Science - 2018-19
5.4 - Matter
The student will investigate and understand that matter is anything that has mass and takes up space; and occurs as a solid, liquid, or gas. Key concepts include
a) distinguishing properties of each phase of matter;
- construct and interpret a sequence of models (diagrams) showing the activity of molecules in all three basic phases of matter Bloom's Level: Create / Analyze
b) the effect of temperature on the phases of matter;
- design an investigation to determine how a change in temperature affects the phases of matter; include ways information will be recorded, what measures will be made, what instruments will be used, and ways the data will be graphed Bloom's Level: Create
c) atoms and elements;
- construct and interpret models of atoms Bloom's Level: Create /Analyze
d) molecules and compounds; and
- construct and interpret
models of molecules Bloom's Level: Create /Analyze
- identify substances as being an element or a compound Bloom's Level: Remember
e) mixtures including solutions.
- compare and contrast
mixtures and solutions Bloom's Level: Analyze
Matter is anything that has mass, takes up space and occurs as a solid, liquid, or gas.
UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD
- Matter is anything that has mass and volume.
- Mass is the amount of matter in an object. The mass of an object does not change. (Weight of an object changes based on the gravitational pull on it. A person will have the same mass on Earth, Mars, and our moon. However, his or her weight on our moon will be 1/6 of what it is on Earth and will be 1/3 as much on Mars.)
- Matter can exist in several distinct forms which are called phases. The three basic phases of matter generally found on Earth are gas, liquid, and solid. (Though other phases of matter have been identified, these are the phases of matter that fifth-grade students are expected to know.)
Characteristics of Gases, Liquids, and Solids gas liquid solid Assumes the shape of its container Assumes the shape of its container Retains a fixed shape Assumes the volume of its container – no definite volume Has a definite volume Has a definite volume Compressible (lots of free space between particles) Not easily compressible (little free space between particles) Not easily compressible (little free space between particles) Flows easily (particles can move past one another) Flows easily (particles can move/slide past one another) Does not flow easily (rigid-particles cannot move/slide past one another)
As its temperature increases, many kinds of matter change from a solid to a liquid to a gas. As its temperature decreases, that matter changes from a gas to a liquid to a solid.
All matter, regardless of its size, shape, or color, is made of particles (atoms and molecules) that are too small to be seen by the unaided eye.
There are more than 100 known elements that make up all matter. A few of the more familiar elements include: hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), helium (He), carbon (C), sodium (Na), and potassium (K). The smallest part of an element is an atom.
A mixture is a combination of two or more substances that do not lose their identifying characteristics when combined. A solution is a mixture in which one substance dissolves in another.
When two or more elements combine to form a new substance, it is called a compound. There are many different types of compounds because atoms of elements combine in many different ways (and in different whole number ratios) to form different compounds. Examples include water (H2O) and table salt (NaCl). The smallest part of a compound is a molecule.
Nanotechnology is the study of materials at the molecular (atomic) scale. Items at this scale are so small they are no longer visible with the naked eye. Nanotechnology has shown that the behavior and properties of some substances at the nanoscale (a nanometer is one-billionth of a meter) contradict how they behave and what their properties are at the visible scale. Many products on the market today are already benefiting from nanotechnology such as sunscreens, scratch-resistant coatings, and medical procedures.
· How does the ability of elements to combine affect the world in which we live?
· How does heat affect the state of matter of a substance
· How do chemical and physical changes occur around you and how do they impact your daily life?
· How has the discovery of new elements impacted our lives throughout history?
· How are mixtures and solutions similar and different?
In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students will
- construct and
interpret a sequence of models (diagrams) showing the activity of molecules in
all three basic phases of matter.
- construct and
interpret models of atoms and molecules.
substances as being an element or a compound.
- design an
investigation to determine how a change in temperature affects the phases of
matter (e.g., water). Include in the design ways information will be recorded,
what measures will be made, what instruments will be used, and ways the data
will be graphed.
- compare and contrast mixtures and solutions.
atomic number - the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, which determines the chemical properties of an element and its place in the periodic table.
atomic mass - also called atomic weight; it is approximately equivalent to the number of protons and neutrons in the atom.
atom - the smallest unit of an element; composed of a nucleus (protons & neutrons) and electrons which orbit the nucleus
compound - when two or more elements combine to form a new substance; examples include water (H2O) and salt (NaCl)
condensation - the phase change which results from a gas changing into a liquid; usually caused by a decrease in temperature
density - the degree of compactness of a substance; a pound of sand is denser than a pound of feathers
dissolve - to become incorporated into a liquid (gas) so as to form a solution
electron - part of an atom which has a negative charge and orbits the nucleus
element - substance consisting of atoms; elements cannot be broken down
evaporation - the process of a liquid changing into a gas; usually accompanied by an increase in heat
freezing point - the temperature at which a liquid turns into a solid when cooled
gas - form of matter; takes shape of container, volume changes to fill the container, lots of free space between particles, flows easily; particles can move past one another
liquid - form of matter; takes shape of its container; has a definite volume, little space between particles, flows easily, particles can slide/move past one another
mass - is the amount of matter in an object; mass of an object does not change and is not affected by gravity; weight is affected by gravity; mass and weight are NOT the same
matter - anything that has mass and volume (takes up space)
melting point - the temperature at which a given solid will melt
mixture - combination of two or more substances that do not lose their identifying characteristics when combined; examples a salad, trail mix, air
molecule - a group of atoms bonded together, the smallest part of a compound
neutrons - found in the nucleus of an atom and has no charge
nucleus - center of an atom made of protons and neutrons and surrounded by electrons in orbits
periodic table - a table of the chemical elements arranged in order by their atomic number; usually in rows so that elements with similar atomic structure and similar chemical properties appear in vertical columns
phase of matter - the states in which matter can exist: solid, liquid or gas; when temperature changes, matter can undergo a phase change, shifting from one form to another
protons - found in the nucleus of an atom; have a positive charge
solid - a form of matter which has a definite shape and volume, very little space between particles and does not flow easily; particles cannot move/slide past one another
solution - is a mixture in which one substance dissolves in another; examples include instant coffee dissolved in water, sugar dissolved in tea, Kool-aid dissolved in water
substance - a particular kind of matter with uniform properties
suspension - occurs when the particles of a substance are mixed with a fluid but are undissolved
volume - the amount of space an object takes up