Science - 2018-19
LS.1 - Scientific Investigation & Measurement
The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science by planning and conducting investigations in which
a) data are organized into tables showing repeated trials and means;
b) a classification system is developed based on multiple attributes;
c) triple beam and electronic balances, thermometers, metric rulers, graduated cylinders, and probeware are used to gather data;
d) models and simulations are constructed and used to illustrate and explain phenomena;
e) sources of experimental error are identified;
f) dependent variables, independent variables, and constants are identified;
g) variables are controlled to test hypotheses and trials are repeated;
h) data are organized, communicated through graphical representation, interpreted, and used to make predictions;
i) patterns are identified in data and are interpreted and evaluated; and
j) current applications are used to reinforce life science concepts.
Bloom's Level: Apply
- Scientists use repeatable observations and testable ideas to understand and explain the world around us.
I can show how my video game scores have changed over time.
- I can determine if my luggage is too heavy for airline standards.
- I can draw a map of my neighborhood so that my friends can come over.
- I can tell if I baked cookies correctly.
- I can predict how the amount of sleep I get impacts how well I do in school.
- I can show how my video game scores have changed over time.
- I can identify what changes in my schedule had the greatest impact on my academic performance.
- I can use science to solve problems I encounter daily.
UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD
- The nature of science refers to the foundational concepts that govern the way scientists formulate explanations about the natural world. The nature of science includes the following concepts
- the natural world is understandable;
- science is based on evidence - both observational and experimental;
- science is a blend of logic and innovation;
- scientific ideas are durable yet subject to change as new data are collected;
- science is a complex social endeavor; and
- scientists try to remain objective and engage in peer review to help avoid bias.
- Expected results are reflected in the organization of a data table, which includes areas to record the number of repeated trials, levels of the independent variable, measured results for the dependent variable, and analysis of the results by calculation of mathematical means.
- Scientists create and apply classification systems to organize information and discern patterns.
- Appropriate tools and techniques are used to gather data during scientific investigations. Measurements are collected using the International System of Units (metric units) of measurement.
- Mental and physical models, including computer and other simulations, can be helpful in explaining events or sequences of events that occur. They can be used as part of scientific explanations to support data or represent phenomena, especially those that are not easily seen directly or must be inferred from data.
- Potential sources of error in the experimental design must be identified.
- To communicate the plan of an experiment accurately, the independent variable, dependent variable, and constants must be explicitly defined.
- To establish that the events of an experiment are the result of manipulating the independent variable, the experiment must be controlled by observing the effects without the application of the independent variable. The results can be compared with this standard or control. Not all experiments have a control.
- Multiple trials of an experiment must be conducted to verify the results.
- Analysis of observed results of systematic investigations includes construction and interpretation of graphs. Such interpretation can be used to make predictions about the behavior of the dependent variable in other situations and to explore potential sources of error in the experiment. This analysis can be used to support conclusions about the results of the investigation.
- Investigations can be classified as observational (descriptive) studies (intended to generate hypotheses), or experimental studies (intended to test hypotheses).
- Science concepts are applied through observations and connections with everyday life and technology.
In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students will
a) design a data table to organize all components of an investigation in a meaningful way.
b) develop and use a classification system that uses numerous attributes to organize information and discern patterns.
c) select and use appropriate tools and techniques for collecting qualitative and quantitative data in classroom and field investigations.
d) create and use mental and physical models (including simulations) as ways to visualize explanations of ideas and phenomena.
e) identify potential sources of error in the design of an experiment.
f, g) identify what is deliberately changed in the experiment and what is to be measured as the dependent variable.
h, i, j)make connections between the components of the nature of science and their investigations and the greater body of scientific knowledge and research.
evaluate the design of an experiment and the events that occur during an investigation to determine which factors may affect the results of the experiment. This requires students to examine the experimental procedure and decide where or if they have made mistakes.
scientific method, inquiry, hypothesis, independent variable, dependent variable, constants, controls, observational studies, investigational studies, metric system, gram, triple beam balance, meter, meter stick, liter, graduated cylinder, Celsius, thermometer