Science - 2018-19

3.8 - Cycles, Patterns, and Change

The student will investigate and understand basic patterns and cycles occurring in nature. Key concepts include

a)  patterns of natural events such as day and night, seasonal changes, simple phases of the moon, and tides;

  • explain how some events in nature occur in a pattern or cycle, such as the seasons, day and night, phases of the moon (first quarter, full, last [third] quarter, new), tides, and life cycles.  Bloom's Level: Understand
  • recognize that the relationships that exist between and among Earth, the sun, and the moon result in day and night, seasonal changes, phases of the moon, and the tides.  Bloom's Level: Knowledge
  • model and describe how Earth’s rotation causes day and night.  Bloom's Level: Understand
  • model and describe how the sun’s rays strike Earth to cause seasons.  Bloom's Level: Understand
  • observe, chart, and illustrate phases of the moon (first quarter, full, last [third] quarter, new), and describe the changing pattern of the moon as it revolves around Earth.   Bloom's Level: Understand / Create
  • collect and analyze data from simple tide tables to determine a pattern of high and low tides.  Bloom's Level: Apply / Analyze

b)  animal life cycles; and

  • explain the pattern of growth and change that organisms, such as the frog and butterfly undergo during their life cycle.  Bloom's Level:  Understand

c)  plant life cycles.

  • explain the pattern of growth and change that occurs in the plants, where a seed grows into a new plant that forms seeds and then the new seeds repeat the plant life cycle.   Bloom's Level: Understand

Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

Patterns and cycles occur in nature.

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • A cycle is a repeated pattern. A sequence is a series of events that occur in a natural order.
  • The pattern of day and night is caused by the rotation of Earth. One complete rotation occurs every 24 hours. The part of Earth toward the sun has daylight while the part of Earth away from the sun has night.
  • The pattern of seasonal changes takes place because Earth’s axis is tilted toward or away from the sun during its revolution around the sun. Because the tilt of Earth on its axis is 23.5°, the sun’s energy is not equally intense at different latitudes.  Rays striking Earth near the equator do so at close to a 90° angle. Rays striking Earth near the poles do so at a much smaller angle and thus the same amount of sunlight is spread over a larger area. For this reason, the same amount of energy from the sun will be less intense nearer the poles and these areas will have a colder climate. Earth takes 365¼ days, or one year, to make one revolution.
  • The cycle of moon phases occurs as the moon makes one revolution around Earth. The visible portion of the moon that we see each night follows a pattern.
  • The tides follow a pattern of two high and two low tides every 24 hours. This pattern is caused for the most part by the gravitational attraction between Earth and the moon.
  • Plants and animals undergo life cycles (e.g., Frogs begin as eggs in water. The eggs grow into tadpoles, the tadpoles eventually become frogs, and the adult frogs lay eggs to start a new life cycle over again. In the plant life cycle, a seed grows into a new plant that forms seeds. Then the new seeds repeat the life cycle.).

ESSENTIALS

Essential Questions:

·  How does movement of the Earth, sun, and moon create patterns with day and night, seasons, moon phases and tides?

·  What patterns of change do animals and plants go through?

In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students will

  • explain how some events in nature occur in a pattern or cycle, such as the seasons, day and night, phases of the moon (first quarter, full, last [third] quarter, new), tides, and life cycles.
  • recognize that the relationships that exist between and among Earth, the sun, and the moon result in day and night, seasonal changes, phases of the moon, and the tides.
  • model and describe how Earth’s rotation causes day and night.
  • model and describe how the sun’s rays strike Earth to cause seasons.
  • observe, chart, and illustrate phases of the moon (first quarter, full, last [third] quarter, new), and describe the changing pattern of the moon as it revolves around Earth.
  • collect and analyze data from simple tide tables to determine a pattern of high and low tides.
  • explain the pattern of growth and change that organisms and plants, such as the frog, butterfly, and bean plant, undergo during their life cycles.

KEY VOCABULARY

adult

adult frog

axis

chrysalis

cycle

day

Earth

egg

egg

first quarter

full moon

gravitational pull

larva

last quarter

life cycle

moon

moon phases

new moon

night

orbit

pattern

revolution

rotation

seasons

sequence

sun

tadpole

tides

tilt


Updated: May 20, 2016