Science - 2018-19

CH.6 - Organic Chemistry

The student will investigate and understand how basic chemical properties relate to organic chemistry and biochemistry. Key concepts include
a) unique properties of carbon that allow multi-carbon compounds; and
b) uses in pharmaceuticals and genetics, petrochemicals, plastics and food.

Bloom's Levels:  Analyze; Understand

Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • Organic compounds contain carbon, which can bond to itself and form long chains.
  • Organic compounds are present in all living things.

  • I can why graphite (pencil lead) and diamonds look different but are made from the same things.
  • I can treat a cold or other illness with the right medicine.

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The bonding characteristics of carbon contribute to its stability and allow it to be the foundation of organic molecules. These characteristics result in the formation of a large variety of structures such as DNA, RNA and amino acids.
  • Carbon-based compounds include simple hydrocarbons, small carbon-containing molecules with functional groups, complex polymers, and biological molecules. 
  • Petrochemicals contain hydrocarbons, including propane, butane, and octane.
  • There is a close relationship between the properties and structure of organic molecules.
  • Common pharmaceuticals that are organic compounds include aspirin, vitamins, and insulin.
  • Small molecules link to make large molecules called polymers that have combinations with repetitive subunits. Natural polymers include proteins and nucleic acids. Human-made (synthetic) polymers include polythene, nylon and Kevlar.

ESSENTIALS

In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students will

a)  describe how saturation affects shape and reactivity of carbon compounds.

     draw Lewis dot structures, identify geometries, and describe polarities of the following molecules: CH4, C2H6, C2H4, C2H2, CH3CH2OH, CH2O, C6H6, CH3COOH.

b)  recognize that organic compounds play a role in natural and synthetic pharmaceuticals.

     recognize that nucleic acids and proteins are important natural polymers.

     recognize that plastics formed from petrochemicals are organic compounds that consist of long chains of carbons.

     conduct a lab that exemplifies the versatility and importance of organic compounds (e.g., aspirin, an ester, a polymer).


KEY VOCABULARY

alkane, cyclic hydrocarbon, cycloalkane, parent chain, substituent group, hydrocarbon, organic compound, saturated hydrocarbon, unsaturated hydrocarbon, alkene, alkyne, geometric isomer, isomer, optical isomer, optical rotation, stereoisomer, structural isomer, aromatic hydrocarbons.

Updated: Nov 19, 2017