Science - 2018-19

1.1 - Scientific Investigations

The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science by planning and conducting investigations in which

a)  the senses are used to observe differences in physical properties;

  •  use their senses to enhance their observation  of physical properties Bloom's level:  Understand

b)  observations are made from multiple positions to achieve a variety of perspectives and are repeated to ensure accuracy;

  • make repeated observations of an object or event from multiple positions Bloom's level:  Understand

c)  objects or events are classified and arranged according to characteristics or properties;

  • classify and arrange objects or events according to attributes or properties so that similarities and differences are apparent. Bloom's level:  Apply / Understand

d)  simple tools are used to enhance observations;

  • use simple tools such as a magnifying glass, and a balance to enhance observations of physical properties Bloom's level:  Understand

e)  length, mass, volume, and temperature are measured using nonstandard units;

  • measure length, mass, and volume, using nonstandard units Bloom's level:  Apply
  • record observations of movement (length / distance using nonstandard units Bloom's level: Understand

f)  inferences are made and conclusions are drawn about familiar objects and events;

  •  use familiar events and objects to make inferences and draw conclusions. Bloom's level:  Apply

g)  a question is developed from one or more observations;

  • develop a question from one or more observations. Bloom's level:  Create

h)  predictions are made based on patterns of observations;

  • predict outcomes based on actual observations and evidence rather than random guesses. Bloom's level:  Analyze 

i)  observations and data are recorded, analyzed, and communicated orally and with simple graphs, pictures, written statements, and numbers; and

  • communicate observations and data with simple graphs and pictures, oral and written statements, and with numbers Bloom's level:  Understand
  • compare the movement of objects , using graphs, pictures, and /numbers Bloom's level:  Analyze

j)  simple investigations and experiments are conducted to answer questions.

  • answer questions by conducting simple experiments/investigations, using nonstandard measuring units and simple tools, such as a magnifying glass or a balance. A simple experiment is one that changes only one thing at a time (tests only one variable), gives quick results, and provides easily observable changes. Bloom's level:  Analyze / Apply



Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

Scientists use a variety of methods to study and understand the world around them.

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The nature of science refers to the foundational concepts that govern the way scientists formulate explanations about the natural world. The nature of science includes the following concepts:
    1. the natural world is understandable;
    2. science is based on evidence, both observational and experimental;
    3. science is a blend of logic and innovation;
    4. scientific ideas are durable yet subject to change as new data are collected;
    5. science is a complex social endeavor; and
    6. scientists try to remain objective and engage in peer review to help avoid bias.
    In grade one, an emphasis should be placed on concepts a, b, and e.
  • Science assumes that the natural world is understandable. Scientific inquiry can provide explanations about nature. This expands students’thinking from just a knowledge of facts to understanding how facts are relevant to everyday life.
  • Science demands evidence. Scientists develop their ideas based on evidence and they change their ideas when new evidence becomesavailable or the old evidence is viewed in a different way.
  • Science is a complex social endeavor. It is a complex social process for producing knowledge about the natural world. Scientific knowledge represents the current consensus as to what is the best explanation for phenomena in the natural world. This consensus does not arise automatically, since scientists with different backgrounds from all over the world may interpret the same data differently. To build a consensus, scientists communicate their findings to other scientists and attempt to replicate one another’s findings. In order to model the work of professional scientists, it is essential for first-grade students to engage in frequent discussions with peers about their understanding of their investigations.
  • To communicate an observation accurately, one must provide a clear description of exactly what is observed and nothing more.
  • Observations should be made from multiple positions (e.g., observations of the same object from the front of the object, from the back of the object, looking down on the object, etc.) whenever possible to achieve a variety of perspectives.
  • Observations should be repeated multiple times to assure accuracy.
  • Once the characteristics of several objects or several events have been observed and recorded, the objects or events can be arranged by those characteristics (e.g., several objects sorted by color, several events sorted on a timeline by age, etc.).
  • Simple tools, such as a magnifying glass and a balance can extend the observations that people can make.
  • Nonstandard units such as paper clips, a student’s foot, index cards, etc., can be used to measure the length of objects. The mass of two objects can be compared by holding each object in a different hand. The volume of various liquids can be compared by pouring them in cups of the same size. Variations in temperature of different objects can be compared by the difference that is felt when each object is touched. Variations in air temperature can be compared by observing the differences one feels when in different environments (e.g., inside the classroom vs. outside on the playground in winter, inside the freezer compartment of a refrigerator vs. inside a kitchen).
  • An inference is a tentative explanation based on background knowledge and available data.
  • A conclusion is a summary statement based on data from the results of an investigation.
  • Questions about what is observed can be developed.
  • A prediction is a forecast about what mayhappen in some future situation. It is based on information and evidence. A prediction is different from a guess.
  • Graphs are powerful ways to display data, making it easier to recognize important information. Describing things as accurately as possible is important in science because it enables people to compare their observations with those of others.
  • Data should be displayed in bar graphs and picture graphs at the grade one level.
  • An experiment is a fair test designed to answer a question.

ESSENTIALS

Essential Questions:

 What can be learned by doing scientific investigations?

 Why do scientists use a variety of methods of investigation?

 How do scientists make and use observations?

 What tools do scientists use?

 How do scientists classify information?


In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students will

  • use their senses and simple tools, such as a magnifying glass and a balance to enhance their observations of physical properties.
  • make repeated observations of an object or event from multiple positions.
  • classify and arrange objects or events according to at least two attributes or properties so that similarities and differences become apparent.
  • measure length, mass, and volume, using nonstandard units.
  • use familiar events and objects to make inferences and draw conclusions.
  • develop a question from one or more observations.
  • predict outcomes based on actual observations and evidence rather than random guesses.
  • communicate observations and data with simple graphs and pictures, oral and written statements, and with numbers.
  • answer questions by conducting simple experiments/investigations, using nonstandard measuring units and simple tools, such as a magnifying glass or a balance. A simple experiment is one that changes only one thing at a time (tests only one variable), gives quick results, and provides easily observable changes.
  • record observations of movement (length/distance) using nonstandard units.
  • compare the movement of objects, using graphs, pictures, and/or numbers.

KEY VOCABULARY

attributes

balance

classifying

communication

comparing

conclusion

data

evidence

experiment

graph

inference

investigation

length

magnifying glass

mass

measure

movement

observation

patterns

physical properties

prediction

question

simple tools

volume


Updated: Aug 11, 2017