Science - 2018-19

4.8 - Earth, Moon and Sun

The student will investigate and understand the relationships among Earth, the moon, and the sun. Key concepts include

a)  the motions of Earth, the moon, and the sun;

  • differentiate between rotation and revolution Bloom's LevelAnalyze

b)  the causes for Earth’s seasons;

  • describe how Earth's axial tilt causes the seasons  Bloom's Level: Understand

c)  the causes for the phases of the moon;

  • model the formation of the eight moon phases Bloom's Level: Apply
  • sequence the phases in order  Bloom's Level: Analyze
  • describe how the phases occur Bloom's Level: Understand

d)  the relative size, position, age, and makeup of Earth, the moon, and the sun; and

  • create and describe a model of the Earth-moon-sun system with approximate scale distances and sizes Bloom's Level: Create/Understand
  • compare and contrast the surface conditions of Earth, the moon, and the sun  Bloom's Level: Analyze

e)  historical contributions in understanding the Earth-moon-sun system.

  • compare and contrast an Earth-centered to the sun-centered model of the solar system  Bloom's Level:  Analyze
  • analyze the differences in what Aristotle, Ptolemy, Copernicus, and Galileo observed and what influenced their conclusions Bloom's Level: Analyze
  • describe a contribution of the NASA Apollo missions to our understanding of the moon  Bloom's Level: Understand


Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

There are integral relationships among the earth, moon and sun.

Humans use technology to explore space.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • Earth completes one revolution around the sun every 365 ¼ days. The moon revolves around Earth about once every month.
  • Due to its axial tilt, Earth experiences seasons during its revolution around the sun.
  • The phases of the moon are caused by its position relative to Earth and the sun. The phases of the moon include the new, waxing crescent, first quarter, waxing gibbous, full, waning gibbous, last (third) quarter, and waning crescent.
  • The sun is an average-sized yellow star, about 110 times the diameter of Earth. The sun is approximately 4.6 billion years old.
  • Our moon is a small rocky satellite, having about one-quarter the diameter of Earth and one-eightieth its mass. It has extremes of temperature, virtually no atmosphere or life, and very little water.
  • Earth is one of eight planets that revolve around the sun and comprise the solar system. Earth, the third planet from the sun, is one of the four terrestrial inner planets. It is about 150 million kilometers from the sun.
  • Earth is a geologically active planet with a surface that is constantly changing. Unlike the other three inner planets (Mercury, Venus, and Mars), it has large amounts of life-supporting water and an oxygen-rich atmosphere. Earth’s protective atmosphere blocks out most of the sun’s damaging rays.
  • Our understanding of the solar system has changed from an Earth-centered model of Aristotle and Ptolemy to the sun-centered model of Copernicus and Galileo.
  • The NASA Apollo missions added greatly to our understanding of the moon.
  • Our understanding of the sun, moon, and the solar system continues to change with new scientific discoveries.


ESSENTIALS

Essential Questions:

·  How do the physical properties of the sun and moon affect the Earth?

·  Why does the moon look different at different times?

·  Why do the movement and relative position of the Earth cause changes?

·  What causes the seasons?

·  How has our knowledge of the sun, earth, the planets, and the moon changed over time?


In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students will

  • differentiate between rotation and revolution.
  • describe how Earth’s axial tilt causes the seasons.
  • model the formation of the eight moon phases, sequence the phases in order, and describe how the phases occur.
  • describe the major characteristics of the sun, including its approximate size, color, age, and overall composition.
  • create and describe a model of the Earth-moon-sun system with approximate scale distances and sizes.
  • compare and contrast the surface conditions of Earth, the moon, and the sun.
  • compare and contrast an Earth-centered to the sun-centered model of the solar system.
  • analyze the differences in what Aristotle, Ptolemy, Copernicus, and Galileo observed and what influenced their conclusions.
  • describe a contribution of the NASA Apollo missions to our understanding of the moon.

KEY VOCABULARY

Aristotle - Greek thinker whobelieved that the Earth stood still and the sun, planets, and stars moved around the Earth.

astronomer - someone who studies outer space

atmosphere - layer of invisible gas that wraps around the planet like a blanket

axial tilt - the amount the Earth is tilted in relation to the path of its orbit

Copernicus - one of the first people to argue that the Earth circled the sun

crescent  - means less than half of the moon is visible

quarter moon - when half of the lighted surface is visible from Earth

full moon - when the part of the moon we see is fully illuminated

Galileo - used the telescope to study outer space; believed that Earth revolved around the sun

gibbous - we see more than half of the moon

mass - a measure of the amount of matter in an object

moon - a rocky, lifeless satellite; the temperatures at night are extremely cold and during the day extremely hot

moon phases - the different appearances of the moon as it orbits the Earth

NASA Apollo missions - American space missions which sent astronauts to the moon

new moon  - appears dark; no light is reflected from the sun

orbit - the path an object makes as it revolves around another object

Ptolemy - came up with the idea that planets moved in small circles while orbiting Earth

revolution - a circular journey by one object around another

rocky satellite - something that orbits another object of a larger size

rotation - the spinning of a sphere around an axis

seasons - each of the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, fall, winter) marked by particular weather patterns and daylight hours, resulting from the earth's changing position with regard to the sun

star - a huge ball of gas held together by gravity; the sun is a star

Sun -  is a star made of a vast ball of fiery gas; does not have a firm surface and is extremely hot; provides Earth with heat and light

telescopes - instruments the make distant objects appear nearer

waning  - means we can see less and less of the moon

waxing  - means we can see more and more of the moon


Updated: May 20, 2016