Science - 2018-19

4.4 - Plants

The student will investigate and understand basic plant anatomy and life processes. Key concepts include

a)  the structures of typical plants and the function of each structure;

  • analyze a common plant  Bloom's Level:  Analyze
  • identify the roots, stems, leaves, and flowers  Bloom's Level:  Knowledge
  • explain the function of each plant part   Bloom's Level:  Understand

b)  processes and structures involved with plant reproduction;

  • create a model/diagram illustrating the parts of a flower and its reproductive processes  Bloom's Level:  Create
  • explain the model/diagram using the following terms:  pollination, stamen, stigma, pistil, sepal, embryo, spore, seed   Bloom's Level:  Understand)
  • compare and contrast different ways plants are pollinated   Bloom's Level:  Analyze
  • explain that ferns and mosses reproduce with spores rather than seeds  Bloom's Level:  Understand

c)  photosynthesis; and

  • explain the process of photosynthesis, using the following terms: sunlight, chlorophyll, water, carbon dioxide, oxygen and sugar   Bloom's Level:  Understand)

d)  adaptations allow plants to satisfy life needs and respond to the environment.

  • explain the role of adaptation of common plants to include dormancy, response to light, and response to moisture  Bloom's Level: Understand


Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

Plant structure and function affects their survival.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • For many typical green plants, there are anatomical structures that perform certain basic functions. For example, roots anchor the plants and take water and nutrients from the soil. Plant stems provide support and allow movement of water and nutrients.
  • Plants can be divided into two general groups: those that produce seeds and those that produce spores.
  • Many seed-producing plants have roots, stems, leaves, and flowers.
  • Seeds vary considerably in size. Orchids, for example, produce seeds as small as dust particles. The coconut is one of the largest seeds in the plant kingdom. In many seeds, the protective outer seed coat is resistant to physical damage and may also contain waxes and oils that help prevent water loss.
  • The embryo within the seed begins as a single cell, the zygote. The basic organs of the plant body can be found in the embryo. In some seeds the embryonic leaves are quite large, filling most of the volume of the seed. The embryonic leaves are a major source of stored food for the embryo.  Beans are an example of plants with large embryonic leaves. In many other plants the embryonic leaves are relatively small, and the embryo is nourished by a tissue called endosperm.
  • Pollination is part of the reproductive process of flowering plants. Pollination is the process by which pollen is transferred from the stamens to the stigma.
  • The stamen and pistil are reproductive parts of the flower. The sepals are the small leaves that form the housing of the developing flower.
  • Some plants reproduce with spores. These include ferns and mosses.
  • Green plants produce their own food through the process of photosynthesis. Green plants use chlorophyll to produce food (sugar), using carbon dioxide, water, enzymes and other chemicals, and sunlight. Leaves are the primary food-producing part of these plants.
  • Oxygen is released during photosynthesis.
  • Plants adapt to changes in their environment in order to survive.  Dormancy is a plant adaptation. Dormancy is a period of suspended life processes brought on by changes in the environment.


ESSENTIALS

Essential Questions:

·  How do plants provide for their basic needs? (parts and processes)

·  What are the functions of each plant part?

·  How do plants reproduce?

·  How do plants undergo photosynthesis?

·  How and why do plants adapt to their surroundings?

In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students will

  • analyze a common plant: identify the roots, stems, leaves, and flowers, and explain the function of each.
  • create a model/diagram illustrating the parts of a flower and its reproductive processes. Explain the model/diagram using the following terminology: pollination, stamen, stigma, pistil, sepal, embryo, spore, seed.
  • compare and contrast different ways plants are pollinated.
  • explain that ferns and mosses reproduce with spores rather than seeds.
  • explain the process of photosynthesis, using the following terminology: sunlight, chlorophyll, water, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and sugar.
  • explain the role of adaptations of common plants to include dormancy, response to light, and response to moisture.

KEY VOCABULARY

adaptation - special feature or part which helps the organism survive in its environment

anatomy - the study of the internal structures of plants and animals

carbon dioxide - gas taken in by plants during the process of photosynthesis

chlorophyll - a green chemical in a plant that uses sunlight to combine carbon dioxide and water into sugar (during photosynthesis)

dormant - a period when life functions are slowed or suspended; brought on by changes in the environment

embryo - a baby plant; plant in the early stages of development

fern - plant that reproduces with spores rather than seeds

flower - colorful part of a plant which attracts insects/birds and important in the reproduction process

function - an activity or purpose of an object or item

glucose - the sugar produced by plants during photosynthesis

germination - the process by which a plant grows from a seed

leaf - absorbs sunlight during the process of photosynthesis

moss - plant that reproduces with spores rather than seeds

oxygen - gas produced by plants during photosynthesis

petals - modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flowers; often brightly colored to attract pollinators

photosynthesis - the process by which plants use sunlight, carbon dioxide, water and chlorophyll to make food (glucose/sugar) for the plant and releases oxygen.

pistil - female part of the flower; contains the stigma, style and ovary; center of the flower; a long tube that grows up from the ovary in a flower.

pollen -tiny grains made by seed-bearing plants that are needed for it to reproduce; found in the stamen.

pollination - the process where pollen is transferred from the stamens to the stigma by wind, bees and birds.

reproduction - process by which an animal or plant produces one or more individuals similar to itself

response to light - plants will respond by growing toward a light source; light is also needed for plants during the process of photosynthesis; plants can sense the time of day and year by using various wavelengths of light

response to moisture - water is needed by plants and when water is scarce plants adapt by having needles instead of flat leaves; cones close up during dry times and open when moisture is available to release seeds

roots - plant part which absorbs water and anchors plant in the soil

seed - the method of reproduction used by flowering plants; contains the plant embryo and stored food

sepal - small leaves that form the housing of the developing flower

spores - produced by non-flowering plants and involved in reproduction in plants such as ferns and mosses

stamen - male reproductive part of a plant; found in the flower and contains pollen

stem - plant part which supports the plant and carries water and nutrients from the roots throughout the plant

stigma  - the top part of the pistil which is sticky and collects pollen


Updated: May 20, 2016