Science - 2018-19
3.1 - Scientific and Engineering Practices
The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific and engineering practices by
a) asking questions and defining problems
- ask questions that can be investigated and predict reasonable outcomes Bloom's Level: Understand / Apply
ask questions about what would happen if a variable is changed Bloom's Level: Understand
define a simple design problem that can be solved through the development of an object, tool, process, or system. Bloom's Level: Apply
b) planning and out investigations
- with guidance, plan and conduct investigations Bloom's Level: Understand / Apply
- use appropriate methods and/or tools for collecting data Bloom's Level: Apply
- estimate length, mass, volume and temperature Bloom's Level: Understand
- measure length, mass, volume, and temperature in metric and U.S. Customary units using proper tools Bloom's Level: Understand / Apply
- measure elapsed time Bloom's Level: Understand / Apply
- use tools and/or materials to design and/or build a device that solves a specific problem Bloom's Level: Apply / Create
c) interpreting, analyzing, and evaluating data
- organize and represent data in pictographs or bar graphs. Bloom's Level: Analyze
- read, interpret, and analyze data represented in pictographs and bar graphs Bloom's Level: Understand
- analyze data from tests of an object or tool to determine if it works as intended Bloom's Level: Understand
d) constructing and critiquing conclusions and explanations
- use evidence (measurements, observations, patterns) to construct or support an explanation Bloom's Level: Evaluate
- generate and/or compare multiple solutions to a problem Bloom's Level: Apply / Analyze
- describe how scientific ideas apply to design solutions Bloom's Level: Understand
e) developing and using models
- use models to demonstrate simple phenomena and natural processes. Bloom's Level: Apply
- develop a model (e.g., diagram or simple physical prototype) to illustrate a proposed object, tool, or process Bloom's Level: Understand
f) obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information
- read and comprehend reading-level appropriate texts and/or other reliable media Bloom's Level: Apply
- communicate scientific information, design ideas, and/or solutions with others Bloom's Level: Understand
Scientists make observations, ask questions, and record data to help them formulate questions, make hypotheses, and come to conclusions in science investigations.
UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD
- The nature of
science refers to the foundational concepts that govern the way scientists
formulate explanations about the natural world. The nature of science includes
the following concepts:
the natural world
science is based
on evidence, both observational and experimental;
science is a
blend of logic and innovation;
are durable yet subject to change as new data are collected;
science is a complex social endeavor; and
scientists try to
remain objective and engage in peer review to help avoid bias.
- a) the natural world is understandable;
- Science assumes
that the natural world is understandable. Scientific inquiry can provide
explanations about nature. This expands students’thinking from just a
knowledge of facts to understanding how facts are relevant to everyday life.
- Science demands
evidence. Scientists develop their ideas based on evidence and they change
their ideas when new evidence becomes available or the old evidence is viewed in
a different way.
- Science uses both
logic and innovation. Innovation has always been an important part of science. Scientists
draw upon their creativity to visualize how nature works, using analogies,
metaphors, and mathematics.
- Science is a
complex social activity. It is a complex social process for producing knowledge
about the natural world. Scientific knowledge represents the current consensus
as to what is the best explanation for phenomena in the natural world. This
consensus does not arise automatically, since scientists with different
backgrounds from all over the world may interpret the same data differently. To
build a consensus, scientists communicate their findings to other scientists
and attempt to replicate one another’s findings. In order to model the work of
professional scientists, it is essential for third-grade students to engage in
frequent discussions with peers about their understanding of their
frequently arise from observations. Hypotheses can be developed from those
questions. Data gathered from an investigation may support a hypothesis. A
hypothesis is a statement written in a manner that describes the cause and
effect relationship between the independent and dependent variables in an
experiment. At the third-grade level, a method for helping students understand
how to develop a hypothesis is to have them build “if/then” statements (e.g.,
If heat is added to ice, then the ice will melt.).
observations are made using all of the senses. Simple instruments can help
extend the senses (e.g., magnifying glass enhances the vision of an item).
- Predictions are
statements of what is expected to happen in the future based on past
experiences and observations.
- In order for data
from an investigation to be most useful, it must be organized so that it can be
examined more easily.
- Charts and graphs
are powerful tools for reporting and organizing data.
- It is sometimes
useful to organize objects according to similarities and differences. By
organizing objects in sets and subsets, it may be easier to determine a
specific type of characteristic.
- An inference is a
tentative explanation based on background knowledge and available data.
- A conclusion is a
summary statement based on the results of an investigation.
- Putting natural
events in a sequence allows us to notice change over time.
- Metric measures,
including centimeters, grams, milliliters, and degrees Celsius, are a standard
way to record measurements. The metric system is recognized everywhere around
- When using any
standard measurement scale, measure to the marked increment and estimate one
more decimal place. Scientists do not round their measurements as this would be
- A bar graph can
be horizontal or vertical, and it compares amounts. Both the X- and Y-axis need
to be identified.
- A line plot shows
the spread of data. (See Grade 3
Mathematics Curriculum Framework, Standard 3.17, page 31.)
- A picture graph
is similar to a bar graph except that it uses symbols to represent quantities.
- Scientists use a variety of modes to communicate about their work. Examples of ways they communicate include oral presentations; graphs and charts created to visualize, analyze and present information about their data; and written reports.
· How do scientists formulate their questions and develop hypotheses?
· How do scientific investigations help scientists answer questions?
· Why do observations help scientists?
· How do scientists communicate results of investigations?
In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students will
- make and
communicate careful observations.
- demonstrate that
observations should be repeated to ensure accuracy.
- classify objects
into at least two major sets and subsets based on similar characteristics, such
as predator/prey and herbivore, carnivore, and omnivore.
- sequence natural
- measure length to the nearest centimeter, mass to the nearest gram, volume to the nearest milliliter, temperature to the nearest degree Celsius, and time to the nearest minute, using the appropriate instruments.
- analyze data that
have been gathered and organized.
results of investigations by displaying data in the form of tables, charts, and
graphs. Students will construct bar and picture graphs and line plots to
- communicate any
unexpected or unusual quantitative data that are noted.
- make and
communicate predictions about the outcomes of investigations.
- design and build a model to show experimental results.