Science - 2018-19

CH.3 e-f - Kinetics & Equilibrium

The student will investigate and understand how conservation of energy and matter is expressed in chemical formulas and balanced equations. Key concepts include:
e) reaction types;
f) reaction rates, kinetics, and equilibrium. 

Bloom's Levels:  Analyze; Understand

Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • Matter can be neither created nor destroyed.
  • Chemical bonding occurs as a result of attractive forces between particles.

  • I can create new compounds.
  • I can explain how laundry detergent works as a catalyst.

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • Major types of chemical reactions are:
    • synthesis (A+B --> AB)
    • decomposition (BC --> B+C)
    • single replacement (A+BC --> B+AC)
    • double replacement (AC+BD --> AD+BC)
    • neutralization (HX+MOH --> H2O+MX)
    • combustion (CxHy+O2 --> CO2+H2O)
  • Kinetics is the study of reaction rates. Several factors affect reaction rates, including temperature, concentration, surface area, and the presence of a catalyst.
  • Reaction rates/kinetics are affected by activation energy, catalysis, and the degree of randomness (entropy). Catalysts decrease the amount of activation energy needed.
  • Chemical reactions are exothermic reactions (heat producing) and endothermic reactions (heat absorbing).
  • Reactions occurring in both forward and reverse directions are reversible. Reversible reactions can reach a state of equilibrium, where the reation rates of both the forward and reverse reactions are constant. Le Chatelier's Principle indicates the qualitative prediction of direction of change with temperature, pressure, and concentration.

ESSENTIALS

In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students will

e)  classify types of chemical reactions as synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, double replacement, neutralization, and/or combustion.

f)  recognize that there is a natural tendency for systems to move in a direction of randomness (entropy).

     recognize equations for redox reactions and neutralization reactions.

     distinguish between an endothermic and exothermic process.

     interpret reaction rate diagrams.

     identify and explain the effect the following factors have on the rate of a chemical reaction: catalyst, temperature, concentration, size of particles.

     distinguish between irreversible reactions and those at equilibrium.

     predict the shift in equilibrium when a system is subjected to a stress (Le Chatelier’s Principle) and identify the factors that can cause a shift in equilibrium (temperature, pressure, and concentration).


KEY VOCABULARY

calorie, calorimeter, chemical potential energy, energy, enthalpy, enthalpy of combustion, enthalpy of reaction, entropy, free energy, heat, Hess's law, joule, law of conservation of energy, law of disorder, molar enthalpy of fusion, molar enthalpy of vaporization, specific heat, spontaneous process, standard enthalpy of formation, surrounding,s system, themochemical equation, thermochemistry, universe


Updated: Nov 19, 2017