# 2.1 - Scientific Investigations

The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science by planning and conducting investigations in which

a)  observations and predictions are made and questions are formed;

•  conduct simple experiments, make predictions, gather data from those experiments, repeat observations to improve accuracy, and draw conclusions Bloom's Level:  Apply / Analyze

b)  observations are differentiated from personal interpretation;

• differentiate among simple observations and personal interpretations. Bloom's Level:  Analyze

c)  observations are repeated to ensure accuracy;

•  conduct simple experiments, make predictions, gather data from those experiments, repeat observations to improve accuracy, and draw conclusions  Bloom's Level: Apply / Analyze

d)  two or more characteristics or properties are used to classify items;

• classify items, using two or more attributes such as size, shape, color, texture, and weight. Bloom's Level: Apply / Analyze

e)  length, volume, mass, and temperature are measured in metric units and standard English units using the proper tools;

• use centimeters, meters, liters, degrees Celsius, grams, and kilograms in measurement.  Bloom's Level: Apply
• use inches, feet, yards, quarts, gallons, degrees Fahrenheit, ounces, and pounds in measurement. Bloom's Level: Apply

f)  time is measured using the proper tools;

• measure time using both digital and analog clocks  Bloom's Level: Understand / Apply

g)  conditions that influence a change are identified and inferences are made;

• identify conditions that influence a change in an experiment Bloom's Level: Understand

h)  data are collected and recorded, and bar graphs are constructed using numbered axes;

• conduct simple experiments, make predictions, gather data from those experiments, repeat observations to improve accuracy, and draw conclusions  Bloom's Level: Apply / Analyze
• analyze sets of objects, numerical data, or pictures, and create basic categories to organize the data (descriptive or numerical). Bloom's Level: Analyze
• construct and interpret picture and bar graphs with numbered axes depicting the distribution of data. Bloom's Level:  Create / Analyze

i)  data are analyzed, and unexpected or unusual quantitative data are recognized;

•  conduct simple experiments, make predictions, gather data from those experiments, repeat observations to improve accuracy, and draw conclusions  Bloom's LevelApply / Analyze
•  judge which, if any, collected data in a small set appear to be unexpected or unusual. Bloom's LevelEvaluate / Analyze

j)  conclusions are drawn;

• conduct simple experiments, make predictions, gather data from those experiments, repeat observations to improve accuracy, and draw conclusions Bloom's LevelApply / Analyze

k)  observations and data are communicated;

• communicate observations and data    Bloom's Level:  Understand / Apply

l)  simple physical models are designed and constructed to clarify explanations and show relationships; and

• construct and interpret simple models (e.g., weathering and erosion of land surfaces — 2.7). Bloom's Level: Create / Analyze

m)  current applications are used to reinforce science concepts.

### BIG IDEAS

Scientists ask questions, make predictions, and record data.

### UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

• The nature of science refers to the foundational concepts that govern the way scientists formulate explanations about the natural world. The nature of science includes the following concepts:
1. a)  the natural world is understandable;
2. b)  science is based on evidence, both observational and experimental;
3. c)  science is a blend of logic and innovation;
4. d)  scientific ideas are durable yet subject to change as new data are collected;
5. e)  science is a complex social endeavor; and
6. f)  scientists try to remain objective and engage in peer review to help avoid bias.
In grade two, an emphasis should be placed on concepts a, b, and e.
• Science assumes that the natural world is understandable. Scientific inquiry can provide explanations about nature. This expands students’thinking from just a knowledge of facts to understanding how facts are relevant to everyday life.
• Science demands evidence. Scientists develop their ideas based on evidence and they change their ideas when new evidence becomes available or the old evidence is viewed in a different way.
• Science is a complex social endeavor. It is a complex social process for producing knowledge about the natural world. Scientific knowledge represents the current consensus as to what is the best explanation for phenomena in the natural world. This consensus does not arise automatically, since scientists with different backgrounds from all over the world may interpret the same data differently. To build a consensus, scientists communicate their findings to other scientists and attempt to replicate one another’s findings. In order to model the work of professional scientists, it is essential for second-grade students to engage in frequent discussions with peers about their understanding of their investigations.
• In order to communicate accurately, it is necessary to provide a clear description of exactly what is observed. There is a difference between what one can observe and what can be interpreted from an observation.
• An observation is what you actually see, feel, taste, hear, or smell.
• The more times an observation is repeated, the greater the chance of ensuring the accuracy of the observation.
• It is easier to see how things are related if objects are classified according to their common characteristics.
• By constructing and studying simple models, it is sometimes easier to understand how real things work.
• Scientific investigations require standard measures, proper tools (e.g.,balance, thermometer, ruler, magnifying glasses), and organized collection and reporting of data. The way the data are displayed can make it easier to interpret important information.
• When using any standard measurement scale, measure to the marked increment and estimate one more decimal place.  Scientists do not round their measurements as this would be inaccurate.
• Students should communicate observations and data publicly.

### ESSENTIALS

Essential Questions:

·  Why does a scientist make observations?

·  How might scientific investigations affect what you know?

·  How do scientists make an inference during a scientific investigation?

·  How do scientists use what they learn from scientific investigations?

·  What is the difference between observation and interpretation?

·  Why is it useful for scientists to build and interpret models?

·  How do scientists communicate observations and data?

·  Why do scientists make predictions?

·  What units do scientists use to measure length, volume, mass, time and temperature?

In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students will

• conduct simple experiments, make predictions, gather data from those experiments, repeat observations to improve accuracy, and draw conclusions.
• differentiate among simple observations and personal interpretations.
• classify items, using two or more attributes such as size, shape, color, texture, and weight.
• use centimeters, meters, liters, degrees Celsius, grams, and kilograms in measurement.
• use inches, feet, yards, quarts, gallons, degrees Fahrenheit, ounces, and pounds in measurement.
• measure time using both digital and analog clocks.
• identify conditions that influence a change in an experiment.
• construct and interpret simple models (e.g., weathering and erosion of land surfaces — 2.7).
• analyze sets of objects, numerical data, or pictures, and create basic categories to organize the data (descriptive or numerical).
• judge which, if any, collected data in a small set appear to be unexpected or unusual.
• construct and interpret picture and bar graphs with numbered axes depicting the distribution of data.
• communicate observations and data.

### KEY VOCABULARY

bar graph

centimeter

classify

collect

color

communicate

cups

degrees Celsius

degrees Fahrenheit

draw conclusions

feet

gallons

gather data

grams

hypothesis

inches

infer

inference

interpret

kilograms

length

liter

mass

meter

metric

models

ounces

picture graphs

pints

pounds

predict

properties

quarts

question

record

repeat observations

scientific investigations

shape

size

standard English units

temperature

texture

time

tool

volume

weight

yards

Updated: Aug 23, 2017