Science - 2018-19

4.6 - Weather

The student will investigate and understand how weather conditions and phenomena occur and can be predicted. Key concepts include

a)  weather phenomena;

  • differentiate between the types of weather associated with high and low pressure air masses.  Bloom's Level: Analyze
  • illustrate and label high and low pressure air masses and warm and cold fronts  Bloom's Level: Create/ Understan)
  • illustrate and label high and low pressures on a map   Bloom's Level: Create/ Understand
  • differentiate between cloud types (cirrus, stratus, cumulus, cumulo-nimbus clouds) and the associated weather  Bloom's Level: Analyze
  • compare and contrast the formation of different types of precipitation (rain, snow, sleet, and hail)  Bloom's Level: Analyze
  • recognize a variety of storm types Bloom's Level:  Knowledge
  • describe the weather conditions associated with each storm type  Bloom's Level: Understand
  •  explain when storms occur (thunderstorms, hurricanes, tornadoes)   Bloom's Level:  Understand

b)  weather measurements and meteorological tools; and

  • design an investigation in which a thermometer is used to compare air temperatures over a period of time   Bloom's Level: Create
  • analyze the changes in air pressure occurring over time, using a barometer  Bloom's LevelAnalyze
  • predict what the changes mean in terms of changing weather patterns   Bloom's Level: Apply
  • measure wind speed, using an anemometer  Bloom's Level: Understand
  • measure precipitation with a rain gauge   Bloom's Level: Understand

c)  use of weather measurements and weather phenomena to make weather predictions.

  • analyze and report information about temperature and  precipitation on weather maps   Bloom's Level: Analyze
  • design an investigation in which weather data are gathered using meteorological tools and charted to make weather predictions   Bloom's Level: Create

Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

Weather conditions change and some changes are predictable.

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • Temperature is the measure of the amount of thermal energy in the atmosphere.
  • Air pressure is due to the weight of the air and is determined by several factors including the temperature of the air.
  • A front is the boundary between air masses of different temperature and humidity.
  • Cirrus, stratus, cumulus, and cumulo-nimbus clouds are associated with certain weather conditions.
  • Cumulus clouds are fluffy and white with flat bottoms. They usually indicate fair weather. However, when they get larger and darker on the bottom, they become cumulo-nimbus clouds.  Cumulo-nimbus clouds may produce thunderstorms.
  • Stratus clouds are smooth, gray clouds that cover the whole sky (block out direct sunlight). Light rain and drizzle are usually associated with stratus clouds.
  • Cirrus clouds are feathery clouds. They are associated with fair weather. Cirrus clouds often indicate that rain or snow will fall within several hours.
  • Extreme atmospheric conditions create various kinds of storms such as thunderstorms, hurricanes, and tornadoes.
  • Different atmospheric conditions create different types of precipitation.
  • Meteorologists gather data by using a variety of instruments.
  • Meteorologists use data to predict weather patterns.
  • A barometer measures air pressure.
  • An anemometer measures wind speed.
  • A rain gauge measures the amount of precipitation.
  • A thermometer measures the temperature of the air.

ESSENTIALS

Essential Questions:

·  What causes changing weather conditions?

·  How do scientists predict the weather?

·  How do scientists measure the weather?

In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students will

  • design an investigation in which a thermometer is used to compare air temperatures over a period of time.
  • analyze the changes in air pressure occurring over time, using a barometer, and predict what the changes mean in terms of changing weather patterns.
  • illustrate and label high and low pressures on a map.
  • differentiate between the types of weather associated with high and low pressure air masses. Illustrate and label high and low pressure air masses and warm and cold fronts.
  • differentiate between cloud types (i.e., cirrus, stratus, cumulus, and cumulo-nimbus clouds) and the associated weather.
  • compare and contrast the formation of different types of precipitation (e.g., rain, snow, sleet, and hail).
  • recognize a variety of storm types, describe the weather conditions associated with each, and explain when they occur (e.g., thunderstorms, hurricanes, and tornadoes).
  • analyze and report information about temperature and precipitation on weather maps.
  • measure wind speed, using an anemometer.
  • measure precipitation with a rain gauge.
  • design an investigation in which weather data are gathered using meteorological tools and charted to make weather predictions.

KEY VOCABULARY

air masses - air which has the same temperature and moisture

air pressure - the weight of air pressing on everything around it;

anemometer - determines wind speed

atmosphere - layer of invisible gas that wraps around the planet like a blanket

atmospheric condition - description of the atmosphere in terms of wind, temperature, clouds and precipitation

barometer - measures atmospheric pressure (air pressure)

cirrus clouds - wispy air weather clouds; rain or snow

cold front - a cold air mass is cutting under a warm air mass and lifting it

cumulonimbus - cumulus clouds that have grown very tall; usually bring severe storms

cumulus clouds - fluffy clouds that can bring storms if they grow too tall; fair weather clouds

front - a boundary between air masses with different temperatures and water vapor content

forecast - a prediction of future weather

hail - big frozen raindrops occur during severe thunderstorms; cold air turns a raindrop into a tiny chip of ice; violent winds push the drop back up into the cloud to be coated again and again with more layers of ice

high and low air pressure -  fair weather is usually found in areas where air pressure is high; clouds and precipitation are usually found in areas where air pressure is low.

humidity - the amount of moisture in the air

hurricane -  a huge, slow-moving storm that is fueled by heat and energy from warm ocean waters.

meteorological tools -  anemometer, thermometer, barometer, rain gauge

meteorologist - scientists who study the weather

nimbus - rain cloud

precipitation - rain, snow, sleet and hail

rain - when cloud droplets becomes to heavy to stay in the cloud they fall toward the Earth as liquid water

rain gauge - tells how much rain has fallen in an area

sleet - if a falling snowflake melts by passing through warm air, and then refreezes by passing through cold air, it becomes a tiny chunk of ice

snow -tiny ice crystals attract each other as they fall toward the ground

stratus clouds - smooth gray clouds that block sunlight; can bring light rain and drizzle

temperature - the measure of the amount of heat energy in the atmosphere

thunderstorms - a storm with thunder and lightning and typically also heavy rain or hail

tornadoes - dark funnel of strong winds that spiral upward

warm front - warm air mass is rising up over a cold air mass; causes thunderstorms but usually it just brings lots of clouds and then light rain and snow

weather - the condition of the atmosphere at a place for a short period of time

weather map - a map showing the state of the weather over a large area

weather patterns - repeating weather


Updated: May 20, 2016