# PS.4 a-b - Periodic Table

The student will investigate and understand the organization and use of the periodic table of elements to obtain information. Key concepts include

a) symbols, atomic number, atomic mass, chemical families (groups), and periods; and

b) classification of elements as metals, metalloids, and nonmetals.

Bloom's Levels:  Analyze; Understand

Adopted: 2010

### BIG IDEAS

• The periodic table provides information about the atoms of an element.
• Periodic trends of atoms allow for the prediction of physical and chemical properties.

• I can identify elements in a compound based on their symbols.
• I can describe the compounds in my food and drinks.

### UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

• There are more than 110 known elements. No element with an atomic number greater than 92 is found naturally in measurable quantities on Earth. The remaining elements are artificially produced in a laboratory setting. Elements combine in many ways to produce compounds that make up all other substances on Earth.
• The periodic table of elements is a tool used to organize information about the elements. Each box in the periodic table contains information about the structure of an element.
• An atom’s identity is directly related to the number of protons in its nucleus. This is the basis for the arrangement of atoms on the periodic table of elements.
• The vertical columns in the table are called groups or families. The horizontal rows are called periods.
• Elements in the same column (family) of the periodic table contain the same number of electrons in their outer energy levels. This gives rise to their similar properties and is the basis of periodicity — the repetitive pattern of properties such as boiling point across periods on the table.
• The periodic table of elements is an arrangement of elements according to atomic number and properties. The information can be used to predict chemical reactivity. The boxes for all of the elements are arranged in increasing order of atomic number. The elements have an increasing nonmetallic character as one reads from left to right across the table. Along the stair-step line are the metalloids, which have properties of both metals and nonmetals.
• The nonmetals are located to the right of the stair-step line on the periodic table.

### ESSENTIALS

In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students will

a) use the periodic table to obtain the following information about the atom of an element:

- symbol

- atomic number

- atomic mass

- state of matter at room temperature

- number of outer energy level (valence) electrons.

describe the organization of the periodic table in terms of

- atomic number

- metals, metalloids, and nonmetals

- groups/families vs. periods.

recognize that an atom’s identity is related to the number of protons in its nucleus.

b) categorize a given element as metal, nonmetal, or metalloid.

### KEY VOCABULARY

periodic table of elements, periods, ion, isotope, metals, nonmetals, compound, atomic number, atomic mass, ionic bond, covalent bond, metalloids, element, valence electrons, family

Updated: Jun 29, 2018