Science - 2018-19
4.4 - Plants
The student will investigate and understand basic plant anatomy and life processes. Key concepts include
a) the structures of typical plants and the function of each structure;
- analyze a common plant Bloom's Level: Analyze
- identify the roots, stems, leaves, and flowers Bloom's Level: Knowledge
- explain the function of each plant part Bloom's Level: Understand
b) processes and structures involved with plant reproduction;
- create a model/diagram illustrating the parts of a flower and its reproductive processes Bloom's Level: Create
- explain the model/diagram using the following terms: pollination, stamen, stigma, pistil, sepal, embryo, spore, seed Bloom's Level: Understand)
- compare and contrast different ways plants are pollinated Bloom's Level: Analyze
- explain that ferns and mosses reproduce with spores rather than seeds Bloom's Level: Understand
c) photosynthesis; and
- explain the process of photosynthesis, using the following terms: sunlight, chlorophyll, water, carbon dioxide, oxygen and sugar Bloom's Level: Understand)
d) adaptations allow plants to satisfy life needs and respond to the environment.
- explain the role of adaptation of common plants to include dormancy, response to light, and response to moisture Bloom's Level: Understand
Plant structure and function affects their survival.
UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD
- For many typical
green plants, there are anatomical structures that perform certain basic
functions. For example, roots anchor the plants and take water and nutrients
from the soil. Plant stems provide support and allow movement of water and
- Plants can be
divided into two general groups: those that produce seeds and those that
seed-producing plants have roots, stems, leaves, and flowers.
- Seeds vary considerably in size. Orchids, for
example, produce seeds as small as dust particles. The coconut is one of the
largest seeds in the plant kingdom. In many seeds, the protective outer seed
coat is resistant to physical damage and may also contain waxes and oils that
help prevent water loss.
- The embryo within the seed begins as a single cell, the zygote. The
basic organs of the plant body can be found in the embryo. In some seeds the
embryonic leaves are quite large, filling most of the volume of the seed. The
embryonic leaves are a major source of stored food for the embryo. Beans are an example of plants with
large embryonic leaves. In many other plants the embryonic leaves are
relatively small, and the embryo is nourished by a tissue called endosperm.
- Pollination is
part of the reproductive process of flowering plants. Pollination is the
process by which pollen is transferred from the stamens to the stigma.
- The stamen and
pistil are reproductive parts of the flower. The sepals are the small leaves
that form the housing of the developing flower.
- Some plants
reproduce with spores. These include ferns and mosses.
- Green plants
produce their own food through the process of photosynthesis. Green plants use
chlorophyll to produce food (sugar), using carbon dioxide, water, enzymes and
other chemicals, and sunlight. Leaves are the primary food-producing part of
- Oxygen is released
- Plants adapt to
changes in their environment in order to survive. Dormancy is a plant adaptation. Dormancy is a period of
suspended life processes brought on by changes in the environment.
· How do plants provide for their basic needs? (parts and processes)
· What are the functions of each plant part?
· How do plants reproduce?
· How do plants undergo photosynthesis?
· How and why do plants adapt to their surroundings?
In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students will
- analyze a common
plant: identify the roots, stems, leaves, and flowers, and explain the function
- create a
model/diagram illustrating the parts of a flower and its reproductive
processes. Explain the model/diagram using the following terminology: pollination,
stamen, stigma, pistil, sepal, embryo, spore, seed.
- compare and
contrast different ways plants are pollinated.
- explain that
ferns and mosses reproduce with spores rather than seeds.
- explain the
process of photosynthesis, using the following terminology: sunlight,
chlorophyll, water, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and sugar.
- explain the role of adaptations of common plants to
include dormancy, response to light, and response to moisture.
adaptation - special feature or part which helps the organism survive in its environment
anatomy - the study of the internal structures of plants and animals
carbon dioxide - gas taken in by plants during the process of photosynthesis
chlorophyll - a green chemical in a plant that uses sunlight to combine carbon dioxide and water into sugar (during photosynthesis)
dormant - a period when life functions are slowed or suspended; brought on by changes in the environment
embryo - a baby plant; plant in the early stages of development
fern - plant that reproduces with spores rather than seeds
flower - colorful part of a plant which attracts insects/birds and important in the reproduction process
function - an activity or purpose of an object or item
glucose - the sugar produced by plants during photosynthesis
germination - the process by which a plant grows from a seed
leaf - absorbs sunlight during the process of photosynthesis
moss - plant that reproduces with spores rather than seeds
oxygen - gas produced by plants during photosynthesis
petals - modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flowers; often brightly colored to attract pollinators
photosynthesis - the process by which plants use sunlight, carbon dioxide, water and chlorophyll to make food (glucose/sugar) for the plant and releases oxygen.
pistil - female part of the flower; contains the stigma, style and ovary; center of the flower; a long tube that grows up from the ovary in a flower.
pollen -tiny grains made by seed-bearing plants that are needed for it to reproduce; found in the stamen.
pollination - the process where pollen is transferred from the stamens to the stigma by wind, bees and birds.
reproduction - process by which an animal or plant produces one or more individuals similar to itself
response to light - plants will respond by growing toward a light source; light is also needed for plants during the process of photosynthesis; plants can sense the time of day and year by using various wavelengths of light
response to moisture - water is needed by plants and when water is scarce plants adapt by having needles instead of flat leaves; cones close up during dry times and open when moisture is available to release seeds
roots - plant part which absorbs water and anchors plant in the soil
seed - the method of reproduction used by flowering plants; contains the plant embryo and stored food
sepal - small leaves that form the housing of the developing flower
spores - produced by non-flowering plants and involved in reproduction in plants such as ferns and mosses
stamen - male reproductive part of a plant; found in the flower and contains pollen
stem - plant part which supports the plant and carries water and nutrients from the roots throughout the plant
stigma - the top part of the pistil which is sticky and collects pollen