Science - 2018-19
5.5 - Cells and Classification
The student will investigate and understand that organisms are made of one or more cells and have distinguishing characteristics that play a vital role in the organism’s ability to survive and thrive in its environment. Key concepts include
a) basic cell structures and functions;
- draw, label, and describe the essential structures and functions of plant and animal cells (plants: nucleus, cell wall, cell membrane, vacuole, chloroplasts, and cytoplasm ; animals: nucleus, cell membrane, vacuole, and cytoplasm) Bloom's Level: Remember/Understand
- design an investigation to make observations of cell Bloom's Level: Create
- compare and contrast plant and animal cells Bloom's Level: Analyze
- identify their major parts and functions Bloom's Level: Remember
b) classification of organisms using physical characteristics, body structures, and behavior of the organism; and
c) traits of organisms that allow them to survive in their environment.
All living things are made of cells with different structures and functions.
UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD
- Living things are
made of cells. Cells carry out all life processes. New cells come from existing
cells. Cells are too small to be seen with the eye alone. By using a
microscope, many parts of a cell can be seen.
- Though plant and
animal cells are similar, they are also different in shape and in some of their
parts. Plant cells tend to be rectangular, while animal cells tend to be
spherical or at times irregular.
- Organisms that
share similar characteristics can be organized into groups in order to help
understand similarities and differences.
- Plants can be
categorized as vascular (having special tissues to transport food and water —
for example, trees and flowering plants) and nonvascular (not having tissues to
transport food and water — for example, moss, liverworts, and hornworts). Most
plants are vascular.
- Animals can be categorized as vertebrates (having backbones) or invertebrates (not having backbones).
· Why and how do scientists classify organisms into different categories?
· How are cells of different organisms alike and different?
· What are the functions of the basic animal and plant cell structures?
· How do specific traits of an organism allow it to survive in its environment?
In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students will
- draw, label, and
describe the essential structures and functions of plant and animal cells. For
plants, include the nucleus, cell wall, cell membrane, vacuole, chloroplasts,
and cytoplasm. For animals, include the nucleus, cell membrane, vacuole, and
- design an
investigation to make observations of cells.
- compare and
contrast plant and animal cells and identify their major parts and functions.
- group organisms
into categories, using their characteristics: plants (vascular and nonvascular)
and animals (vertebrates or invertebrates). Name and describe two common
examples of each group.
- compare and
contrast the distinguishing characteristics of groups of organisms.
- identify and
explain traits of organisms that allow them to survive in their environment.
animal - a living thing made of cells; feeds on matter; has specialized sense organs and nervous system; able to respond to stimuli
cell - basic unit of structure and function of all living things
cell membrane - found in plant and animal cells; control what enters and leaves the cell
cell wall - nonliving part of a plant cell; gives the cell its rectangular shape; also provides support
chloroplast - contains chlorophyll necessary for photosynthesis; found only in plant cells
classification - placing organisms into groups based on similar characteristics; plants are classified as vascular or nonvascular; animals are classified as vertebrates or invertebrates
cytoplasm - found in plant and animal cells; jelly-like fluid inside a cell
invertebrates - animals which do not have a backbone;examples include insects, jellyfish, worms and spiders
kingdom a classification category of the highest rank; grouping together all forms of life having certain fundamental characteristics in common; Animal and Plant are two examples
nonvascular plants - not have tissues to transport food and water; examples include moss, liverworts, and hornworts
nucleus - found in both plant and animal cells; control center of the cell
organism - a living thing
plant - made of cells rectangular in shape which are capable of photosynthesis
survive - the continued existence of organisms which are best adapted to their environment
trait - a feature or characteristic of an organism; examples include eye color, skin type, hair color, etc.
vacuole - found in plant and animal cells used to store food and water inside the cell
vascular plants - have special tissues to transport food and water; examples include trees and flowering plants;
vertebrates - animals which have backbones; include fish, amphibian, reptiles, birds and mammals