Science - 2018-19
4.8 - Earth, Moon and Sun
The student will investigate and understand the relationships among Earth, the moon, and the sun. Key concepts include
a) the motions of Earth, the moon, and the sun;
- differentiate between rotation and revolution Bloom's Level: Analyze
b) the causes for Earth’s seasons;
- describe how Earth's axial tilt causes the seasons Bloom's Level: Understand
c) the causes for the phases of the moon;
- model the formation of the eight moon phases Bloom's Level: Apply
- sequence the phases in order Bloom's Level: Analyze
- describe how the phases occur Bloom's Level: Understand
d) the relative size, position, age, and makeup of Earth, the moon, and the sun; and
- create and describe
a model of the Earth-moon-sun system with approximate scale distances and sizes Bloom's Level: Create/Understand
- compare and contrast the surface conditions of Earth, the moon, and the sun Bloom's Level: Analyze
e) historical contributions in understanding the Earth-moon-sun system.
- compare and contrast
an Earth-centered to the sun-centered model of the solar system Bloom's Level: Analyze
- analyze the differences in what Aristotle, Ptolemy, Copernicus,
and Galileo observed and what influenced their conclusions Bloom's Level: Analyze
- describe a contribution of the NASA Apollo missions to our
understanding of the moon Bloom's Level: Understand
There are integral relationships among the earth, moon and sun.
Humans use technology to explore space.
UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD
- Earth completes
one revolution around the sun every 365 ¼ days. The moon revolves around Earth
about once every month.
- Due to its axial
tilt, Earth experiences seasons during its revolution around the sun.
- The phases of the
moon are caused by its position relative to Earth and the sun. The phases of
the moon include the new, waxing crescent, first quarter, waxing gibbous, full,
waning gibbous, last (third) quarter, and waning crescent.
- The sun is an
average-sized yellow star, about 110 times the diameter of Earth. The sun is
approximately 4.6 billion years old.
- Our moon is a
small rocky satellite, having about one-quarter the diameter of Earth and
one-eightieth its mass. It has extremes of temperature, virtually no atmosphere
or life, and very little water.
- Earth is one of eight
planets that revolve around the sun and comprise the solar system. Earth, the
third planet from the sun, is one of the four terrestrial inner planets. It is
about 150 million kilometers from the sun.
- Earth is a
geologically active planet with a surface that is constantly changing. Unlike the
other three inner planets (Mercury, Venus, and Mars), it has large amounts of
life-supporting water and an oxygen-rich atmosphere. Earth’s protective
atmosphere blocks out most of the sun’s damaging rays.
- Our understanding
of the solar system has changed from an Earth-centered model of Aristotle and
Ptolemy to the sun-centered model of Copernicus and Galileo.
- The NASA Apollo
missions added greatly to our understanding of the moon.
- Our understanding
of the sun, moon, and the solar system continues to change with new scientific
· How do the physical properties of the sun and moon affect the Earth?
· Why does the moon look different at different times?
· Why do the movement and relative position of the Earth cause changes?
· What causes the seasons?
· How has our knowledge of the sun, earth, the planets, and the moon changed over time?
In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students will
between rotation and revolution.
- describe how
Earth’s axial tilt causes the seasons.
- model the
formation of the eight moon phases, sequence the phases in order, and describe
how the phases occur.
- describe the
major characteristics of the sun, including its approximate size, color, age,
and overall composition.
- create and
describe a model of the Earth-moon-sun system with approximate scale distances
- compare and
contrast the surface conditions of Earth, the moon, and the sun.
- compare and
contrast an Earth-centered to the sun-centered model of the solar system.
- analyze the
differences in what Aristotle, Ptolemy, Copernicus, and Galileo observed and
what influenced their conclusions.
- describe a contribution of the NASA Apollo
missions to our understanding of the moon.
Aristotle - Greek thinker whobelieved that the Earth stood still and the sun, planets, and stars moved around the Earth.
astronomer - someone who studies outer space
atmosphere - layer of invisible gas that wraps around the planet like a blanket
axial tilt - the amount the Earth is tilted in relation to the path of its orbit
Copernicus - one of the first people to argue that the Earth circled the sun
crescent - means less than half of the moon is visible
quarter moon - when half of the lighted surface is visible from Earth
full moon - when the part of the moon we see is fully illuminated
Galileo - used the telescope to study outer space; believed that Earth revolved around the sun
gibbous - we see more than half of the moon
mass - a measure of the amount of matter in an object
moon - a rocky, lifeless satellite; the temperatures at night are extremely cold and during the day extremely hot
moon phases - the different appearances of the moon as it orbits the Earth
NASA Apollo missions - American space missions which sent astronauts to the moon
new moon - appears dark; no light is reflected from the sun
orbit - the path an object makes as it revolves around another object
Ptolemy - came up with the idea that planets moved in small circles while orbiting Earth
revolution - a circular journey by one object around another
rocky satellite - something that orbits another object of a larger size
rotation - the spinning of a sphere around an axis
seasons - each of the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, fall, winter) marked by particular weather patterns and daylight hours, resulting from the earth's changing position with regard to the sun
star - a huge ball of gas held together by gravity; the sun is a star
Sun - is a star made of a vast ball of fiery gas; does not have a firm surface and is extremely hot; provides Earth with heat and light
telescopes - instruments the make distant objects appear nearer
waning - means we can see less and less of the moon
waxing - means we can see more and more of the moon