are graphs that use pictures to represent and compare information.  At this level, each picture should represent one data point.Tables are an orderly arrangement of data in columns and rows in an essentially rectangular format. Tables may be used to display numerical relationships or to organize lists.Students represent data to convey results of their investigations at a glance, using concrete objects, pictures, and numbers to give a “picture” of the organized data.Graphs can be used to make connections between mathematics and science or social studies (e.g., types of plants found in the school yard, how students get to school).Students should have experiences answering questions related to the analysis and interpretation of the characteristics of the data in the graph (e.g., similarities and differences, least and greatest, the categories, and total number of responses).

### ESSENTIALS

 The student will use problem solving, mathematical communication, mathematical reasoning, connections, and representations to Collect data on categories identified by the teacher and/or student (e.g., number of siblings, types/numbers of pets, types of flowers in the garden). Data points, collected by students, should be limited to 16 or fewer for no more than four categories. (a)Represent data by arranging concrete objects into organized groups to form a simple object graph. (a)Represent gathered data, using pictures to form a simple picture graph (e.g., a picture graph of the weather for a month). (a)Represent gathered data in tables (vertically or horizontally). (a)Answer questions related to the gathered data displayed in object graphs, picture graphs, and tables:Read the graph to determine the categories of data and the data as a whole (e.g., the total number of responses) and its parts (e.g., five people are wearing sneakers); andInterpret the data that represents numerical relationships, including categories with the greatest, the least, or the same. (b)

### KEY VOCABULARY

Updated: Aug 22, 2018