Science - 2018-19

LS.2 a-c - Cells: Structure & Development

The student will investigate and understand that all living things are composed of cells. Key concepts include

a) cell structure and organelles;

b) similarities and differences between plant and animal cells; and

c) development of cell theory.

Bloom's Levels:  Analyze; Understand

Adopted: 2010


  • Organisms are diverse, yet share similar characteristics.

  • I can explain how life results from cell structure and function.
  • I can explain why people need plants to live.
  • I can explain I don't lose all of my skin despite shedding cells.


  • The structure of a cell organelle is suited to the function carried out by that organelle. Division of labor within a cell is essential to the overall successful function of the cell.
  • Similarities and differences in plants and animals are evident at the cellular level. Plant and animal cells contain some of the same organelles and some that differ. 
  • Cell theory includes the following components: all living things are composed of cells; cells are the smallest unit (structure) of living things that can perform the processes (functions) necessary for life; and living cells come only from other living cells. †
  • The development of cell theory can be attributed to the major discoveries of many notable scientists. The development of cell theory has been dependent upon improvements in the microscope technologies and microscopic techniques throughout the last four centuries. †
  • Continuing advances in microscopes and instrumentation have increased the understanding of cell organelles and their functions. Many of these organelles can now be observed with a microscope (light, electron).


In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students will

a)  distinguish among the following: cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, cell wall, vacuole, mitochondrion, endoplasmic reticulum, and chloroplast.

correlate the structures of cell organelles with their functions.

b)  compare and contrast examples of plant and animal cells, using the light microscope and images obtained from other microscopes.

c)  describe and sequence the major points in the development of the cell theory.

identify the three components of the original cell theory.


mitosis, meiosis, cell theory, cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, vacuole, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (smooth), endoplasmic reticulum (rough), chloroplast, lysosomes, Golgi bodies (apparatus), ribosomes, cell cycle, interphase, cytokinesis, cell plate

Updated: Nov 22, 2017