# 6.1 - Science Investigation & Measurement

The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science by planning and conducting investigations in which

a)  observations are made involving fine discrimination between similar objects and organisms;

b)  precise and approximate measurements are recorded;

c)  scale models are used to estimate distance, volume, and quantity;

d)  hypotheses are stated in ways that identify the independent and dependent variables;

e)  a method is devised to test the validity of predictions and inferences;

f)  one variable is manipulated over time, using many repeated trials;

g)  data are collected, recorded, analyzed, and reported using metric measurements and tools;

h)  data are analyzed and communicated through graphical representation;

i)  models and simulations are designed and used to illustrate and explain phenomena and systems; and

j)  current applications are used to reinforce science concepts.

Bloom's Level:  Apply

### BIG IDEAS

• Science strives to answer questions about the world around us through systematic observation and measurement.

• I can determine which plants are poisonous is nature.
• I can track my spending over a month.
• I can draw a map of my neighborhood so that my friends can come over.
• I can predict how the amount of sleep I get impacts how well I do in school.
• I can test if more sleep helps me do better in school.
• I can verify my results again and again to be sure that I am correct in my findings.
• I can compare the speed limits in the United States to those of countries in Europe.
• I can show how my video game scores have changed over time.
• I can show how the parts of a plant or other small objects in a way that I can see without a microscope.
• I can use science to solve problems I encounter daily.

### UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

The concepts developed in this standard include the following:

• The nature of science refers to the foundational concepts that govern the way scientists formulate explanations about the natural world. The nature of science includes the following concepts
1. the natural world is understandable;
2. science is based on evidence, both observational and experimental;
3. science is a blend of logic and innovation;
4. scientific ideas are durable yet subject to change as new data are collected;
5. science is a complex social endeavor; and
6. scientists try to remain objective and engage in peer review to help avoid bias.
• To communicate an observation accurately, one must provide critical details of exactly what is being observed. Using that information, students will be able to differentiate definitively between or among similar objects and/or organisms.
• Systematic investigations require accurate measurements; however, in the absence of precision tools, observers must record careful estimations.
• Scale models must maintain relative values of size and/or quantity in order to maintain the integrity of the object or topic being modeled.
• An experiment is a structured test of a hypothesis. A hypothesis is stated in terms of a testable relationship.
• A scientific prediction is a forecast about what may happen in some future situation. It is based on the application of scientific principle and factual information.
• An inference is an explanation based on observations and background knowledge. A conclusion is formulated from collected data. For example, one might observe darkly colored pond water and make the inference that it is polluted. However, only after data are collected can a conclusion be formulated.
• Patterns discerned from direct observations can be the basis for predictions or hypotheses that attempt to explain the mechanism responsible for the pattern.
• Accurate observations and evidence are necessary to draw realistic and plausible conclusions.
• In order to conduct an experiment, one must recognize all of the potential variables that can affect an outcome.
• In a scientific investigation, data should be collected, recorded, analyzed, and reported using appropriate metric measurement and tools.
• In a scientific investigation, data should be organized and communicated through appropriate graphical representation (graph, chart, table, and diagram).
• Models provide a way of visually representing abstract concepts. The use of models permits students to order events or processes.
• Science concepts are applied through observations and connections with everyday life and technology.

### ESSENTIALS

In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students will

a)  make observations that can be used to discriminate similar objects and organisms, paying attention to fine detail.

b)  make precise and consistent measurements and estimations.

c)  create approximate scale models to demonstrate an understanding of distance, volume, and quantity.

d)  differentiate between independent and dependent variables in a hypothesis.

e)  propose hypotheses or predictions from observed patterns.

analyze and judge the evidence, observations, scientific principles, and data used in making predictions and inferences.

f)  design an experiment in which one variable is manipulated over many trials.

g)  collect, record, analyze, and report data, using metric terminology and tools.

h)  analyze and communicate data, using graphs (bar, line, and circle), charts, and diagrams.

i)  design a model that explains a sequence, for example, the sequence of events involved in the formation of a cloud.

j)  make connections between the components of the nature of science and their investigations and the greater body of scientific knowledge and research.

compare and contrast predictions and inferences.

### KEY VOCABULARY

experiment, hypothesis, prediction, inference, independent variable, dependent variable, purpose, conclusion, dichotomous key, triple beam balance, graduated cylinder

Updated: Jun 29, 2018